03 Novel Particle Sources and Acceleration Technologies
A22 Plasma Wakefield Acceleration
Paper Title Page
TUXGBE1 Status and Prospects for the AWAKE Experiment 595
  • M. Turner
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  The AWAKE Collaboration is pursuing a demonstration of proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration of electrons. The AWAKE experiment uses a §I{400}{GeV/c} proton bunch from the CERN SPS, with a rms bunch length of 6-§I{15}{cm}, to drive wakefields in a §I10{m} long rubidium plasma with an electron density of 1014-1015cm-3. Since the drive bunch length is much longer than the plasma wavelength (λpe<§I{3}{mm}) for these plasma densities, AWAKE performed experiments to prove that the long proton bunch self-modulates in the plasma (2017). The next step is to demonstrate acceleration of electrons in the wakefields driven by the self-modulated bunch (2018). We summarize the concept of the self-modulation measurements and describe the plans and challenges for the electron acceleration experiments.  
slides icon Slides TUXGBE1 [8.883 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUXGBE1  
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TUXGBE4 Beam Quality Limitations of Plasma-Based Accelerators 607
  • A. Ferran Pousa, R.W. Aßmann
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • A. Martinez de la Ossa
    University of Hamburg, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Hamburg, Germany
  Plasma-based accelerators are a promising novel technology that could significantly reduce the size and cost of future accelerator facilities. However, the typical quality and stability of the produced beams is still inferior to the requirements of Free Electron Lasers (FELs) and other applications. We present here our recent work in understanding the limitations of this type of accelerators, particularly on the energy spread and bunch length, and possible mitigating measures for future applications, like the plasma-based FEL in the EuPRAXIA design study.  
slides icon Slides TUXGBE4 [4.910 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUXGBE4  
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TUPML015 Influence of Ionization and Beam Quality on Interaction of Tw-Peak Co2 Laser With Hydrogen Plasma 1560
  • P. Kumar, V. Samulyak
    SBU, Stony Brook, USA
  • V. Samulyak, K. Yu
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
  3D numerical simulations of the interaction of a powerful CO2 laser with hydrogen jets demonstrating the role of ionization and laser beam quality are presented. Simulations are performed in support of the plasma wakefield accelerator experiments being conducted at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The CO2 laser at BNL ATF has several potential advantages for laser wakefield acceleration compared to widely used solid-state lasers. SPACE, a parallel relativistic Particle-in-Cell code, developed at SBU and BNL, has been used in these studies. A novelty of the code is its set of efficient atomic physics algorithms that compute ionization and recombination rates on the grid and transfer them to particles. The primary goal of the initial BNL experiments was to characterize the plasma density by measuring the sidebands in the spectrum of the probe laser. Simulations, that resolve hydrogen ionization and laser spectra, help explain several trends that were observed in the experiments.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML015  
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TUPML017 Longitudinal Phase Space Reconstruction at FLASHForward Using a Novel Transverse Deflection Cavity, PolariX-TDS 1567
  • R.T.P. D'Arcy, A. Aschikhin, P. González Caminal, V. Libov, J. Osterhoff
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  The FLASHForward project at DESY is an innovative beam-driven plasma-wakefield acceleration (PWFA) experiment, aiming to accelerate electron beams to GeV energies over a few centimeters of ionized gas. These accelerated beams are assessed for their capability to drive a free-electron laser. The ultra short, low emittance, and low energy spread properties of bunches produced from certain PWFA injection schemes naturally lend themselves to this task. However, these bunch lengths, typically in the few femtosecond range, are difficult to temporally resolve with traditional diagnostic methods. In order to longitudinally diagnose these bunches it is necessary to utilise the properties of a transverse RF deflecting cavity operating in a high-frequency regime. It is proposed that this type of X-band transverse deflection system, styled the PolariX-TDS due to its novel variable polarisation feature, will be introduced to the FLASHForward beam line in order to perform these single-shot longitudinal phase space measurements. This paper will concern itself with the efficacy of longitudinally reconstructing PWFA-bunches expected at FLASHForward with this TDS, with a focus on the variable bunch properties expected from early commissioning of the experiment.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML017  
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TUPML021 A Beamline Design to Transport Laser Wakefield Electrons to a Transverse Gradient Undulator 1577
SUSPF041   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
  • K.A. Dewhurst, H.L. Owen
    UMAN, Manchester, United Kingdom
  • E. Brunetti, D.A. Jaroszynski, S.M. Wiggins
    USTRAT/SUPA, Glasgow, United Kingdom
  • B.D. Muratori
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • B.D. Muratori
    Cockcroft Institute, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  Funding: This work was supported by the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council, Grant No. ST/G008248/1.
The Cockcroft Beamline is to be installed at the Scottish Centre for the Application of Plasma-based Accelerators (SCAPA). The beamline is designed to transport 1 GeV electrons from a laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) source to a pair of transverse gradient undulators. The project aims to produce X-ray undulator radiation in the first phase and free-electron laser (FEL) radiation in the second phase. The total beamline will be less than 23 m long, thus the Cockcroft Beamline has the potential to be the UK's first compact X-ray FEL. Here we present the main features of the beamline design.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML021  
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TUPML022 Assessment of Transverse Instabilities in Proton Driven Hollow Plasma Wakefield Acceleration 1581
  • Y. M. Li, G.X. Xia, Y. Zhao
    UMAN, Manchester, United Kingdom
  • S.J. Gessner
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  Hollow plasma has been introduced into the proton-driven plasma wakefield accelerators to overcome the issue of beam quality degradation caused by the nonlinear transverse wakefields varying in radius and time in uniform plasma. It has been demonstrated in simulations that the electrons can be accelerated to energy frontier with well-preserved beam quality in a long hollow plasma channel. However, this scheme imposes tight requirements on the beam-channel alignment. Otherwise asymmetric transverse wakefields along the axis are induced, which could distort the driving bunch and deteriorate the witness beam quality. In this paper, by means of the 2D cartesian particle-in-cell simulations, we examine the potentially detrimental effects induced by the driving beam-channel offset and initial driver tilt, and then propose and assess the solutions to these driver inaccuracy issues.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML022  
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TUPML023 Amplitude Enhancement of the Self-Modulated Plasma Wakefields 1585
SUSPF042   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
  • Y. M. Li, G.X. Xia, Y. Zhao
    UMAN, Manchester, United Kingdom
  • K.V. Lotov, A. Sosedkin
    Budker INP & NSU, Novosibirsk, Russia
  Seeded Self-modulation (SSM) has been demonstrated to transform a long proton bunch into many equidistant micro-bunches (e.g., the AWAKE case), which then resonantly excite strong wakefields. However, the wakefields in a uniform plasma suffer from a quick amplitude drop after reaching the peak. This is caused by a significant decrease of the wake phase velocity during self-modulation. A large number of protons slip out of focusing and decelerating regions and get lost, and thus cannot contribute to the wakefield growth. Previously suggested solutions incorporate a sharp or a linear plasma longitudinal density increase which can compensate the backward phase shift and therefore enhance the wakefields. In this paper, we propose a new plasma density profile, which can further boost the wakefield amplitude by 30%. More importantly, almost 24% of protons initially located along one plasma period survive in a micro-bunch after modulation. The underlying physics is discussed.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML023  
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TUPML040 Status of the Transverse Diagnostics at FLASHForward 1630
  • P. Niknejadi, R.T.P. D'Arcy, A. Knetsch, V. Libov, A. Martinez de la Ossa, J. Osterhoff, K. Poder, L. Schaper
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • M. Kaluza, M.B. Schwab, A. Sävert, C. Wirth
    IOQ, Jena, Germany
  • M. Kaluza
    HIJ, Jena, Germany
  • T.J. Mehrling
    LBNL, Berkeley, USA
  • C.A.J. Palmer
    Cockcroft Institute, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom
  Funding: Helmholtz Institute, Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, and European Union‘s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program.
Density modulations in plasma caused by a high-intensity laser or a high charge density electron pulse can generate extreme acceleration fields. Acceleration of electrons in such fields may produce ultra-relativistic, quasi-monoenergetic, ultra-short electron bunches over distances orders of magnitudes shorter than in state-of-the-art radio-frequency accelerators. FLASHForward is such a beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) project at DESY with the goal of producing, characterizing, and utilizing such beams. Temporal characterization of the acceleration process is of crucial importance for improving the stability and control in PWFA beams. While measurement of the transient field of the femtosecond bunch in a single shot is challenging, in recent years novel techniques with great promise have been developed** ***. This work discusses the plans and status of the transverse diagnostics at FLASHForward.
*A. Aschikhin et. al., NIMA , Volume 806 (11 January 2016) pp. 175-183.
**A. Buck et al., Nature Physics 7, (2011) 543.
***C. J. Zhang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 119 (2017) 064801.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML040  
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TUPML041 Two-Stage Laser-Driven Plasma Acceleration With External Injection for EuPRAXIA 1634
  • E.N. Svystun, R.W. Aßmann, U. Dorda, A. Ferran Pousa, T. Heinemann, B. Marchetti, P.A. Walker, M.K. Weikum, J. Zhu
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • A. Ferran Pousa, T. Heinemann, A. Martinez de la Ossa
    University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • T. Heinemann
    USTRAT/SUPA, Glasgow, United Kingdom
  The EuPRAXIA (European Particle Research Accelerator with eXcellence In Applications) project aims at producing a conceptual design for the worldwide plasma-based accelerator facility, capable of delivering multi-GeV electron beams with high quality. This accelerator facility will be used for various user applications such as compact X-ray sources for medical imaging and high-energy physics detector tests. EuPRAXIA explores different approaches to plasma acceleration techniques. Laser-driven plasma wakefield acceleration with external injection of an RF-generated electron beam is one of the basic research directions of EuPRAXIA. We present studies of electron beam acceleration to GeV energies by a two-stage laser wakefield acceleration with external injection from an RF accelerator. Electron beam injection, acceleration and extraction from the plasma, using particle-in-cell simulations, are investigated.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML041  
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TUPML042 Accurate Modeling of the Hose Instability in Plasma Based Accelerators 1638
  • T.J. Mehrling, C. Benedetti, E. Esarey, W. Leemans, C.B. Schroeder
    LBNL, Berkeley, USA
  Funding: US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231
The hose instability is a long standing challenge for plasma-based accelerators. It is seeded by initial transverse asymmetries of the beam or plasma phase space distributions. The beam centroid displacement is thereby amplified during the propagation in the plasma, which can lead to an unstable acceleration process. A witness beam can itself cause hosing and/or may be affected by the hosing of the drive beam. The accurate study of hosing including a witness beam is of utmost importance to facilitate stable plasma-based accelerators. In this contribution, we discuss novel methods for the mitigation of hosing and present a new model for the evolution of the plasma centroid, which enables the accurate investigation of the hose instability of drive and witness beam pair in the nonlinear blowout regime. This work enables more precise and comprehensive studies of hosing and hence, for the potential stabilization of future compact plasma-based accelerators.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML042  
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TUPML046 Characterization of Self-Modulated Electron Bunches in an Argon Plasma 1645
  • M. Groß, P. Boonpornprasert, Y. Chen, J. Engel, J.D. Good, H. Huck, I.I. Isaev, M. Krasilnikov, X. Li, O. Lishilin, G. Loisch, R. Niemczyk, A. Oppelt, H.J. Qian, Y. Renier, F. Stephan, Q.T. Zhao
    DESY Zeuthen, Zeuthen, Germany
  • R. Brinkmann, A. Martinez de la Ossa, J. Osterhoff
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • F.J. Grüner
    CFEL, Hamburg, Germany
  • F.J. Grüner, A. Martinez de la Ossa
    University of Hamburg, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Hamburg, Germany
  • T.J. Mehrling, C.B. Schroeder
    LBNL, Berkeley, USA
  • I. Will
    MBI, Berlin, Germany
  The self-modulation instability is fundamental for the plasma wakefield acceleration experiment of the AWAKE (Advanced Wakefield Experiment) collaboration at CERN where this effect is used to generate proton bunches for the resonant excitation of high acceleration fields. Utilizing the availability of flexible electron beam shaping together with excellent diagnostics including an RF deflector, a supporting experiment was set up at the electron accelerator PITZ (Photo Injector Test facility at DESY, Zeuthen site), given that the underlying physics is the same. After demonstrating the effect* the next goal is to investigate in detail the self-modulation of long (with respect to the plasma wavelength) electron beams. In this contribution we describe parameter studies on self-modulation of a long electron bunch in an argon plasma. The plasma was generated with a discharge cell with densities in the 1013 cm-3 to 1015 cm-3 range. The plasma density was deduced from the plasma wavelength as indicated by the self-modulation period. Parameter scans were conducted with variable plasma density and electron bunch focusing.
* M. Gross et al., "Observation of the self-modulation instabil-ity via time-resolved measurements", accepted for publication at Phys. Rev. Lett.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML046  
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TUPML047 Optimisation of High Transformer Ratio Plasma Wakefield Acceleration at PITZ 1648
  • G. Loisch, P. Boonpornprasert, J.D. Good, M. Groß, H. Huck, M. Krasilnikov, O. Lishilin, A. Oppelt, Y. Renier, F. Stephan
    DESY Zeuthen, Zeuthen, Germany
  • R. Brinkmann, A. Martinez de la Ossa, J. Osterhoff
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • F.J. Grüner
    CFEL, Hamburg, Germany
  • F.J. Grüner, A. Martinez de la Ossa
    University of Hamburg, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Hamburg, Germany
  The transformer ratio, the ratio between maximum accelerating field and maximum decelerating field in the driving bunch of a plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA), is one of the key aspects of this acceleration scheme. It not only defines the maximum possible energy gain of the PWFA but it is also connected to the maximum percentage of energy that can be extracted from the driver, which is a limiting factor for the efficiency of the accelerator. Since in linear wakefield theory a transformer ratio of 2 cannot be exceeded with symmetrical drive bunches, any ratio above 2 is considered high. After the first demonstration of high transformer ratio acceleration in a plasma wakefield at PITZ, the photoinjector test facility at DESY, Zeuthen site, limiting aspects of the transformer ratio are under investigation. This includes e.g. the occurrence of bunch instabilities, like the transverse two stream instability, or deviations of the experimentally achieved bunch shapes from the ideal.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML047  
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TUPML049 Comparison of Fourier Signal and Error Analysis Techniques for Identifying the Self-Modulation Frequency of a Proton Bunch 1651
  • S.J. Gessner
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  The AWAKE experiment uses an ultra-high energy proton beam to create large amplitude wakefields for accelerating electrons in plasma. The proton beam is much longer than the plasma wavelength, and must be formed into small, sub- wavelength sized beamlets before it can effectively drive the wake. These beamlets are referred to as micro-bunches and are formed by the plasma self-modulation instability. An im- portant aspect of AWAKE is to measure the depth, frequency, and stability of the modulation, as this provides critical in- formation for establishing the presence of a high-amplitude wakefield driven by a self-modulation proton bunch. This paper discusses Fourier Analysis techniques for measuring the modulation frequency and compares error estimation techniques that work for both small and large datasets.
On behalf of the AWAKE Collaboration.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML049  
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TUPML059 Slice Energy Spread Optimization for a 5 GeV Laser-Plasma Accelerator 1670
  • X. Li, P.A.P. Nghiem
    IRFU, CEA, University Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • A. Mosnier
    CEA/IRFU, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  GeV-scale laser-plasma accelerating modules can be integrated into a multi-staged plasma linac for driving compact X-ray light sources or future colliders. Such a plasma module, operating in the quasi-linear regime, has been designed for the 5 GeV laser plasma acceleration stage (LPAS) of the EuPRAXIA project. Although it can be employed to optimize the total energy spread, the beam loading effect introduces an non-negligible slice energy spread to the beam. In this paper, we study the slice energy spread from linear theory, establishing a relationship between it and the laser-plasma parameters. To reduce the slice energy spread, simulations have been carried out for various plasma densities and laser strengths. The results will be discussed and compared with the theory.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML059  
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TUPML079 A Start to End Simulation of the Laser Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment at ESCULAP 1731
SUSPF043   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
  • K. Wang, C. Bruni, K. Cassou, V. Chaumat, N. Delerue, D. Douillet, S. Jenzer, V. Kubytskyi, P. Lepercq, H. Purwar
    LAL, Orsay, France
  • E. Baynard, M. Pittman
    CLUPS, Orsay, France
  • J. Demailly, O. Guilbaud, S. Kazamias, B. Lucas, G. Maynard, O. Neveu, D. Ros
    CNRS LPGP Univ Paris Sud, Orsay, France
  • D. Garzella
    CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • R. Prazeres
    CLIO/ELISE/LCP, Orsay, France
  We present a start to end (s2e) simulation of the Laserplasma Wake Field Accelerator (LPWA) foreseen as the ESCULAP project. We use a photo injector to produce a 5 MeV 10 pC electron bunch with a duration of 1 ps RMS, it is boosted to 10 MeV by a S-band cavity and then compressed to 74 fs RMS (30 fs FWHM) by a magnetic compression chicane (dogleg). After the dogleg, a quadrupole doublet and a triplet are utilized to match the Twiss parameters before injecting into the subsequent plasma wakefield. A 40 TW laser is used to excite plasma wakefield in the 10 cm plasma cell. An optimized configuration has been determined yielding at the plasma exit an electron beam at 180 MeV with energy spread of 4.2%, an angular divergence of 0.6 mrad and a duration of 4 fs.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML079  
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THPMK076 Longitudinal Shaping for Beam-Driven Plasma Wakefield Accelerators 4477
  • Z. Wang, K.Q. Zhang, Z.T. Zhao
    SINAP, Shanghai, People's Republic of China
  • S. Huang, W. Lu
    TUB, Beijing, People's Republic of China
  The generation of high quality driven electron beam (high peak current and small beam size) is quite important for the beam-driven plasma accelerator. Besides, a linearly ramped, more exactly, the triangular current distribution is more suitable. In this paper, by adjusting the phase and the amplitude of the harmonic linearizer, the linear ramped current distribution electron beam is generated by the FEL linac. The CSR introduced emittance growth and the jitters of the electron are researched. The electron beam generated by the ramped driven beam in the plasma is researched as well.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMK076  
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THPML002 Emittance Preservation in Plasma-Based Accelerators with Ion Motion 4654
  • C. Benedetti, E. Esarey, W. Leemans, T.J. Mehrling, C.B. Schroeder
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  Funding: This work was supported by the Director, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics, of the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.
In a plasma-accelerator-based linear collider, the density of matched, low-emittance, high-energy particle bunches required for collider applications can be orders of magnitude above the background ion density, leading to ion motion, perturbation of the focusing fields, and, hence, to beam emittance growth. By analyzing the response of the background ions to an ultrahigh density beam, analytical expressions, valid for non-relativistic ion motion, are obtained for the perturbed focusing wakefield. Initial beam distributions are derived that are equilibrium solutions, which require head-to-tail bunch shaping, enabling emittance preservation with ion motion.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML002  
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THPML024 Monoenergetic Beam Generated by Laser Accelerator at Peking University 4702
  • K. Zhu, J.E. Chen, Y.X. Geng, C. Li, D.Y. Li, Q. Liao, C. Lin, H.Y. Lu, W.J. Ma, Y.R. Shou, Wu,M.J. Wu, X.H. Xu, X.Q. Yan, J.Q. Yu, Y.Y. Zhao, J.G. Zhu
    PKU, Beijing, People's Republic of China
  An ultrahigh-intensity laser incident on a target sets up a very strong electrostatic field exceeding 100 GV/m, it will few orders magnitude shrink down the traditional radio frequency accelerators. Whereas, to build a real accelerator for routine operation, many scientific and technical challenges for laser acceleration need to overcome before they could be applied to these applications. Recently A laser accelerator− Compact Laser Plasma Accelerator (CLAPA) is being built with a beam line to deliver proton beam with the energy of 1~15MeV, energy spread of ¡À1% and 107-8 protons per pulse. The very high current proton beam is accelerated in laser ultrathin-foil interaction and transported by a beam line consisting of the electric quadruple and analyzing magnets. It makes sure the good beam qualities such as energy spread, charge, repeatability and availability of different energy, which means that for the first laser acceleration becomes a real laser accelerator. With the development of high-rep rate PW laser technology, we can now envision a compact beam therapeutic machine of cancer treatment in the near future soon.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML024  
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THPML033 Towards a Free Electron Laser Using Laser Plasma Acceleration 4723
  • A. Loulergue, T. André, I.A. Andriyash, C. Benabderrahmane, P. Berteaud, F. Blache, C. Bourassin-Bouchet, F. Bouvet, F. Briquez, L. Chapuis, M.-E. Couprie, D. Dennetière, Y. Dietrich, J.P. Duval, M. El Ajjouri, T.K. El Ajjouri, A. Ghaith, C. Herbeaux, N. Hubert, M. Khojoyan, C.A. Kitegi, M. Labat, N. Leclercq, A. Lestrade, O. Marcouillé, F. Marteau, P. N'gotta, D. Oumbarek, F. Polack, P. Rommeluère, M. Sebdaoui, K.T. Tavakoli, M. Valléau, J. Vétéran, C. de Oliveira
    SOLEIL, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • S. Bielawski, C. Evain, E. Roussel, C. Szwaj
    PhLAM/CERLA, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France
  • S. Corde, J. Gautier, J.-P. Goddet, G. Lambert, B. Mahieu, V. Malka, J.P. Rousseau, S. Sebban, K. Ta Phuoc, A. Tafzi, C. Thaury
    LOA, Palaiseau, France
  • O. S. Kononenko
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • S. Smartzev
    Weizmann Institute of Science, Physics, Rehovot, Israel
  Since the laser invention, the advent of X-ray Free Electron Lasers (FEL) half a century later, opens new areas for matter investigation. In parallel, the spectacular development of laser plasma acceleration (LPA) with several GeV beam acceleration in an extremely short distance appears very promising. As a first step, the qualification of the LPA with a FEL application sets a first challenge. Still, energy spread and beam divergence do not meet the state-of-the-art performance of the conventional accelerators and have to be manipulated to fulfill the FEL requirement. We report here on the undulator spontaneous emission measured after a transport manipulation electron beam line, using variable permanent magnet quadrupoles of variable strength for emittance handing and a demixing chicane equipped with a slit for the energy spread. Strategies of control electron beam position and dispersion have been elaborated. The measured undulator radiation provides an insight on the electron beam properties.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML033  
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THPML051 Electron Acceleration by Plasma Wave in the Presence of a Transversely Propagated Laser with Magnetic Field 4749
  • M. Yadav, S. C. Sharma
    DELTECH, New Delhi, India
  • D.N. Gupta, M. Kaur
    University of Delhi, Delhi, India
  It has been revealed that a relativistic plasma wave, having an extremely large electric field, may be utilized for the acceleration of plasma particles. The large accelerating field gradient driven by a plasma wave is the basic motivation behind the acceleration mechanism. Such a plasma wave can be excited by a single laser in the form wakefield in laser-plasma interactions. In this paper, we study the enhancement of electron acceleration by plasma wave in presence of a laser* propagated perpendicular to the propagation of the wake wave. Electrons trapped in the plasma wave are effectively accelerated by the additional field of the laser combined with wakefield. The additional resonance provided by the laser field contributes to the large energy gain of electrons during acceleration. The resonant enhancement of electron acceleration has been validated by single particle simulations**. The dependence of energy gain on laser intensity, laser spot size, initial electron energy, and electron trajectories have been investigated.
* G. D. Tsakiris, C. Gahn, and V. K. Tripathi, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3017 (2000)
** Maninder Kaur, and D. N. Gupta, IEEE, 45, p 2841 - 2847, (2017)
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML051  
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THPML052 Excitation of Plasma Wave by Lasers Beating in a Collisional and Mild-Relativistic Plasma 4752
SUSPF044   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
  • M. Kaur, D.N. Gupta
    University of Delhi, Delhi, India
  Funding: Work supported by Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India.
Excitation of plasma wave by two lasers beating in a collisional dominated relativistic plasma is investigated. We study the energy exchange between a plasma wave and two co-propagating lasers in plasma including the effect of relativistic mass change and electron-ion collisions. Two lasers, having frequency difference equal to the plasma frequency, excite a plasma beat wave resonantly by the ponderomotive force, which obeys the energy and momentum conservation*. The relativistic effect and the electron-ion collision both contribute in energy exchange between the interacting waves in the beat-wave acceleration mechanism. Our study shows that the initial phase difference between interacting waves generates a phase mismatch between lasers and plasma wave, which alters the rate of amplitude variations of the interacting waves and, hence, affects the energy exchange between the interacting waves**. This study may be crucial to design a compact plasma accelerator in low-intensity regime***.
*T. Tajima, and J. Dawson, Phys. Rev.Lett. 43, 267(1979)
**D. N. Gupta, M. S. Hur, and H. Suk, J.Appl. Phys. 100, 103101 (2006)
***M. Kaur and D. N. Gupta, EuroPhysics letter 116, 35001 (2016).
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML052  
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THPML118 The AWAKE Electron Spectrometer 4947
  • F. Keeble, M. Cascella, J. A. Chappell, L.C. Deacon, S. Jolly, M. Wing
    UCL, London, United Kingdom
  • I. Gorgisyan, S. Mazzoni
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • P.L. Penna, M. Quattri
    ESO, Garching bei Muenchen, Germany
  The AWAKE experiment at CERN aims to use a proton driven plasma wakefield to accelerate electrons from 10–20 MeV up to GeV energies in a 10 m plasma cell. We present the design of the magnetic spectrometer which will measure the electron energy distribution. Results from the calibration of the spectrometer's scintillator and optical system are presented, along with a study of the backgrounds generated by the 400 GeV SPS proton beam.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML118  
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