Author: Bazarov, I.V.
Paper Title Page
MOPMF013 eRHIC EIC: Plans for Rapid Acceleration of Polarized Electron Bunch at Cornell Synchrotron 108
 
  • F. Méot, E.C. Aschenauer, H. Huang, C. Montag, V. Ptitsyn, V.H. Ranjbar, E. Wang, Z. Zhao
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
  • I.V. Bazarov, D. L. Rubin
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • L. Cultrera, G.H. Hoffstaetter, K.W. Smolenski, R.M. Talman
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • D. Gaskell, O. Glamazdin, J.M. Grames
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
 
  Funding: Work supported by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy.
An option as an injector into the polarized-electron storage ring of eRHIC EIC is a rapid-cycling synchrotron (RCS). Cornell's 10 GeV RCS injector to CESR presents a good opportunity for dedicated polarized bunch rapid-acceleration experiments, it can also serve as a test bed for source and polarimetry developments in the frame of the EIC R&D, as polarized bunch experiments require disposing of a polarized electron source, and of dedicated polarimetry in the linac region and in the RCS proper. This is as well an opportunity for a pluri-disciplinary collaboration between Laboratories. This paper is an introduction to the topic, and to on-going activities towards that EIC R&D project.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPMF013  
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TUPML025 Long Lifetime Spin-Polarized GaAs Photocathode Activated by Cs2Te 1589
SUSPF049   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
 
  • J. Bae, L. Cultrera, P. Digiacomo
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • I.V. Bazarov
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
 
  Funding: This work was supported by the Department of Energy Grant Nos. DE-SC0016203 and NSF PHY-1461111.
High intensity and highly spin-polarized electron source is of great interest to the next generation Electron Ion Colliders. GaAs prepared by the standard activation method, which is the most widely used spin-polarized photocathode, is notorious for its vacuum sensitivity and short operational lifetime. To improve the lifetime of GaAs photocathodes, we activated GaAs by Cs2Te, a material well known for its robustness. We confirmed the Cs2Te layer forms negative electron affinity on GaAs with a factor of 5 improvement in lifetime. Furthermore, the new activation method had no adverse effect on spin-polarization. Considering Cs2Te forms much thicker activation layer (~ 2 nm) compared to the standard activation layer (~ monolayer), our results trigger a paradigm shift on new activation methods with other robust materials that were avoided for their thickness.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML025  
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TUPML026 Multi-photon Photoemission and Ultrafast Electron Heating in Cu Photocathodes at Threshold 1593
 
  • J. Bae, L. Cultrera
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • I.V. Bazarov, J.M. Maxson
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • S.S. Karkare, H.A. Padmore
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  • P. Musumeci, X.L. Shen
    UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA
 
  Funding: U.S. National Science Foundation under award PHY-1549132, the Center for Bright Beams.
Operating photocathodes near the photoemission threshold holds the promise of yielding small intrinsic emittance, at the cost of significantly reduced quantum efficiency. In modern femtosecond photoemission electron sources, this requires a very high intensity (10s of GW/cm2) to extract a useful quantity of electrons. At this intensity, the electron occupation function is far from equilibrium and evolves rapidly on sub-ps timescales. Thus, ultrafast laser heating and multiphoton photoemission effects may play a significant role in emission, thereby increasing the minimum achievable emittance. In this work, we use a Boltzmann equation approach to calculate the non-equilibrium occupation function evolution in time for a copper photocathode, yielding a prediction of quantum efficiency and mean transverse energy as a function of input intensity.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML026  
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TUYGBE2 CBETA, the 4-Turn ERL with SRF and Single Return Loop 635
 
  • G.H. Hoffstaetter, N. Banerjee, J. Barley, A.C. Bartnik, I.V. Bazarov, D.C. Burke, J.A. Crittenden, L. Cultrera, J. Dobbins, S.J. Full, F. Furuta, R.E. Gallagher, M. Ge, C.M. Gulliford, B.K. Heltsley, R.P.K. Kaplan, V.O. Kostroun, Y. Li, M. Liepe, W. Lou, C.E. Mayes, J.R. Patterson, P. Quigley, D.M. Sabol, D. Sagan, J. Sears, C.H. Shore, E.N. Smith, K.W. Smolenski, V. Veshcherevich, D. Widger
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • J.S. Berg, S.J. Brooks, C. Liu, G.J. Mahler, F. Méot, R.J. Michnoff, M.G. Minty, S. Peggs, V. Ptitsyn, T. Roser, P. Thieberger, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, J.E. Tuozzolo, F.J. Willeke, H. Witte
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
  • D. Douglas
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  • J.K. Jones
    Cockcroft Institute, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • D. Jusic
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • D.J. Kelliher
    STFC/RAL/ASTeC, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon, United Kingdom
  • B.C. Kuske, M. McAteer, J. Völker
    HZB, Berlin, Germany
 
  Funding: Supported by NSF award DMR-0807731, DOE grant DE-AC02-76SF00515, and NYSERDA.
A collaboration between Cornell University and Brookhaven National Laboratory has designed and is constructing CBETA, the Cornell-BNL ERL Test Accelerator on the Cornell campus. The ERL technology that has been prototyped at Cornell for many years is being used for this new accelerator, including a DC electron source and an SRF injector Linac with world-record current and normalized brightness in a bunch train, a high-current linac cryomodule optimized for ERLs, a high-power beam stop, and several diagnostics tools for high-current and high-brightness beams. BNL has designed multi-turn ERLs for several purpose, dominantly for the electron beam of eRHIC, its Electron Ion Collider (EIC) project and for the associated fast electron cooling system. Also in JLEIC, the EIC designed at JLAB, an ERL is envisioned to be used for electron cooling. The number of transport lines in an ERL is minimized by using return arcs that are comprised of a Fixed Field Alternating-gradient (FFA) design. This technique will be tested in CBETA, which has a single return for the 4-beam energies with strongly-focusing permanent magnets of Halbach type. The high-brightness beam with 150~MeV and up to 40~mA will have applications beyond accelerator research, in industry, in nuclear physics, and in X-ray science. Low current electron beam has already been sent through the most relevant parts of CBETA, from the DC gun through both cryomodules, through one of the 8 similar separator lines, and through one of the 27 similar FFA structures. Further construction is envisioned to lead to a commissioning start for the full system early in 2019.
 
slides icon Slides TUYGBE2 [17.348 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUYGBE2  
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TUPML027 Barium Tin Oxide Ordered Photocathodes: First Measurements and Future Perspectives 1597
 
  • A. Galdi, E. B. Lochocki, H. Paik, C.T. Parzyck, D. G. Schlom, K.M. Shen
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • G. Adhikari, W.A. Schroeder
    UIC, Chicago, Illinois, USA
  • I.V. Bazarov, L. Cultrera, W. H. Li, J.M. Maxson, C. M. Pierce
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
 
  Funding: This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation under Award PHY-1549132, the Center for Bright Beams.
Single crystalline photocathodes with small electron effective mass are supposed to enable ultra-low emittance beams, by taking advantage of the conservation of transverse (crystal) momentum. We present a preliminary study on photoemission from epitaxial films of La-doped BaSnO3 with (100) orientation. We demonstrate here the possibility of generating and characterizing electron beams by exciting photoelectrons solely from the conduction band. We report quantum efficiency and mean transverse energy meaurements as a function of photon energy from the bare and Cs-activated La-doped BaSnO3 surface.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML027  
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TUPML028 Photocathodes R&D for High Brightness and Highly Polarized Electron Beams at Cornell University 1601
 
  • L. Cultrera, J. Bae, A.C. Bartnik, I.V. Bazarov, R. Doane, A. Galdi, C.M. Gulliford, W. H. Li, J.M. Maxson, S.A. McBride, T.P. Moore, C. M. Pierce, C. Xu
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
 
  Cornell University is a leader in the development of photocathode materials for the production of high brightness electron beam sources for applications in large scale accelerators and small scale electron scattering experiments. During the last year we have also included Mott polarimetry to investigate long lifetime spin-polarized photocathodes materials. Another thrust of our laboratory is the exploration of ultra low emittance photocathodes at cryogenic temperatures, for which we are building a novel LHe cryogenic electron source. We will review updates from our lab across each of these areas.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML028  
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TUPML029 Novel Photocathode Geometry Optimization: Field Enhancing Photoemission Tips 1605
 
  • W. H. Li, I.V. Bazarov, C.M. Gulliford, J.M. Maxson
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
 
  Funding: This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation under award PHY-1549132, the Center for Bright Beams.
For photoemission sources, the extraction electric field defines the maximum achievable emission current, and hence the maximum achievable beam brightness. Recently, interest has been growing in studying photocathodes with non-flat geometries to produce local field enhancements in excess of what can be achieved with large area flat cathodes. However, such geometries cause image charge effects which require self-consistent field solvers to correctly simulate. We present a novel simulation framework which combines a full particle in cell field solver (WARP) with a fast adaptive mesh space charge particle tracker (GPT) and a parallel multi-objective genetic optimizer to explore photocathode geometries for ultra high brightnesses. A first application of this technique is also shown, namely the use of field enhanced photoemission tips to create bright beams for ultra-fast electron diffraction.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML029  
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WEPAF041 Use of Dimension-Reduction Techniques With Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithms to Improve the Vertical Emittance and Orbit at CESR 1901
SUSPL064   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
 
  • W.F. Bergan, I.V. Bazarov, C.J. Duncan, D. L. Rubin
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • D. Liarte, J.P. Sethna
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
 
  Funding: DOE DE-SC0013571 NSF DGE-1650441
In order to reduce the vertical emittance at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR), we first measure and correct the vertical orbit, dispersion, and coupling. However, due to the finite resolution of our optics measurements, we still retain a significant residual emittance. In order to correct this further, we made use of the theory of sloppy models, according to which certain high-dimensionality systems can be modeled with significantly fewer "eigenparameters" that still contain most of the effect on the desired objective, in this case, the emittance.* However, we noted that using these knobs for tuning often resulted in increased vertical orbit errors. In an attempt to constrain these, we have applied multi-objective genetic algorithms to this problem. We have found that it can be more efficient to run such algorithms using our eigenparameters as the genes to be varied, as opposed to the raw magnet values. When running with the first 8 such knobs as genes, we can get either orbits or beam sizes as good as we obtain with our regular emittance-tuning algorithm which uses all the corrector magnets.
*K.S. Brown and J.P. Sethna, Phys. Rev. E 68, 021904 (2003).
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPAF041  
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THPAF024 Understanding and Compensating Emittance Diluting Effects in Highly Optimized Ultrafast Electron Diffraction Beamlines 3004
 
  • C. M. Pierce, I.V. Bazarov, C.M. Gulliford, J.M. Maxson
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • S. Baturin
    Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
  • M.A. Gordon, Y.K. Kim
    University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
 
  Funding: This work was supported by the Center for Bright Beams, NSF PHY-1549132 and Department of Energy grant DE-SC0014338.
The application of Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm optimization (MOGA) to photoemission based ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) beamlines featuring extremely low cathode mean transverse energies has lead to designs with emittances as low as 1 nm for sub-picosecond bunches with 105 electrons*. Analysis of these results shows significant emittance growth during transport: with emittance dilution as high as a factor of 200-4000% for various designs and optics settings. In this study we quantify and model the individual sources of emittance growth (slice mismatches and space charge), and explore the use of the core emittance as a strong invariant.
C. Gulliford, A. Bartnik, and I. Bazarov. Multi-
objective optimizations of a novel cryocooled dc gun based
UED beam line. Phys. Rev. Ac-
celerators and Beams, 19(9):093402, 2016.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAF024  
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THPMF080 Physical and Chemical Roughness of Alkali-Animonide Cathodes 4259
 
  • S.S. Karkare, S. Emamian, G. Gevorkyan, H.A. Padmore, A.K. Schmid
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  • I.V. Bazarov
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • A. Galdi
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
 
  Over the last decade, alkali-antimonides have been investigated as high QE cathodes in green light and more recently as ultra-low intrinsic emittance cathodes in near-threshold red wavelengths at cryogenic temperatures*. Nano-meter scale surface non-uniformities (physical roughness and chemical roughness or work function variations) are thought to limit the smallest possible emittance from these materials at the photoemission threshold under cryogenic conditions**. Despite this, the surfaces of alkali-antimonides have not been well characterized in terms of the surface non-uniformities. Here, we present measurements of both the physical and chemical roughness of alkali-antimonide surfaces using several surface characterization techniques like atomic force microscopy, kelvin probe force microscopy, low energy electron microscopy and near-threshold photoemission electron microscopy and show how such non-uniformities limit the intrinsic emittance.
*L. Cultrera et al Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 18, 113401 (2015)
**J. Feng et al, J. of Appl. Phys. 121, 044904 (2017)
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMF080  
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THPML053 Computational Screening for Low Emittance Photocathodes 4755
 
  • J.T. Paul, R.G. Hennig
    University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA
  • I.V. Bazarov, A. Galdi
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • S.S. Karkare, H.A. Padmore
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
 
  The majority of photocathode materials in use in accelerator applications have been discovered empirically through trial and error with little guidance from material science calculations. Alternatively, one can envision a process which is heavily guided by computational search using latest advances in density functional theory (DFT). In this work, the MaterialsProject database is searched for potential single crystal photocathodes that would be suitable for ultralow emittance beam production. The materials in the database are initially screened on the basis of experimental practicality. Following this, the expected emittance is calculated from the DFT computed band structures for the pre-screened materials using the conservation of energy and transverse momentum during photoemission. Based on such computational screening, we provide a list of potential low emittance photocathode materials which can be investigated experimentally as high brightness electron sources.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML053  
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