02 Photon Sources and Electron Accelerators
T02 Electron Sources
Paper Title Page
TUPMF002 A Cu Photocathode for the Superconducting RF Photoinjector of BERLinPro 1247
 
  • J. Kühn, M. Bürger, A. Frahm, A. Jankowiak, T. Kamps, G. Klemz, G. Kourkafas, A. Neumann, N. Ohm, M. Schmeißer, M. Schuster, J. Völker
    HZB, Berlin, Germany
  • P. Murcek, J. Teichert
    HZDR, Dresden, Germany
 
  The initial commissioning of the Superconducting RF (SRF) photoinjector is done with a Cu photocathode due to its robustness with regard to interactions with the SRF cavity of the injector. Here we present the preparation and characterization of a Cu photocathode plug and the diagnostics to insert the photocathode in the back wall of the SRF cavity. A polycrystalline bulk Cu plug was polished, particle free cleaned and characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. During the transfer of the photocathode insert into the gun module the whole process was controlled by several diagnostic tools monitoring the insert position as well as RF, vacuum and cryogenic signals. We discuss the challenges of the photocathode transfer into an SRF cavity and how they can be tackled.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPMF002  
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TUPMF020 Demonstration of Fast, Single-shot Photocathode QE Mapping Method Using MLA Pattern Beam 1293
 
  • E.E. Wisniewski, M.E. Conde, D.S. Doran, W. Gai, Q. Gao, W. Liu, J.G. Power, C. Whiteford
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois, USA
  • Q. Gao
    TUB, Beijing, People's Republic of China
  • G. Ha
    PAL, Pohang, Republic of Korea
  • A. Halavanau, P. Piot
    Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois, USA
  • P. Piot
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
 
  Funding: UChicago Argonne, LLC, Operator of Argonne National Laboratory ("Argonne"). Argonne, a U.S.A. Department of Energy Office of Science laboratory, is operated under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.
Quantum efficiency (QE) is the chief figure of merit in the characterization of photocathodes. Semiconductor photocathodes, especially when used in high rep-rate photo-injectors, are known to show QE degradation over time and must be replaced. The total QE is the basic diagnostic which is used widely and is easy to obtain. However, a QE map indicating variations of QE across the cathode surface has greater utility. It can quickly diagnose problems of QE inhomogeneity. Most QE mapping techniques require hours to complete and are thus disruptive to a user facility schedule. A fast, single-shot method has been proposed (citation) using a micro-lens array (MLA) generated QE map. In this paper we report the implementation of the method at Argonne Wakefield Accelerator facility. A micro-lens array (MLA) is used to project an array of beamlets onto the photocathode. The resulting photoelectron beam in the form of an array of electron beamlets is imaged at a YAG screen. Four synchronized measurements are made and the results used to produce a QE map of the photocathode.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPMF020  
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TUPMF065 The Role of Electron-Phonon Scattering in Transverse Momentum Conservation in PbTe(111) Photocathodes 1414
SUSPF027   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
 
  • J. K. Nangoi, T.A. Arias
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • S.S. Karkare, H.A. Padmore
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  • W.A. Schroeder
    UIC, Chicago, Illinois, USA
 
  Funding: The U.S. National Science Foundation under Award PHY-1549132, the Center for Bright Beams.
The state of the art in creating high quality electron beams for particle accelerator applications and next generation ultrafast electron diffraction and microscopy involves laser-generated photoemission. A high quality beam requires that electrons emerge from the surface with low mean transverse energy (MTE). Recent density-functional theory calculations by T. Li and W. A. S. [arXiv:1704.00194v1 [physics.acc-ph] (2017)] suggest that PbTe(111) will produce low-MTE photoelectrons due to the low effective electron mass associated with its electronic band structure. Based on this, we measured the distribution of photoelectrons from PbTe(111) and found the MTE to be about 20x larger than expected. To explain the apparent lack of transverse momentum conservation, we carried out many-body photoemission calculations including electron-phonon scattering. Our results are in far better agreement with the experiment, underscoring the importance of electron-phonon scattering in photoemission from PbTe(111), and suggest that cooling could mitigate the phonon effects on the MTE for this material.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPMF065  
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THPMF029 Novel MCP-Based Electron Source Studies 4107
 
  • V.D. Shiltsev, G. Stancari
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  • M.J. Haughey
    Edinburgh University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
 
  Microchannel plates were recently proposed as cathodes for electron guns, as part of a novel electron lens design to be tested in the IOTA facility at FNAL. We experimentally assessed the suitability of microchannel plate technology in this design and studied the microchannel plate based photomultiplier (MCP-PMT) system using different sources of light pulses. Here we present the results of the nanosecond time response tests and the maximum current density tests as well as the dependency on the magnetic field strength. Several ideas how to proceed beyond O(100 mA/cm2) density observed in the first tests.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMF029  
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THPMF032 Preparation and Testing of the BERLinPro Gun 1.1 Cavity 4117
 
  • H.-W. Glock, J. Knobloch, A. Neumann, Y. Tamashevich
    HZB, Berlin, Germany
 
  Funding: Work supported by German Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, Land Berlin, and grants of the Helmholtz Association
For the BERLinPro energy recovery LINAC, HZB is developing a superconducting 1.4-cell electron gun, which, in its final version, is planned to be capable of CW 1.3 GHz operation with 77 pC/bunch. For this purpose a series of three superconducting cavities, denoted as Gun 1.0, Gun 1.1 (both designed for 6 mA) and Gun 2.0 (100 mA) is foreseen. Here the status of the Gun 1.1 cavity is described, including results of the recent vertical testing. Lessons learned from the production and preparation process are summarized, also in order to identify issues critical for the production of Gun 2.0.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMF032  
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THPMF039 Study of Magnesium Photocathodes for Superconducting RF Photoinjectors 4142
 
  • R. Xiang, A. Arnold, P.N. Lu, P. Murcek, J. Teichert, H. Vennekate
    HZDR, Dresden, Germany
 
  Funding: The work is supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) grant 05K12CR1.
The superconducting RF photoinjector (SRF Gun II) has successfully served for the ELBE user facility at HZDR. Nevertheless, the quality of photocathodes is one of the most critical issues in improving the stability and reliability for its application. Magnesium has a comparably low work function (3.6 eV) and shows a quantum efficiency up to 0.3% after laser cleaning. However, the present cleaning process with a high intensity laser beam is time consuming and produces unwanted surface roughness, which leads to a higher thermal emittance. Thermal treatment and Excimer laser cleaning for Mg cathodes are investigated as alternative methods. In this work, the new cleaning procedures are tested and optimized, and the quantum efficiency of Mg samples with different microstructure, composition and suppliers are compared.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMF039  
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THPMF040 Experiences with the SRF Gun II for User Operation at the ELBE Radiation Source 4145
 
  • J. Teichert, A. Arnold, M. Bawatna, P.E. Evtushenko, M. Gensch, B.W. Green, S. Kovalev, U. Lehnert, P.N. Lu, P. Michel, P. Murcek, H. Vennekate, R. Xiang
    HZDR, Dresden, Germany
 
  Funding: The work is supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) grant 05K12CR1.
The second version of the superconducting RF pho-toinjector (SRF Gun II) was successfully commissioned at the ELBE radiation source in 2014. The gun features an improved 3.5-cell niobium cavity combined with a super-conducting solenoid integrated in the cryostat. With a Mg photocathode the SRF Gun II is able to generate bunches with up to 200 pC and with sub-ps length in CW mode with 100 kHz pulse frequency for the THz radiation fa-cility at ELBE. In the ELBE linac, the beam is accelerat-ed, gets a proper correlated energy spread, and is com-pressed in a magnetic chicane. Sub-ps pulses are obtained producing coherent diffraction radiation and superradiant undulator radiation.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMF040  
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THPMF080 Physical and Chemical Roughness of Alkali-Animonide Cathodes 4259
 
  • S.S. Karkare, S. Emamian, G. Gevorkyan, H.A. Padmore, A.K. Schmid
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  • I.V. Bazarov
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • A. Galdi
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
 
  Over the last decade, alkali-antimonides have been investigated as high QE cathodes in green light and more recently as ultra-low intrinsic emittance cathodes in near-threshold red wavelengths at cryogenic temperatures*. Nano-meter scale surface non-uniformities (physical roughness and chemical roughness or work function variations) are thought to limit the smallest possible emittance from these materials at the photoemission threshold under cryogenic conditions**. Despite this, the surfaces of alkali-antimonides have not been well characterized in terms of the surface non-uniformities. Here, we present measurements of both the physical and chemical roughness of alkali-antimonide surfaces using several surface characterization techniques like atomic force microscopy, kelvin probe force microscopy, low energy electron microscopy and near-threshold photoemission electron microscopy and show how such non-uniformities limit the intrinsic emittance.
*L. Cultrera et al Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 18, 113401 (2015)
**J. Feng et al, J. of Appl. Phys. 121, 044904 (2017)
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMF080  
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THPMF081 Intrinsic Emittance of Single Crystal Cathodes 4263
 
  • S.S. Karkare, H.A. Padmore
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  • G. Adhikari, W.A. Schroeder
    UIC, Chicago, Illinois, USA
 
  The transverse momentum of electrons is conserved during photoemission from atomically ordered surfaces of single crystal materials. Photocathodes used in all photoinjectors today have disordered surfaces and do not exploit this phenomenon. Recently, using this conservation of transverse momentum, significant reduction in intrinsic emittance was demonstrated from the (111) surface of silver*. Here, we present measurements of transverse momentum distributions of electrons photoemitted from the ordered surfaces of Ag and Cu single crystals at several photon energies. These measurements will help in understanding the photoemission process and show how band-structure and the conservation of transverse momentum can be used to obtain further reduction in intrinsic emittance from photocathodes.
*Karkare et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 164802 (2017)
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMF081  
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THPMF085 Beam Dynamics Simulation of the Solenoid Sextupole Error in the LCLS-II Injector 4277
 
  • J. Qiang
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  • S.D. Anderson, D. Dowell, P. Emma, J.F. Schmerge, M.D. Woodley, F. Zhou
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
 
  The LCLS-II injector is a high brightness, high-repetition rate RF injector that consists of a 186 MHz VHF photo-electron gun, a focusing solenoid, a buncher cavity, another focusing solenoid, and a superconducting accelerating cryomodule to boost the electron beam energy to about final 100MeV. The solenoids provide transverse focusing and emittance compensation for the electron beam. However, in reality, the solenoid is not perfect due to manufacturing errors. Especially, the sextupole error in the solenoid field, which can cause significant beam emittance growth. In this paper, we report on the beam dynamics study of the effects of sextupole errors in the current LCLS-II injector.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMF085  
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THPMF088 R&D Activity on Alkali-Antimonied Photocathodes at INFN-Lasa 4284
 
  • D. Sertore, P. Michelato, L. Monaco
    INFN/LASA, Segrate (MI), Italy
  • C. Pagani
    Università degli Studi di Milano & INFN, Segrate, Italy
 
  Based on the long-term experience on R&D and production of cesium telluride photocathodes for the high brightness photo-injectors and the past experience on green photocathodes developed in ‘90s , we have started a new R&D activity aiming to reach a reproducible and robust recipe for green photocathodes usable in RF gun. In this paper we present and discuss the first results so far obtained on K2CsSb photoemissive films deposited on polished Mo plugs and the plan for future studies.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMF088  
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THPMK001 Creating Two-Pulse Beams from a Photoinjector for Two Color FEL or Beam Driven PWFA Experiments 4294
 
  • J. Andersson, J. Björklund Svensson, M. Kotur, F. Lindau, S. Thorin
    MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
 
  The MAX IV linac is investigated as a FEL driver in the SXL project, but there is also an ongoing investigation in using the linac as a driver for beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiments. From both these applications, double pulses from the photoinjector within the same RF period is desired. In this paper we discuss the possibilities of using the current photoinjector at MAX IV as driver and show simulations results from the pre-injector, both for FEL applications and for PWFA applications.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMK001  
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THPMK002 The Pre-Injector Design for the MAX IV SXL 4297
 
  • J. Andersson, M. Kotur, D. Kumbaro, F. Lindau, E. Mansten, D. Olsson, L.K. Roslund, S. Thorin
    MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
 
  In this paper we present the current status of the design for the pre-injector (photo-cathode gun, solenoid and first linac) for the SXL project at MAX IV. The SXL project requires a higher repetition rate and since improved beam quality compared to what the current photo-cathode gun can operate at is needed, a new photo-cathode gun will be manufactured. We briefly describe the components of the pre-injector, followed by the design of the new photo-cathode gun. The design is similar to the old gun but with a new RF cavity using elliptical irises and racetrack profile main cell. The current parameters for the next gun to be manufactured are discussed, and some simulations and expected beam quality from the injector are shown.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMK002  
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THPMK007 Surface Acoustic Wave Enhancement of Photocathodes 4304
 
  • R.P. Johnson
    Muons, Inc, Illinois, USA
  • A. Afanasev, B. Dong, M. E. Zaghloul
    GWU, Washington, USA
 
  Funding: Work supported by DOE HEP STTR Grant DE-SC0017831
Numerical simulations and fabrication techniques are being used to investigate the use of surface acoustic waves to suppress electron-hole recombination on the surface of GaAs photocathodes in order to increase the quantum efficiency for polarized and unpolarized electron beam generation.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMK007  
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THPMK009 Study on Improving Durability of Bialkali Photocathode for an RF-Gun with the CsBr Protective Layer 4310
 
  • J. Miyamatsu, H. Ono, M. Washio
    Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan
  • H. Iijima
    Tokyo University of Science, Tokyo, Japan
  • K. Sakaue
    Waseda University, Waseda Institute for Advanced Study, Tokyo, Japan
 
  At Waseda University, we have been studying for high quality electron beam generation and developing variety of application experiments using 1.6 cells photocathode RF-gun. We are using photocathode as the electron source, which can generate high-performance electron beam such as low emittance, short pulse. The performance of photocathodes is evaluated mainly in terms of Quantum Efficiency (Q.E.) and the lifetime. Cs-Te photocathode used in the RF-Gun at Waseda University is known for high Q.E. with UV light and relatively longer lifetime among semiconducting photocathodes. For increasing the charge of electron beam and simplify the laser system, we started introducing CsK2Sb photocathode in the RF-gun which has light sensitivity in UV and visible range, and high Q.E. with green light. However, CsK2Sb photocathode has a difficulty in durability and we observed that it was not enough for long-term operation in the RF-gun. Then we plan to improve lifetime and durability of CsK2Sb photocathode by coating the cathode surface with CsBr thin film. In this conference, we report the result of lifetime measurement of CsK2Sb photocathode with CsBr thin film and future prospects.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMK009  
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THPMK018 Design of a rotationally symmetric S-band photocathode RF gun 4336
 
  • Zh. X. Tang
    USTC, Hefei, Anhui, People's Republic of China
  • Z.G. He, W.W. Li, Y.J. Pei, L. Wang
    USTC/NSRL, Hefei, Anhui, People's Republic of China
 
  The photocathode RF gun is one of the most critical components for high quality electron beam sources. The asymmetric multi-pole field contributes to the transverse emittance growth and degrades the beam quality. In order to overcome the problem, we propose a novel rotationally symmetric 1.6 cell RF gun to construct the symmetric field in this paper. The concrete proposal is that a coaxial cell with a symmetrical distribution of four grooves is concatenated to the first 0.6 cell at the photocathode end to form a new resonant cell (NRC) to mantain the symmetric multi-pole field in 1.6 cell. Our simulations indicate that 3D multi-pole fields of NRC are with the perfect symmetry. After that, the profile of the RF gun is optimized to improve the shunt impedance and mode separation and make the surface peak electric field at the photocathode end. Our simulations demonstrate promising outlook of using coaxial cell for photocathode RF guns with various applications.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMK018  
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THPMK062 Transverse Energy Distribution Measurements for Polycrystalline and (100) Copper Photocathodes with Known Levels of Surface Roughness 4438
 
  • L.B. Jones, B.L. Militsyn, T.C.Q. Noakes
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • L.B. Jones, D.P. Juarez-Lopez, B.L. Militsyn, T.C.Q. Noakes, C.P. Welsch
    Cockcroft Institute, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • D.P. Juarez-Lopez, C.P. Welsch
    The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
 
  Funding: This work is part of EuCARD-2, partly-funded by the European Commission, GA 312453.
The minimum achievable emittance in an electron accelerator depends strongly on the intrinsic emittance of the photocathode electron source. This is measureable as the mean longitudinal and transverse energy spreads in the photoemitted electrons. ASTeC's Transverse Energy Spread Spectrometer (TESS)* experimental facility can be used with III-V semiconductor, multi-alkali and metal photocathodes to measure transverse and longitudinal energy distributions. Our R&D facilities also include in-vacuum quantum efficiency measurement, XPS, STM, plus ex-vacuum optical and STM microscopy for surface metrology. Intrinsic emittance is strongly affected by the photocathode surface roughness**, and the development of techniques to manufacture the smoothest photocathode is a priority for the electron source community. We present energy distribution measurements for electrons emitted from copper photocathodes with both defined single-crystal (100) and polycrystalline surfaces with measured levels of surface roughness.
* Proc. FEL'13, TUPPS033, pp. 290-293.
** Proc. FEL'06, THPPH013, pp. 583-586.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMK062  
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THPMK063 Photocathode Preparation and Characteristics of the Electron Source for the VELA/CLARA Facility 4442
 
  • T.C.Q. Noakes, D. Angal-Kalinin, L.S. Cowie, F. Jackson, J.W. McKenzie, K.J. Middleman, B.L. Militsyn, M.D. Roper, E.W. Snedden, R. Valizadeh, D.A. Walsh
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • D. Angal-Kalinin, L.S. Cowie, F. Jackson, J.W. McKenzie, K.J. Middleman, B.L. Militsyn, R. Valizadeh
    Cockcroft Institute, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
 
  The VELA and CLARA front end accelerators at Daresbury are test facilities with a focus on FEL research and industrial applications of electron beams. Recently the CLARA injector has been commissioned with acceleration of beam to 50 MeV. For several years a normal conducting 2.5 cell S-band cavity RF gun operated at up to 80 MV/m has been used as the electron source for both VELA and CLARA. For further beam acceleration an S-band travelling wave 2m long cavity has been used. The gun has used several different copper cathodes throughout its operational life, employing different preparation techniques. Oxygen plasma treatment is a well-known procedure for removing hydrocarbon contamination from surfaces whereas Argon plasma treatment also removes contaminants and typically leaves a thinner oxide at the surface. In this study we compare dark current (from field emission), as measured directly after the gun, for these alternate surface preparations and also present results from post-use electron microscopy analysis of the photocathodes. Electromagnetic simulations are used to help explain the results.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMK063  
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THPMK085 Development of a Pre-Injector Test Bench for Future SLRI Light Source 4499
 
  • K. Kittimanapun, Ch. Dhammatong, N. Juntong, W. Phacheerak, M. Phanak
    SLRI, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand
 
  A pre-injector test bench at the Synchrotron Light Research Institute (SLRI) is under development as one of the preparations for the future SLRI light source and of choices for the possible upgrade of the current injector. The pre-injector test bench includes a pulsed thermionic gun, a fast pulse deflector, a buncher and a pre-buncher. The thermionic electron gun with a cathode made of a single crystal CeB6 is employed as an electron emitter providing small emittance and uniform electron density. The fast pulse deflector shorten the extracted electrons of a few microseconds to that of a few nanoseconds. The electron pulses are further bunched by both the 238 MHz pre-buncher and the 476 MHz buncher to allow the 1-MeV electron beam. The experimental setups for emittance and beam profile measurements are installed on a movable diagnostic stand which is, later on, replaced by the beam bunching devices. The designs of the test bench will be discussed in this paper.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMK085  
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THPMK086 Low Intensity Electron Beam Measurement at SLRI Beam Test Facility 4502
 
  • K. Kittimanapun, N. Chanlek, A. Lakrathok, N. Laoiamnongwong
    SLRI, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand
 
  Funding: This work is supported by the National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA) under contract FDA-C0-2558-855-TH.
The SLRI Beam Test Facility (SLRI-BTF), the latest extension of the existing accelerator complex, has recently been in operation at the Synchrotron Light Research Institute (SLRI). SLRI-BTF is capable of providing electron test beams with desired intensity and energy. By means of a wedge target downstream of the 40-MeV linac, the electron intensity of the test beam produced is variable between a few to millions of electrons per burst. The test beam energy is adjustable from 40 MeV to 1.2 GeV, depending on the acceleration time of the synchrotron booster. SLRI-BTF targets to service electron test beams to the development of the high-energy particle detectors and diagnostic instrumentations. In this paper, the measurement of the low intensity electron beam will be discussed.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMK086  
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THPMK088 Low Emittance Thermionic Electron Gun at SLRI 4509
 
  • K. Kittimanapun, Ch. Dhammatong, N. Juntong, W. Phacheerak, M. Phanak
    SLRI, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand
 
  The Synchrotron Light Research Institute (SLRI) has developed a new thermionic electron gun producing low emittance electron beam for the future upgrade of the existing one. The thermionic cathode made of a CeB6 single crystal is selected due to its properties providing high electron beam current, uniform current density, and high resistance to contamination. In addition, the CeB6 cathode of 3 mm in diameter can produce up to a few Amperes of electron beam current. The electron gun is pulsed at 500 kV with a few microseconds wide to avoid high voltage breakdown as well as to reduce space charge effect resulting in the emittance growth of the extracted electron beam. The preliminary simulation and design of the electron gun together with the high voltage system are described in the paper.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMK088  
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THPMK095 Design of an RF Modulated Thermionic Electron Source at TRIUMF 4524
 
  • K. Fong, D.W. Storey
    TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada
 
  The electron source in the TRIUMF ARIEL project is a gridded dispenser cathode. The cathode is biased at -300kV, and the grid requires a RF control signal of up to 150V at 650 MHz. The required RF power is approximately 20 W and is provided by an RF amplifier located outside the gun vessel. This RF power is coupled into the gun circuit through a ceramic transmission line. The design of this ceramic transmission line, as well as the impedance transformation circuit which provides both the impedance matching and the dc powers to the gun assembly are described.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMK095  
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THPMK097 First Conceptual Design Studies of an Electron Source for Ultrafast Electron Diffraction at DELTA 4530
 
  • D. Krieg, S. Khan
    DELTA, Dortmund, Germany
  • K. Sokolowski-Tinten
    Universität Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg, Germany
 
  Funding: MERCUR Pr-2017-0002
Ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) is a technique to study the structural dynamics of matter, combining diffraction of electrons with sub-angstrom De-Broglie wavelength with femtosecond time resolution. The method is complementary to X-ray scattering at free-electron lasers. UED pump-probe experiments require ultrashort laser pulses to pump a sample, electron bunches with small emittance and ultrashort length to analyze the state of the sample by diffraction, as well as excellent control of the delay between them. While most UED systems are based on electrostatic electron sources in the keV regime, electrons accelerated to a few MeV in a radiofrequency photocathode gun offer significant advantages regarding emittance and bunch length due to the reduction of space charge effects. Furthermore, the longer mean free path of MeV electrons allows for thicker samples and hence a broader range of possible materials. In this paper, a first conceptual design and simulation results for a university-based UED facility with ultrashort and low-emittance MeV electron bunches are presented.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMK097  
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THPMK100 Setup for Cooled GaAs Cathodes With Increased Charge Lifetime 4542
SUSPF024   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
 
  • T. Eggert, J. Enders, M. Espig, Y. Fritzsche, N. Kurichiyanil, M. Wagner
    TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany
 
  Funding: DFG (GRK 2128) BMBF (05H15RDRB1)
GaAs photocathode lifetime is limited, and to ensure re- liable operation for high power-applications it is necessary to maximize its charge lifetime. By using a cryogenic sub- volume it is expected to improve the local vacuum condi- tions due to cryogenic adsorption of reactive residual gas molecules. Yielding an enhanced lifetime of the negative- electron-affinity surface of the cathode. Furthermore the cooling of the cathode itself ishould allow higher laser power deposition in the material. Introducing an electrostatic bend is expected to reduces the ion-backbombardment on the cath- ode surface. A dedicated set-up is being developed at the Photo-CATCH test facility in Darmstadt, Germany to measure the charac- teristics of such a cryogenic source. This contribution updates the report given at PSTP 2017.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMK100  
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THPMK101 Inverted Geometry Photo-Electron Gun Research and Development at TU Darmstadt 4545
 
  • M. Herbert, J. Enders, Y. Fritzsche, N. Kurichiyanil, V. Wende
    TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany
 
  Funding: Work supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through GRK 2128 'AccelencE'
The Institute for nuclear physics at TU Darmstadt houses the Superconducting Darmstadt Linear Accelerator S-DALINAC. A photo-electron gun using GaAs photocathodes to provide pulsed and/or polarized electron beams, the S-DALINAC Polarized Injector SPIn, has been installed * for future nuclear-structure investigations**. In order to conduct research and development for this source, a test facility for Photo-Cathode Activation, Test and Cleaning using atomic-Hydrogen (Photo-CATCH) has been constructed***. This setup provides several chambers for photocathode handling and a 60 keV beamline for photo-gun design studies****. Currently, an upgraded inverted insulator geometry is under investigation for Photo-CATCH that is supposed to be implemented at SPIn. We will present the current developments at Photo-CATCH and future measurements.
* Y. Poltoratska et al., J. Phys.: Conf. Series 298 (2011)
** J. Enders, AIP Conf. Proc. 1563, 223 (2013)
*** M. Espig, Diss., TU Darmstadt (2016)
**** N. Kurichiyanil, Diss., TU Darmstadt (2016)
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMK101  
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THPMK107 Design of a High Charge, Low Energy, Magnetized Electron Injector 4564
 
  • F.E. Hannon
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
 
  Funding: Authored by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC under U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177.
Simulations of a magnetized injector for the bunched-beam electron cooler ring, as part of the Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC) are presented. A challenge of such an injector is in generating a magnetized, 3.2nC electron bunch at low energy and preserving the angular momentum so it can subsequently be merged into the cooler ring and transported to the cooling solenoid without degradation. The design of the proposed injector and the effect it has on the beam are discussed in detail.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMK107  
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THPMK108 Production of Magnetized Electron Beam from a DC High Voltage Photogun 4567
 
  • M.A. Mamun, P.A. Adderley, J. F. Benesch, D.B. Bullard, J.R. Delayen, J.M. Grames, J. Guo, F.E. Hannon, J. Hansknecht, C. Hernandez-Garcia, R. Kazimi, G.A. Krafft, M. Poelker, R. Suleiman, M.G. Tiefenback, Y.W. Wang, S. Zhang
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  • S.A.K. Wijethunga
    ODU, Norfolk, Virginia, USA
 
  Funding: This work is supported by the Department of Energy, Laboratory Directed Research and Development funding, under contract DE-AC05-06OR23177
Bunched-beam electron cooling is a key feature of all proposed designs of the future electron-ion collider, and a requirement for achieving the highest promised collision luminosity. At the Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC), fast cooling of ion beams will be accomplished via so-called 'magnetized cooling' implemented using a recirculator ring that employs an energy recovery linac. In this contribution, we describe the production of magnetized electron beam using a compact 300 kV DC high voltage photogun with an inverted insulator geometry, and using alkali-antimonide photocathodes. Beam magnetization was assessed using a modest diagnostic beamline that includes YAG view screens used to measure the rotation of the electron beamlet passing through a narrow upstream aperture. Magnetization results are presented for different gun bias voltages and for different laser spot sizes at the photocathode, using 532 nm lasers with DC and RF time structure. Photocathode lifetime was measured at currents up to 4.5 mA, with and without beam magnetization.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMK108  
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THPMK110 300 kV DC High Voltage Photogun with Inverted Insulator Geometry and CsK2sb Photocathode 4571
SUSPF028   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
 
  • Y.W. Wang, P.A. Adderley, J. F. Benesch, D.B. Bullard, J.M. Grames, F.E. Hannon, J. Hansknecht, C. Hernandez-Garcia, R. Kazimi, G.A. Krafft, G.A. Krafft, M.A. Mamun, G.G. Palacios Serrano, M. Poelker, R. Suleiman, M.G. Tiefenback, S. Zhang
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  • G.A. Krafft, S.A.K. Wijethunga
    ODU, Norfolk, Virginia, USA
 
  Funding: This work is supported by the Department of Energy, Laboratory Directed Research and Development funding, under contract DE-AC05-06OR23177
A compact DC high voltage photogun with inverted-insulator geometry was designed, built and operated reliably at 300 kV bias voltage using alkali-antimonide photocathodes. This presentation describes key electrostatic design features of the photogun with accompanying emittance measurements obtained across the entire photocathode surface that speak to field non-uniformity within the cathode/anode gap. A summary of initial photocathode lifetime measurements at beam currents up to 4.5 mA is also presented.
 
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THPMK111 Negative Electron Affinity Gallium Arsenide Photocathodes Based on Optically Resonant Nanostructure 4575
 
  • S. Zhang, M. Poelker, M.L. Stutzman
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  • X. Peng, J. Zou
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, People's Republic of China
 
  Funding: DOE
We report the design and fabrication of a new type of negative electron affinity (NEA) gallium arsenide (GaAs) photocathode with optically resonant nanostructures. We observed a significant enhancement of the quantum effi-ciency (QE) from the GaAs photocathode with nanowire arrays (NWA) due to the Mie resonance effect within the intended wavelength range. Theoretical calculations of the expected reflectance behaviour together with experi-mental results of optical and photoemission characteris-tics are presented.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMK111  
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THPMK116 NEA Surface Activation of GaAs Photocathode with CO2 4590
 
  • L.Guo. Guo
    UVSOR, Okazaki, Japan
  • H. Iijima
    Tokyo University of Science, Tokyo, Japan
  • M. Kuriki
    HU/AdSM, Higashi-Hiroshima, Japan
  • K. Uchida
    Cosylab Japan, Ibaraki, Japan
 
  NEA (negative electron affinity)-GaAs cathode is able to generate highly spin polarized electron beam more than 90%. The NEA activation is performed usually with Cs and O2 or NF3, but the exact structure of the NEA surface is not known. In this paper, we performed the NEA activation on a cleaned GaAs surface with CO2, CO, N2, and O2 gases and compared the results to improve our understanding on the NEA surface. We found that CO2 activated the cathode, but N2 and CO did not. By analyzing CO2 activation, we found that atomic oxygen activates the NEA surface and CO degrades the NEA surface simultaneously. We found that the NEA activation ability of atomic oxygen is almost a half of that of O2 molecule.*
*L. Guo, M. Kuriki, H. Iijima, K. Uchida. "NEA surface activation of GaAs photocathode with different gases", Surface Science 664C (2017) pp. 65-69.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMK116  
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THPMK118 GaN Thin Film Photocathodes for High Brightness Electron Beams 4594
 
  • M. Vogel, X. Jiang, M. Schumacher
    University Siegen, Siegen, Germany
 
  Funding: This work was supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research under grant 05K16PS1 "HOPE II: Hochbrillante photoinduzierte Hochfrequenz-Elektronenquellen".
Gallium nitride (GaN) is one promising candidate as photocathode material showing high quantum efficiencies which is one of the requirements for high brightness electron beams. In addition to reported quantum efficiencies of up to 70%, GaN needs to satisfy the demands for long lifetime, low dark current and low thermal emittance. In this contribution, the ongoing activities of the synthesis by means of reactive rf magnetron sputtering and characterization of GaN is presented. The latter is done by standard materials science methods and in-situ measurements of the quantum efficiency in combination with lifetime and dark current measurements to asses and optimize the photocathode's performance. Along with the project's details, first experimental results of GaN thin films synthesized utilizing a GaAs source are presented.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMK118  
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THPMK123 Initial Design on the High Quality Electron Beam for the Hefei Advanced Light Source 4605
 
  • R. Huang, Z.G. He, Q.K. Jia, Y. Lu, L. Wang
    USTC/NSRL, Hefei, Anhui, People's Republic of China
 
  Funding: Work is supported by China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 51627901) and Chinese Universities Scientific Fund (Contract WK2310000063)
The Hefei Advanced Light Source (HALS) was proposed as a future soft X-ray diffraction-limited storage ring with a Free Electron Laser (FEL) at National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). We present a design for a high brightness electron source as an injector of a 2.4 GeV linac-based diffraction limited storage ring and a free electron laser. The electron beams with low emittance and high peak current will be generated from a photoinjector and designed to fulfill the requirement of the HALS. To compress the bunch length and enhance the pulse current, velocity bunching scenario by a deceleration injection phase is designed. Owing to a linear compression, the electron beam is expected to be extremely short with a further magnetic compression.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMK123  
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THPML136 Study of Secondary Electron Generation and Transport in Diamond 5004
SUSPF025   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
 
  • T.L. He, K. Huang, Z.L. Ren, L. Wang, D.R. Xu, H. Xu
    USTC/NSRL, Hefei, Anhui, People's Republic of China
 
  Energetic primary electrons (~ keV) impinging on the diamond film with its both surface under bias field in ~ MV/m, will excite secondary electron (SE) response including SE generation & transport. Although there have been 3D Monte Carlo (MC) simulation to study the two processes, this paper will introduce another method. Based on optical dielectric model, 3D MC simulation was implemented to study the generation process, and SE generation function was obtained by fitting the calculations. Using this function, the diffusion-drift equation of charge carriers (electron and hole) can be solved in 1D for the transport process, and the variation of SE depth distribution with time can be obtained.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML136  
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