03 Novel Particle Sources and Acceleration Technologies
A15 New Acceleration Techniques (including DLA and THz)
Paper Title Page
TUYGBE1
Applications of Light Sources Driven by Laser-Wakefield Acceleration  
 
  • F. Albert
    LLNL, Livermore, California, USA
 
  Betatron x-ray radiation, driven by electrons from laser-wakefield acceleration, has unique properties to probe high energy density (HED) plasmas and warm dense matter. This source is produced when relativistic electrons oscillate in the plasma wake of a laser pulse. Its properties are similar to that of a synchrotron, with a 1000-fold shorter pulse. This invited talk will focus on the experimental challenges and results related to the development of betatron radiation for applications at large scale HED science laser facilities, including results of recent experiments performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC and the Jupiter Laser Facility (JLF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.  
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TUYGBE3 Recent progress of short pulse dielectric two-beam acceleration 640
 
  • J.H. Shao, M.E. Conde, D.S. Doran, W. Gai, W. Liu, N.R. Neveu, J.F. Power, C. Whiteford, E.E. Wisniewski, L.M. Zheng
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois, USA
  • C.-J. Jing
    Euclid TechLabs, LLC, Solon, Ohio, USA
 
  Two-Beam Acceleration (TBA) is a structure-based wakefield acceleration method with the potential to meet the luminosity and cost requirements of a TeV class linear collider. The Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) facility is developing a dielectric-based short pulse TBA scheme with the potential to withstand high acceleration gradients and to achieve low fabrication cost. Recently, the dielectric short pulse TBA technology was successfully demonstrated using K-band 26 GHz structures, achieving 55 MW output power from the power extractor and 28 MeV/m gradient in the accelerator. To improve the generated rf power, an X-band 11.7 GHz power extractor has been developed, which obtained 105 MW in the high power test. In addition, a novel dielectric disk accelerator (DDA) is currently under investigation to significantly increase the efficiency of linear colliders based on short pulse TBA. Details of these research will be presented in this paper.  
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DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUYGBE3  
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TUPMF010 A Conceptual Design of a Compact Wakefield Accelerator for a High Repetition Rate Multi User X-ray Free-Electron Laser Facility 1266
 
  • A. Zholents, D.S. Doran, W.G. Jansma, M. Kasa, R. Kustom, J.G. Power, N.O. Strelnikov, K.J. Suthar, E. Trakhtenberg, I. Vasserman, G.J. Waldschmidt, J.Z. Xu
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois, USA
  • S. Baturin
    Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
  • H. Perez
    IIT, Chicago, Illinois, USA
 
  Funding: Supported by U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357
A preliminary design of a collinear wakefield accelerator is described. It is assumed that the array of such accelerators will play a central role in a free-electron laser-based x-ray user facility under consideration at Argonne National Laborator [1].
 
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TUPML005 Study of a Dielectric Disk Structure for Short Pulse Two-Beam Acceleration 1539
 
  • J.H. Shao, M.E. Conde, D.S. Doran, J.F. Power
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois, USA
  • C.-J. Jing
    Euclid TechLabs, LLC, Solon, Ohio, USA
 
  Argonne Flexible Linear Collider (AFLC), a proposed 3 TeV electron-positron linear collider based on two-beam acceleration (TBA) scheme, applies a short pulse length (∼20 ns) to obtain a high accelerating gradient (267 MV/m) and a compact footprint (∼18 km). The baseline design of the main accelerator section adopts 26 GHz K-band traveling-wave dielectric-loaded accelerators (DLA) with an rf to beam efficiency 𝜂𝑟𝑓 −𝑏𝑒𝑎𝑚 of 27%. Recently, an alternative structure which is similar to a metallic disk-loaded one but with dielectric disks, noted as dielectric disk accelerator (DDA), has been investigated and optimized, leading to ∼45% improvement in 𝜂𝑟𝑓 −𝑏𝑒𝑎𝑚. To demonstrate the key technologies, an X-band prototype structure has been designed and will be tested at Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) facility with a 300 MW metallic power extractor. Detailed comparison between K-band DLA and DDA for AFLC main accelerator as well as the preliminary design of the X-band DDA prototype will be presented in this paper.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML005  
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TUPML007 Short Pulse High Power RF Generation with an X-Band Dielectric Power Extractor 1546
 
  • J.H. Shao, M.E. Conde, D.S. Doran, W. Gai, W. Liu, N.R. Neveu, J.F. Power, C. Whiteford, E.E. Wisniewski, L.M. Zheng
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois, USA
  • C.-J. Jing
    Euclid TechLabs, LLC, Solon, Ohio, USA
 
  Short pulse high power rf generation is one of the key technologies for the Argonne Flexible Linear Collider (AFLC), a proposed 3 TeV electron-positron linear collider based on two-beam acceleration (TBA) scheme. Compared with metallic power extractors, dielectric structures have the potential to achieve lower fabrication cost and to withstand higher gradient. Recently, an X-band dielectric power extractor (a.k.a, DPETS) has been developed at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) facility and achieved 105 MW output power when driven by a high charge 8-bunch train separated by 770 ps. The design, the cold test measurement, the preliminary high power test results, and the structure inspection will be presented in this paper.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML007  
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TUPML009 Design and Test Plan for a Prototype Corrugated Waveguide 1550
 
  • G.J. Waldschmidt, D.S. Doran, G. Ha, R. Kustom, A. Nassiri, J.G. Power, A. Zholents
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois, USA
  • A.E. Siy
    UW-Madison/PD, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
 
  A cylindrical, corrugated wakefield accelerating structure with a 1 mm radius bore is being designed to facilitate sub-terahertz Čerenkov radiation produced by an elec-tron bunch propagating along the waveguide. A 220 GHz axial mode for the wakefield is being considered. The waveguide is being optimized to maximize the trailing wakefield potential while maintaining a ratio of the trail-ing potential to the peak decelerating voltage in the bunch, or transformer ratio, of approximately 5 for the door step peak current distribution [1]. In order to evalu-ate the manufacturing tolerances and perform rf and electron beam testing of the waveguide, a 21 GHz proto-type waveguide structure will be built consisting of re-configurable parts allowing modelling of various fabrica-tion errors. Measurements with an electron beam will be performed at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) test facility. Analysis of the experimental layout has been performed.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML009  
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TUPML014 CO2 CPA Laser Development for User Experiments in Advanced Accelerators and Radiation Sources 1556
 
  • M.N. Polyanskiy, M. Babzien, M.A. Palmer, I. Pogorelsky
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
 
  The ATF* is a National User Facility for advanced research in accelerator physics and technology. The ATF's terawatt CO2 laser is a unique scientific instrument allowing researchers to explorer new particle acceleration mechanisms and to study light/matter interaction at an order-of-magnitude longer photon wavelengths compared to the majority of other laser research facilities (λ≈10μm). Continuous development over more than two decades brought the ATF's CO2 laser to the limit of peak power achievable in a conventional gas laser MOPA configuration (in ATF's amplifier geometry this is ~0.5 TW in routine operation, and up to 2 TW in some experiments). To overcome this limit, we employ, for the first time in a gas laser, a chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) scheme. The goal of our current research and development effort is to demonstrate 3-5 TW peak power at the system output and to reliably deliver a large fraction of this power as a high-quality beam to a range of user experiments. Achieving this goal will lay the ground work for implementation of a >10 TW mid-IR laser system "BESTIA" that is currently being constructed as a part of the ATF-II project.
*Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML014  
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TUPML038 Simulation of Phase-Dependent Transverse Focusing in Dielectric Laser Accelerator Based Lattices 1622
SUSPF037   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
 
  • F. Mayet, R.W. Aßmann, U. Dorda, W. Kuropka
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • W. Kuropka, F. Mayet
    University of Hamburg, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Hamburg, Germany
 
  Funding: Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. Grant GBMF4744
The Accelerator on a CHip International Program (ACHIP) funded by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation aims to demonstrate a prototype of a fully integrated accelerator on a microchip based on laser-driven dielectric structures until 2021. Such an accelerator on a chip needs all components known from classical accelerators. This includes an electron source, accelerating structures and transverse focusing arrangements. Since the period of the accelerating field is connected to the drive laser wavelength of typically a few microns, not only longitudinal but also transverse effects are strongly phase-dependent even for few femtosecond long bunches. If both the accelerating and focusing elements are DLA-based, this needs to be taken into account. In this work we study in detail the implications of a phase-dependent focusing lattice on the evolution of the transverse phase space of a transported bunch.
 
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TUPML039 First Order Sensitivity Analysis of Electron Acceleration in Dual Grating Type Dielectric Laser Accelerator Structures 1626
 
  • F. Mayet, R.W. Aßmann, U. Dorda, W. Kuropka
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • W. Kuropka, F. Mayet
    University of Hamburg, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Hamburg, Germany
 
  Funding: Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. Grant GBMF4744
Symmetrically driven dual-grating type DLA (Dielectric Laser Accelerator) linac structures allow for in-channel electric field gradients on the order of GV/m at optical wavelengths. In this work we study the sensitivity of important final beam parameters like mean energy, energy spread and transverse emittance on DLA drive laser as well as input beam parameters. To this end a fast specialized particle tracking code (DLATracker) is used to compute the so called first order sensitivity indices based on a large number of Monte Carlo simulation runs of an exemplary external injection based DLA experiment. The results of this work point out important stability constraints on the drive laser setup and the externally injected electron beam.
 
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TUPML045 Segmented Terahertz Driven Device for Electron Acceleration 1642
 
  • D. Zhang
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • A-L. Calendron, H. Cankaya, M. Fakhari, A. Fallahi, Y. Hua, N.H. Matlis, X. Wu, L.E. Zapata
    CFEL, Hamburg, Germany
  • M. Hemmer, F.X. Kärtner
    Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY) and Center for Free Electron Science (CFEL), Hamburg, Germany
  • F.X. Kärtner
    MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
 
  Funding: ERC Synergy Grant AXSIS (609920), Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SPP1840 SOLSTICE and CUI EXC1074), and Gordon and Betty Moore foundation (ACHIP GBMF4744)
We present a segmented THz based device (STEAM) capable of performing multiple high-field operations on the 6D-phase-space of ultrashort electron bunches. Using only a few microjoules of single-cycle THz radiation, we have shown record THz-based acceleration of >30 keV of an incoming 55keV electron beam, with a peak acceleration field gradient of around 70 MV/m that is comparable with that from a conventional RF accelerator. It can be scaled up to GV/m gradients that can accelerate electrons into the MeV regime. At the same time, the STEAM device can also manipulate the electrons that show high focusing gradient (2 kT/m), compression of electron bunches down to 100 fs and streaking gradient of 140 µrad/fs, which offers temporal profile characterizations with resolution below 10 fs. The STEAM device can be fabricated with regular mechanical machining tools and supports real-time switching between different modes of operation. It paves the way for the development of THz-based compact electron guns, accelerators, ultrafast electron diffractometers and Free-Electron Lasers.
 
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TUPML054 Microbeam Irradiation System with a Dielectric Laser Accelerator for Radiobiology Research 1664
 
  • K. Koyama
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  • Z. Chen
    The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
  • T. Takahashi
    The University of Tokyo, The School of Engineering, Tokyo, Japan
  • M. Uesaka
    The University of Tokyo, Nuclear Professional School, Ibaraki-ken, Japan
 
  Funding: This work was supported by KAKENHI (Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research)15H03595 and partly supported by NIMS Nanofabrication Platform in Nanotechnology Platform Project sponsored by the MEXT, Japan.
A laser micro-irradiation (LMI) system is widely used in the field of radiobiology because of its acceptably small size. However, damage in a cell nucleus caused by the LMI system does not necessarily simulate a radiation effect. If the laser of the LMI system is replaced with a small-scale 1MeV-class accelerator such as a dielectric laser accelerator (DLA), experiments might be performed under conditions that are more realistic. The desirable configuration of the DLA for a compact micro-beam irradiation system is that laser pulses are transported to a dielectric structure by single-mode optical fibers and the laser energy is accumulated in an accelerator channel. The long and low-intensity laser pulse of 100 MW/cm2, 10ps and a resonator with Q=104 are capable of producing the light intensity of 1 TW/cm2. The long laser pulse, i.e., low laser induced damage threshold intensity, decreases the acceleration gradient to about 1/3 of the ultra-short pulse irradiation of 100 fs. The length of the accelerator at long-laser pulse might be within the allowable range of several cm. The resonator scheme is useful only for the sub-relativistic regime because of the acceleration gradient.
 
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TUPML074 Resonant Excitation of Accelerating Field in Dielectric Corrugated Waveguide 1715
 
  • A. Lyapin, S.T. Boogert, K. Lekomtsev
    JAI, Egham, Surrey, United Kingdom
  • A. Aryshev
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  • A.A. Tishchenko
    MEPhI, Moscow, Russia
 
  Funding: This project has received funding from the European Union Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No 655179.
Beam driven dielectric wakefield accelerators (DWAs) [*] typically operate in the terahertz frequency range, which pushes the plasma breakdown threshold for surface electric fields into the multi GV/m range. DWA technique allows one to accommodate a significant amount of charge per bunch, and opens access to conventional fabrication techniques for the accelerating structures. Resonant excitation of coherent Cherenkov radiation in DWA by a multi-bunch beam was used for selective resonant mode excitation [**] and enhancement of accelerating wakefield [***]. We investigate the resonant excitation of Cherenkov Smith-Purcell radiation [****] in a corrugated cylindrical waveguide by a multi-bunch electron beam. The accelerating field is calculated using Particle in Cell simulations and some basic post-processing is done in order to estimate the possible enhancement of the accelerating field. The aim of this work is to investigate regimes of the resonant excitation that can potentially produce accelerating gradients above 1 GV/m.
* C. Jing, Rev. Acc. Phys. and Tech. 9, 127 (2016).
** G. Andonian, APL 98, 202901 (2011).
*** J.G. Power, PRSTAB 3, 101302 (2000).
**** A.A. Ponomarenko, A.A. Tishchenko, NIMB 309, 223 (2013).
 
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THPML011 Possibilities for Fabricating Polymer Dielectric Laser Accelerator Structures with Additive Manufacturing 4671
 
  • E.I. Simakov, R.D. Gilbertson, M.J. Herman, G. Pilania, D.Y. Shchegolkov, E.M. Walker, E. Weis
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
  • R.J. England, K.P. Wootton
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
 
  Funding: Los Alamos National Laboratory LDRD Program
We present results of recent studies of new materials designed for the additive manufacturing of accelerating structures for dielectric laser accelerators (DLAs). Demonstration of a stand-alone practical DLA requires innovation in design and fabrication of efficient laser accelerator structures and couplers. Many complicated three-dimensional structures for laser acceleration (such as a long woodpile structure with couplers) are difficult to manufacture with conventional microfabrication technologies. LANL has a large effort focused on developing new materials and techniques for additive manufacturing. The materials for DLA structures must have high dielectric constant (larger than 4), low loss in the infrared regime, high laser damage threshold, and be able to withstand the electron beam damage. This presentation will discuss the development of novel infrared dielectric materials that are of interest for laser acceleration and are compatible with additive manufacturing, as well as recent advances in additive manufacturing of dielectric woodpile structures using a Nanoscribe direct laser-writing 3D printer.
 
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THPML012 Simulations and Measurements of the Wakefield Loading Effect in Argonne Wakefield Accelerator Beamline 4675
 
  • J. Upadhyay, E.I. Simakov
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
  • M.E. Conde, Q. Gao, N.R. Neveu, J.G. Power, J.H. Shao, E.E. Wisniewski
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois, USA
  • N.R. Neveu
    IIT, Chicago, Illinois, USA
 
  A beam driven acceleration experiment in a photonic band gap (PBG) structure is planned at Argonne wakefied accelerator (AWA) facility at Argonne National Laboratory. We plan to pass a high charge (drive) beam through a travelling wave 11.7 GHz PBG structure and generate a wakefield. This wakefield will be probed by a low charge (witness) beam to demonstrate wakefield acceleration and deceleration. The drive and witness bunches will be accelerated to above 60 MeV in the main accelerator at AWA which has frequency of 1.3 GHz. The charges used in this experiment could be as high as 20 nC. To measure the exclusive effect of PBG the structure on acceleration and deceleration of the witness bunch we have to exclude the effect of beam loading of the main AWA accelerator structure. To understand the wakefield effect in AWA, we conducted an experiment where we passed the high charge (10 nC) beam through the accelerator structure which was followed by a 2 nC witness beam separated by 4 wavelength. The energy of witness beam was measured in the presence and absence of the drive beam. The beam loading was observed and quantified. The results of this work will be presented in the conference.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML012  
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THPML013 Demonstration of the Wakefield Acceleration in an 11.7 GHz Photonic Band Gap Accelerator Structure 4678
 
  • J. Upadhyay, E.I. Simakov
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
  • M.E. Conde, Q. Gao, N.R. Neveu, J.G. Power, J.H. Shao, E.E. Wisniewski
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois, USA
 
  We plan to conduct a beam driven acceleration experiment in a photonic band gap (PBG) accelerator structure operating at 11.7 GHz at Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) facility. For the experiment, the PBG structure will be excited by a high charge (up to 10 nC) electron bunch, and a second smaller charge witness bunch will be accelerated. Because the PBG structure was fabricated with electroforming, the AWA beamline includes a Be window placed before the PBG structure that protects the cathode from contamination due to possible outgassing from the electroformed copper. The diameter of the Be window is 9 mm and the beam tube diameter of the PBG structure is 6.4 mm. The size of the high charge electron beam on Be window has to be minimized to minimize scattering. The parameters of the beamline had to be adjusted to achieve good propagation of the beam. An OPAL simulation for the AWA beamline was performed for 1, 5, and 10 nC beams. The beam size was experimentally measured at different positions in the beamline for different charges to verify simulations. Finally, the high charge electron beam was passed through the PBG structure and acceleration of the witness bunch was measured  
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THPML014 A Metamaterial Wagon Wheel Structure for Wakefield Acceleration by Reversed Cherenkov Radiation 4681
SUSPF036   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
 
  • X.Y. Lu, I. Mastovsky, M.A. Shapiro, R.J. Temkin
    MIT/PSFC, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
  • M.E. Conde, C.-J. Jing, J.G. Power, J.H. Shao, E.E. Wisniewski
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois, USA
 
  Funding: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics under Award Number DE-SC0015566 and the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357
We present the design and experimental operation on an X-band metamaterial (MTM) wagon wheel structure for wakefield acceleration. The structure was designed and fabricated at MIT, and tested at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) laboratory at Argonne National Lab. The MTM wagon wheel structure is an all-metal periodic structure at 11.4 GHz. The fundamental TM mode has a negative group velocity, so when an electron beam travels through, energy is extracted from the beam by reversed Cherenkov radiation, which was verified in the experiment. Single bunches up to 45 nC were sent through the structure with a beam aperture of 6 mm and generated microwave power up to 25 MW in a 2 ns pulse, in agreement with both the analytical wakefield theory and the numerical CST simulations. Two bunches with a total charge of 85 nC generated 80 MW of microwave power. The structure is scalable to a power extractor of over 1 GW by increasing the structure length from 8 cm to 22 cm.
 
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THPML015 Dielectric Multipactor Discharges at 110 GHz 4684
 
  • S. C. Schaub
    MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
  • M.A. Shapiro, R.J. Temkin
    MIT/PSFC, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
 
  A 1.5 MW, 110 GHz gyrotron has been used to experimentally measure the maximum sustainable fields on dielectric materials in vacuum. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the suitability of these materials for future applications in high frequency linear accelerators and high power terahertz components. To our knowledge, these are the first measurements of multipactor phenomena in the millimeter wave or terahertz frequency range. Materials tested include alumina, sapphire, fused quartz, crystal quartz, and high resistivity silicon. Dielectric samples were tested both as windows, with electric fields parallel to the surface, and sub-wavelength dielectric rod waveguides, with electric fields perpendicular to the surface. Surface electric fields in excess of 52 MV/m were achieved in 3 microsecond pulses. Visible light emission, absorbed/scattered microwave power, and emitted electrons were measured to characterize the discharges on the dielectric surfaces. The results of these experiments have been compared to theoretical calculations of multipactor discharges, testing these theories at significantly higher frequencies than has been done before.  
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THPML018 Modeling of Self-Modulated Laser Wakefield Acceleration Driven by Sub-Terawatt Laser Pulses 4690
SUSPF035   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
 
  • C.-Y. Hsieh, S.-H. Chen
    NCU, Chung Li, Taiwan
  • M.W. Lin
    National Tsing-Hua University (NTHU), Hsinchu, Taiwan
 
  Funding: This work has been supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology in Taiwan by grant MOST104-2112-M-008-013-MY3 and by grant MOST105-2112-M-007-036-MY3.
Laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) can be achieved in a scheme in which a sub-terawatt (TW) laser pulse is introduced into a thin, high-density target*. As a result, the self-focusing and the self-modulation can greatly enhance the peak intensity of the laser pulse capable of exciting a nonlinear plasma wave to accelerate electrons. A particle-in-cell model was developed to study the sub-TW LWFA, in which a 0.6-TW laser pulse is injected into a hydrogen gas cell with a flat-top density profile. In addition to using 800-nm laser pulses, laser pulses of 1030 nm were used in simulations as they represent a viable approach to realize the sub-TW LWFA driven by high-frequency, diode-pumped laser systems**. Process of the electron injection is complicated in such a high-density plasma; however, the simulation results show that the appropriate injection and acceleration of electrons can be achieved by optimizing the length of the gas cell. When a 340-micrometer long gas cell is introduced, energetic electrons (> 1 MeV) are produced with a relatively low emittance of 3.5 pi-mm-mrad and a total charge of 0.32 nC accordingly.
* A. J. Goers et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 194802 (2015).
** E. Kaksis et al., Opt. Express 24, 25, 28915 (2016).
 
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THPML027 Longitudinal and Transverse Wakefields Simulations and Studies in Dielectric-Coated Circular Waveguides 4708
 
  • L. Ficcadenti
    Rome University La Sapienza, Roma, Italy
  • A. Biagioni
    INFN/LNF, Frascati (Roma), Italy
  • G. Castorina, D. Francescone, M. Marongiu, M. Migliorati, A. Mostacci, L. Palumbo
    Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
 
  In recent years, there has been a growing interest and rapid experimental progress on the use of e.m. fields produced by electron beams passing through dielectric-lined structures and on the effects they might have on the drive and witness bunches. Short ultra-relativistic electron bunches can excite very intense wakefields, which provide an efficient acceleration through the dielectric wakefield accelerators (DWA) scheme with higher gradient than that in the conventional RF LINAC. These beams can also generate high power narrow band THz coherent Cherenkov radiation. These high gradient fields may create strong instabilities on the beam itself causing issues in plasma acceleration experiments (PWFA), plasma lensing experiments and in recent beam diagnostic applications. In this work we report the results of the simulations and studies of the wakefields generated by electron beams at different lengths and charges passing on and off axis in dielectric-coated circular waveguides. We also propose a semi-analytical method to calculate these high gradient fields without resorting to time consuming simulations.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML027  
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THPML031 Collective Acceleration of Laser Plasma in Non-stationary and Non-uniform Magnetic Field 4716
 
  • A.A. Isaev, C.I. Kozlovskij, E.D. Vovchenko
    MEPhI, Moscow, Russia
 
  This paper presents the new experimental results concerning acceleration of deuterium ions extracted from laser plasma in the rapid-growing nonuniform magnetic field in order to initiate the nuclear reactions D(d, n)3He and Т (d,n)4He. In order to obtain plasma a laser that generates in Q-switched mode the pulses of infrared radiation (λ = 1.06 μm) with the energy W ≤ 0.85 J and duration of ≈10 ns. In the present study, the velocity of a bunch of a laser plasma at a magnetic field induction rate of 3-108 T/s was experimentally measured, and angular distributions of accelerated particle fluxes were measured in the range from 0 to 30 degrees. The maximum and mean ion velocities were determined by the time-of-flight technique. The proposed system allows the generation of neutrons, including possibly thermonuclear ones, on counterflows using two similar magnetic accelerators located coaxially, facing each other. In this case the problem related to degradation of solid neutron-generating targets is resolved. There also occurs a possibility of fast accumulated running time of packed solid targets at using of deuteron-tritium laser targets.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML031  
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THPML032 Using Deep Reinforcement Learning for Designing Sub-Relativistic Electron Linac 4720
SUSPF038   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
 
  • Shin, S.W. Shin, J.-S. Chai, M. Ghergherehchi
    SKKU, Suwon, Republic of Korea
 
  Generally, when designing an accelerator device, the design is based on the experience and knowledge of the designer. Most of the design process proceeds by chang-ing the parameters and looking at the trends and then determining the optimal values. This process is time-consuming and tedious. In order to efficiently perform this tedious design process, a method using an optimization algorithm is used. Recently, many people started to get interested in the algorithm used in AlphaGo, which became famous when it won the professional Go player developed by google The algorithm used in AlphaGo is an algorithm called reinforcement learning that learns how to get optimal reward in various states by moving around a solution space that the agent has not told beforehand. In this paper, we will discuss about designing an particle accelerator by applying Deep Q-network algorithm which is one kind of deep learning reinforcement learning.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML032  
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THPML042 Integrating the Lorentz Force Law for Highly-Relativistic Particle-in-Cell Simulations 4734
 
  • A.V. Higuera, J.R. Cary
    Tech-X, Boulder, Colorado, USA
  • J.R. Cary
    CIPS, Boulder, Colorado, USA
 
  Funding: This work is supported by the DOE under Grants No. DE-SC0011617 and DE-SC0012444, and by DOE/NSF Grant No. DE-SC0012584
Integrating the Relativistic Lorentz Force Law for plasma simulations is an area of current research (*, **, ***). In particular, recent research indicates that interaction with highly-relativistic laser fields is particularly problematic for current integration techniques (****). Here is presented a special-purpose integrator yielding improved accuracy for highly-relativistic laser-particle interactions. This integrator has been implemented in the particle-in-cell code VSim, and the authors present an accuracy and performance comparison with several particle push methods.
* http://aip.scitation.org/doi/abs/10.1063/1.4979989
** https://arxiv.org/abs/1702.04486
*** https://arxiv.org/abs/1710.09164
**** http://aip.scitation.org/doi/abs/10.1063/1.4905523
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML042  
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THPML043 Optimization of Dielectric Laser-Driven Accelerators 4737
 
  • C.P. Welsch, M.G. Ibison, Y. Wei
    The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
  • M.G. Ibison, Y. Wei, C.P. Welsch
    Cockcroft Institute, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • J.D.A. Smith
    TXUK, Warrington, United Kingdom
  • G.X. Xia
    UMAN, Manchester, United Kingdom
 
  Funding: This project has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement no 289191.
Dielectric laser-driven accelerators (DLAs) utilizing large electric field from commercial laser system to accelerate particles with high gradients in the range of GV/m have the potential to realize a first particle accelerator ‘on a chip'. Dual-grating structures are one of the candidates for DLAs. They can be mass-produced using available nanofabrication techniques due to their simpler structural geometry compared to other types of DLAs. Apart from the results from optimization studies that indicate the best structures, this contribution also introduces two new schemes that can help further improve the accelerating efficiency in dual-grating structures. One is to introduce a Bragg reflector that can boost the accelerating field in the channel, the other applies pulse-front-tilt operation for a laser beam to help extend the interaction length.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML043  
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THPML091 Design of a High Gradient 60 GHz Dielectric Accelerating Structure 4873
SUSPF034   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
 
  • D.Z. Cao, D. Dan, W. Gai, C.-X. Tang, H. Zha
    TUB, Beijing, People's Republic of China
 
  RF breakdown are the main limitation for the application of high gradient structures. Higher frequencies and shorter pulse length benefit the design of accelerating structure for the breakdown threshold of surface field is Es=f1/2 τ-1/4. Power source which generates very short V-band pulse with nearly hundred megawatt is now available. The paper presents the analysis of a V-band dielectric acceleration structure and power source. Future plan about RF transmission and power coupling of the whole structure will be discussed.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML091  
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