03 Novel Particle Sources and Acceleration Technologies
T01 Proton and Ion Sources
Paper Title Page
TUYGBE4 Optically-pumped Polarized H and 3 He++ Ion Sources Development at RHIC 644
  • A. Zelenski, G. Atoian, E.N. Beebe, A. Poblaguev, D. Raparia, J. Ritter
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
  • J.D. Maxwell, R. Milner, M. Musgrave
    MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
  The RHIC Optically-pumped Polarized H Ion Source (OPPIS) upgrade with the atomic beam hydrogen injector and the He-ionizer cell was commissioned for operation in the Run-2013. The use of the high brightness primary proton source resulted in higher polarized beam intensity and polarization delivered for injection to Linac-Booster-AGS-RHIC accelerator complex. The proposed polarized 3He++ acceleration in RHIC and future electron- ion col-lider (eRHIC) will require about 2·1011 ions in the source pulse. A new technique had been proposed for production of high intensity polarized 3He++ ion beam. It is based on ionization and accumulation of the 3He gas (polarized by optical-pumping and metastability-exchange technique in the high magnetic field of a 5.0 T) in the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS). We present a status of the 3He++ ion source development.  
slides icon Slides TUYGBE4 [4.596 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUYGBE4  
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TUPML016 High-Intensity Magnetron H Ion Sources and Injector Development at BNL Linac 1564
  • A. Zelenski, G. Atoian, T. Lehn, D. Raparia, J. Ritter
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
  The BNL magnetron-type H ion source and the injec-tor are being upgraded to higher duty-factor as a part of Linac intensity increase project [1]. The BNL magnetron source presently delivers 110 -120 mA H ion current with 650 us pulse duration and 7 Hz repetition rate. The pulse duration was increased to 1000 μs by modifications of the gas injector pulsed valve and the use of the new arc-discharge power supply (with the arc-current stabilization circuit) which improved current stability and reduced current noise. The Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) lines combine two beams. The first line is the polarized OPPIS (Optically Pumped Polarized H Ion Source) beam-line and the second is the high-intensity un-polarized beam-line from the magnetron source, which transports beam to the RFQ after the passage of 45 degree bending magnet. The second magnetron source was installed in the straight LEBT section in 2017, in which the polarized OPPIS beam was not planned. In this, optimal for H beam transport configuration, the beam intensity was increased to 80 mA after the RFQ. The experience of the two sources layout operation (one source in operation the second source in standby) might be useful for facilities with the high downtime cost (like high-energy collider LHC or multi-user facilities like SNS).  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML016  
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TUPML030 Optimisation of D- Ion Production in a Multicusp Ion Source 1609
  • A.M. George, M.P. Dehnel, S.V. Melanson, D.E. Potkins
    D-Pace, Nelson, British Columbia, Canada
  • N. Broderick
    University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
  • H.C. McDonald, C. Philpott
    BSL, Auckland, New Zealand
  D-Pace's multicusp ion source achieves high beam cur-rents for negative hydrogen ions in both the TRIUMF-licensed filament-powered ion source (~18 mA) and the University of Jyväskylä-licensed RF-powered ion source (~8 mA) [1]. It is well known that ion sources producing negative deuterium ions achieve lower beam currents compared to similar negative hydrogen ion sources and indeed we have found that negative deuterium ion beam currents in our sources are typically 1/3 that of negative hydrogen beam currents. The reasons behind this are not completely understood, but factors such as the magnetic field strength and the electron temperature are believed to play a major role and offer the potential for significant optimisation. In this paper, we look into the issues surrounding swapping of deuterium for hydrogen in our ion source by studying the properties of plasmas and extracted currents with different magnetic field strengths and gas flows.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML030  
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TUPML051 Studies of Collision and Compression of Pulsed Plasmas Generated by Coaxial Accelerators 1653
  • T. Manegold, C. Benzing, M. Iberler, J. Jacoby, P. Mahmoodi Tavana, A. Müller-Münster, B. Podßus
    IAP, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
  This contribution is about our recent studies of collision and compression of plasma sheaths, generated by coaxial plasma accelerators. One application is the development of a pulsed ion source producing high ion currents, coming along with high electron densities. The experiment is built up of an energy storage with up to 1,35kJ with a 2% Hydrogen in Helium gas mixture as working gas. The small fraction of Hydrogen is necessary to use the linear Stark-broadening of the H-line to determine the electron density, which is in the range up to 1015cm-3. By the collision of two plasma sheaths in an angle of 180°, the electron density has been increased by a factor of 2.5 compared to the single plasma sheath. As an alternative, the compression of the plasma by funnel geometries has been studied. As has been found, the achieved electron densities are more than a magnitude higher, compared to the values of the plasma collision. Thus, the H-line is broadened too high to be used. Alternatively, the broadening of a copper line by the quadratic Stark-effect has been calibrated and used to determine those high electron densities of about 1018cm-3.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML051  
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TUPML070 Laser Ablation Plasma with Solenoid Field Confinement 1706
SUSPF048   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
  • G.C. Wang, Q. Jin, L.T. Sun, J. Zhang, X.Z. Zhang, H.W. Zhao, H. Zhao
    IMP/CAS, Lanzhou, People's Republic of China
  Funding: This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11722547, 11605263 and 11505257) and West Light Foundation of The Chi-nese Academy of Sciences (Grant Nos. 29Y637020)
A Laser Ion Source (LIS) can produce high charge state and high intensity ion beams (~emA), especially refracto-ry metallic ion beams, which makes it a promising candi-date as an ion source for heavy ion cancer therapy facili-ties and future accelerator complexes, where pulsed high intensity and high charged heavy ion beams are required. However, it is difficult for LIS to obtain a long pulse width while ensuring high current intensity, thus limiting the application of LIS. To solve the conflict, magnetic fields are proposed to confine the expansion of the laser produced plasma. With a solenoid along the normal direc-tion to the target surface, the lateral adiabatic expansion of the laser ablation plasma is suppressed which extends the pulse width of the ion beam effectively.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML070  
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TUPML071 Experimental Performance of the Chopper for the ESS Linac 1709
  • G. Torrisi, L. Allegra, A.C. Caruso, G. Castro, L. Celona, G. Gallo, S. Gammino, O. Leonardi, A. Longhitano, D. Mascali, L. Neri, S. Passarello, G. Sorbello
    INFN/LNS, Catania, Italy
  At the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (INFN-LNS) the beam commissioning of the high intensity Proton Source for the European Spallation Source (PS-ESS) was completed in November 2017. The ESS requires a high intensity proton beam (74 mA pulsed at 14 Hz of repetition rate), with fast Beam pulse rise/fall time (< 20 μs). In order to meet the project requirement, an electrostatic chopping system has been used in the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT). The design of the control system was done also to be the main element of the fast beam abort system and taking into account the radiation issue in the accelerator tunnel. This paper describes the performances of the chopper. The experimentally-achieved rise/fall times of the beam pulses measured by using an AC Current Transformer (ACCT) at the end of the LEBT collimator, are presented. An experimental investigation of the effects of different amounts and types of gas injected into the LEBT (for the sake of space charge compensation) has been carried out with respect to the beam and chopper parameters.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML071  
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TUPML073 Ion Source and Low Energy Beam Transport Line Final Commissioning Step and Transfer from INFN to ESS 1712
  • L. Celona, A. Amato, G. Calabrese, A.C. Caruso, G. Castro, F. Chines, S. Gammino, O. Leonardi, A. Longhitano, G. Manno, S. Marletta, D. Mascali, A. Maugeri, M. Mazzaglia, A. Miraglia, L. Neri, S. Passarello, A. Seminara, D. Siliato, A. Spartà, G. Torrisi
    INFN/LNS, Catania, Italy
  At the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (INFN-LNS), the beam commissioning of the high intensity Proton Source for the European Spallation Source (PS-ESS) was completed in November 2017. All requirements have been satisfied and certified by the European Spallation Source (ESS). In the last step of the commissioning a complete characterization of the source has been carried out and some results are hereinafter reported. The shipment of the source was done in December 2017, followed by the installation in January while the beam commissioning is foreseen during summer 2018. The paper describes the final commissioning steps at INFN-LNS, the procedure adopted for a safe transfer of the equipment, the transfer of knowledge needed for the operation and the maintenance.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML073  
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TUPML076 Installation, Commissioning and Characterization of EBIS-SC as a Short Pulsed Proton Source at KOMAC 1721
  • S. Lee, Y.-S. Cho, H.S. Kim, H.-J. Kwon
    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Gyeongbuk, Republic of Korea
  Funding: This work has been supported through KOMAC operation fund of KAERI by MSIT (Ministry of Science and ICT)
Neutron source is applicable to various fields in basic/applied science and industries. There are several neutron sources in the world such LENS, SNS, J-PARC, ISIS and ESS either for short or long pulsed neutron. At Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC), to provide wide ranges of research opportunities to beam user, a 100 MeV proton linac based pulsed neutron source is planned for both long and short pulses of neutron source. Currently, the 100 MeV proton linac is operational with a 2 ms long pulsed proton injector, i.e. a microwave ion source. We will upgrade our injector by combining the already existing microwave ion source with a EBIS-SC (Superconducting Electron Beam Ion Source from Dreebit GmbH) for short pulses (< 1 us) of proton. This planned injector will work one at the time and provide long/short pulses of accelerated proton hitting a target to emit correspondingly long/short neutron pulses. Main modification on the proton injector is the EBIS-SC, so in this paper we report the installation, and commission of the EBIS-SC test bench at KOMAC. And the characterization of the EBIS-SC is described in detail.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML076  
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THPML009 Polarized Deuteron Negative Ion Source for Nuclear Physics Applications 4665
  • V.G. Dudnikov, M.A. Cummings, R.P. Johnson
    Muons, Inc, Illinois, USA
  • A.V. Sy
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  The proposed U.S. Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) provides a unique tool to explore the next frontier in Quantum Chromodynamics, the dependence of hadron structure on the dynamics of gluons and sea quarks. Polarized beams are essential to these studies; understanding of the hadron structure cannot be achieved without knowledge of the spin. The existing EIC concepts utilize both polarized electrons and polarized protons/light ion species to probe the sea quark and gluon distributions. Polarized deuterons provide an especially unique system for study by essentially providing a combination of quark and nuclear physics. We note that there are currently no operational polarized deuteron beam sources in the United States. This polarized deuteron source can serve as a polarized deuteron injector for a future EIC, with additional applications in polarimetry and polarized gas targets for experiments at CEBAF or RHIC and would be very useful for our future facilities.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML009  
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THPML041 FEBIAD Ion Source Development at TRIUMF-ISAC 4730
  • B.E. Schultz, F. Ames, O.K. Kester, P. Kunz, A. Mjøs, J.F. Sandor
    TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada
  The ISOL facility TRIUMF-ISAC utilizes a number of different ion sources to produce radioactive ion beams. Most isotopes are ionized using surface or resonant laser ionization, but these techniques are prohibitively inefficient for species with high ionization energies, such as noble gases and molecules. For these cases, the Forced Electron Beam Induced Arc Discharge (FEBIAD) ion source can be used. The FEBIAD uses a hot cathode to produce electrons, which are accelerated through a potential (< 200 V) into the anode volume. Isotopes entering the resulting plasma undergo impact ionization and are extracted. Efforts are under way to better understand the physics and operation of the FEBIAD, using both theory and experiment. Recent measurements and simulations on the ISAC FEBIAD will be reported here.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML041  
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THPML059 Re-Commissioning the Front End Test Stand Negative Hydrogen Ion Source, Beam Transport and Interlocks 4769
  • S.R. Lawrie, R.E. Abel, M. Dudman, D.C. Faircloth, A.P. Letchford, J.H. Macgregor, M. Perkins, T. M. Sarmento, R.C. Searle, M. Whitehead, T. Wood
    STFC/RAL/ISIS, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon, United Kingdom
  The front end test stand (FETS) is a demonstrator for a future high intensity, high duty factor negative hydrogen (H') ion injector. With the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) nearing installation, the ion source has been re-commissioned in preparation for long-term operation. The 3 MeV beam exceeds the radio-activation energy of common engineering materials, so radiation shielding has been erected. A new interlocking scheme has been signed-off which integrates the existing ion source high voltage area with the new shielding access points, to ensure that the machine can operate safely during beam production. The existing vacuum arrangement has been extended to in-clude the RFQ and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line. A new programmable logic controller (PLC) has been built to operate the entire vacuum chain. The ion source high voltage equipment has been upgraded to minimise both spark rate and intensity. A collimating aperture and Faraday cup have been installed after the low energy beam transport (LEBT) section to ensure the beam is well aligned for injection into the RFQ. Re-commissioning the ion source has given a rugged shakedown of all these new systems before beam is required for the RFQ.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML059  
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THPML080 Preliminary Results of a New High Brightness H Ion Source Developed at TRIUMF 4839
  • K. Jayamanna, F. Ames, Y. Bylinskii, J.Y. Cheng, M. Lovera, M. Minato
    TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada
  This paper describes the preliminary results of a high brightness ion source developed at TRIUMF, which is capable of producing a negative hydrogen ion beam (H) of up to 5 mA of direct current. A 1.7 mm.mrad and 5 mm.mrad emittance(rms) is achieved for 500 uA and for 1 mA H-, respectively. Characteristics as well as a brief description regarding extraction issues of the source to date are also presented.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML080  
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FRXGBF3 Perspectives in High Intensity Heavy Ion Sources for Future Heavy Ion Accelerators 5047
  • L.T. Sun
    IMP/CAS, Lanzhou, People's Republic of China
  Driven by the development of next generation heavy ion accelerators such as IMP-HIAF, GSI-FAIR, RIKEN-RIBF, SPIRAL 2, JLEIC and so on that need very intense highly charged heavy ion beam injectors working at either pulsed or CW modes, intense research and development work towards more powerful ion sources have been made in different laboratories, which likewise has stimulated obvious advancement of the performances in recent years. However, even the best performing ion sources can't meet all the requirements. While the ion source researchers are tackling the next generation ion sources development, it is worth investigating the possibilities of other solutions, especially when very intense heavy ion beams are needed for the more intense and powerful heavy ion accelerators, for instance the driver accelerator to study inertial confinement fusion with heavy ion. This invited talk presents recent advancements of highly charged heavy ion sources, and discusses the other possible approaches for intense highly charged heavy ion beams for future heavy ion accelerators.  
slides icon Slides FRXGBF3 [10.014 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-FRXGBF3  
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