05 Beam Dynamics and EM Fields
D05 Coherent and Incoherent Instabilities - Theory, Simulations, Code Developments
Paper Title Page
WEYGBE1 Suppressing CSR Microbunching in Recirculation Arcs 1784
  • C.-Y. Tsai
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  We provide sufficient conditions for suppression of CSR-induced microbunching instability along transport or recirculation arcs. The example lattices include low-energy (∼100 MeV) and high-energy (∼1 GeV) recirculation arcs, and medium-energy compressor arcs. Our studies show that lattices satisfying the proposed conditions indeed have microbunching gain suppressed. Beam current dependencies of maximal CSR microbunching gains are also demonstrated, which should help outline a beam line design for different scales of nominal currents. We expect this analysis can improve future lattice design.  
slides icon Slides WEYGBE1 [10.979 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEYGBE1  
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THPAF012 The Influence of Chromaticity on Transverse Single-Bunch Instability in the Booster of HEPS 2968
  • H.S. Xu, N. Wang
    IHEP, Beijing, People's Republic of China
  The study of the transverse single-bunch instability has been carried out for the HEPS booster to double check whether the required single-bunch charge can be achieved. The chromaticity has been varied in our study to see how the threshold changes accordingly. Usually, the slightly positive chromaticity is expected for stabilizing the beam. However, our simulations show that the single-bunch threshold current drops significantly when the chromaticity becomes non-zero. We present the simulation methods and results in details in this paper. The analysis of the simulation results is also presented.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAF012  
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THPAF014 Studies of the Single-Bunch Instabilities in the Booster of HEPS 2971
  • H.S. Xu, Z. Duan, J.L. Li, Y.M. Peng, S.K. Tian, N. Wang
    IHEP, Beijing, People's Republic of China
  High Energy Photon Source (HEPS), which is proposed in China, is an ultra-low emittance storage ring based synchrotron light source. Because of the requirement of the relatively high single-bunch charge, the booster may suffer from the single-bunch instabilities. A preliminary impedance model has been developed for the studies of collective instabilities in the booster. Based on this impedance model, the longitudinal and transverse single-bunch instabilities have been studied.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAF014  
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THPAF022 Beam Breakup Studies for the 4-Pass Cornell-Brookhaven Energy Recovery Linac Test Accelertor 2996
SUSPF078   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
  • W. Lou, G.H. Hoffstaetter
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
  Cornell University and Brookhaven National Laboratory are currently designing the Cornell-BNL ERL-FFAG Test Accelerator (CBETA). To be built at Cornell Wilson Lab, CBETA utilizes the existing ERL injector and main linac cryomodule (MLC). As the electron bunches pass through the MLC cavities, higher order modes (HOMs) fields are excited. The recirculating bunches interact with the HOMs, which can give rise to beam-breakup instability (BBU). We would present simulation results on how BBU limits the maximum achievable current, and potential ways to improve the threshold current.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAF022  
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THPAF048 Destabilising Effect of the LHC Transverse Damper 3076
  • E. Métral, D. Amorim, S. A. Antipov, N. Biancacci, X. Buffat, K.S.B. Li
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  Three questions motivated this study for the CERN Large Hadron Collider in terms of beam stability: (i) why a chromaticity close to zero seemed more critical than predicted during Run 1 (in 2011 and 2012) and during Run 2 (in 2015)?; (ii) why some past simulations with a chromaticity close to zero revealed a more critical situation with the transverse damper than without?; (iii) what should be the minimum operational chromaticity in the future in the LHC and High-Luminosity LHC? A new Vlasov solver (called GALACTIC) was developed to shed light on the destabilising mechanism of the transverse damper, which is a potential contributor to explain the LHC observation. Due to the features, which are discussed in this paper, the name 'ISR (for Imaginary tune Split and Repulsion) instability' is suggested for this new kind of single-bunch instability with zero chromaticity.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAF048  
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THPAF053 Lower-Harmonic RF System in the CERN SPS 3087
  • J. Repond, H. Damerau, A. Lasheen, E.N. Shaposhnikova
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  Significant beam losses increasing with intensity are observed at capture and along the SPS flat bottom for the LHC-type proton beam. The intensity should be doubled for HL-LHC and high losses may be a major performance limitation. Bunches extracted from the PS, the SPS injector, are produced in a 40 MHz RF system applying a bunch rotation at the end of the cycle and therefore cannot be perfectly matched to the 200 MHz SPS RF bucket. The possibility of using a lower harmonic additional RF capture system in the SPS was already proposed after the LEP era in preparation for transfer of the LHC beam but the bunch rotation was the preferred solution, since the induced voltage in the SPS 200 MHz RF system would be too large to ensure stability in a low harmonic system without mitigation measures. However, the use of the upgraded one-turn feedback and the 200 MHz RF system as a Landau cavity could help to improve stability. The feasibility of this scenario to reduce capture losses in the SPS is analysed and presented in this paper. The choice of an optimum RF frequency and voltage is also discussed. The transfer to the main 200 MHz is simulated using a realistic bunch distribution.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAF053  
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THPAF068 Suppression of Instabilities Generated by an Anti-Damper With a Nonlinear Magnetic Element in IOTA 3134
  • E.G. Stern, J.F. Amundson, A. Macridin
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  Funding: US Department of Energy
The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) storage ring is being constructed at Fermilab as a testbed for new accelerator concepts. One important series of experiments tests the use of a novel nonlinear magnetic insert to damp coherent instabilities. To test the damping power of the ele- ment, an instability of desired strength may be intentionally excited with an anti-damper. We report on simulations of beam stabilization using the Synergia modeling framework over ranges of driving and damping strengths.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAF068  
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THPAF075 Numerical Simulations of Space Charge Compensation with an Electron Lens 3154
  • E.G. Stern, Y.I. Alexahin, J.F. Amundson, A.V. Burov, A. Macridin, V.D. Shiltsev
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  The future high energy physics program at Fermilab requires that the proton complex operate with beam bunch intensities four times larger than is currently handled. At these intensities space charge nonlinear defocussing effects cause unacceptable particle losses especially in the low energy rapid-cycling-synchrotron (RCS) Booster. Focusing electron lens elements may offer a solution by providing partial space charge compensation but there is a need for detailed simulations as this technique has not been demonstrated. We report on high fidelity numerical 6D space charge simulations in a model accelerator lattice with a record high space charge tune shift approaching unity.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAF075  
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THPAF079 Landau Damping and Tune-Spread Requirements for Transverse Beam Stability 3168
  • V. Kornilov, O. Boine-Frankenheim
    GSI, Darmstadt, Germany
  Passive mitigation methods are effective cures for collective instabilities in ring accelerators. For decades, octupole magnets have been used as an established and well-understood passive mitigation method. Present and the future accelerator facilities, like FAIR or FCC, impose new challenges on the passive mitigation due to higher energies and smaller beam emittances. Lattice resonances usually restrict the tolerable tune-spreads which are essential for the passive mitigation methods. We study the stability of transverse bunch oscillations provided by octupole magnets and radio-frequency quadrupoles. The special focus of our study is on the interplay and role of decoherence, phase-mixing and Landau damping for the different mitigation schemes. Particle tracking simulations are performed and the tune spreads for the different mechanisms are compared with each other and also with analytical dispersion relations.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAF079  
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THPAF089 Mode Coupling Theory in Collisions With a Large Crossing Angle 3197
  • N. Kuroo
    UTTAC, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
  • K. Hirosawa, K. Ohmi, D. Zhou
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  • K. Oide, F. Zimmermann
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  We discuss a novel coherent beam-beam instability in collisions with a large crossing angle. The instability appears in the correlated head-tail motion of the two colliding beams. Cross wake force is introduced to represent the head-tail correlation between colliding beams. The cross wake force is localized at the collision point. Mode coupling theory based on the cross wake force is developed. Collision scheme with a large crossing angle is being very popular in design of electron positron collider. In SuperKEKB project, a collision with a large crossing angle is performed to boost the luminosity ~ 1036 cm-2s−1. Future circular collider, FCC is also designed with a large crossing angle. Strong-strong simulations have shown a strong coherent head-tail instability, which can limit the performance of proposed future colliders. The mode coupling theory using the cross wake force explains the instability. The instability may affect all colliders designs based on the crab waist scheme.  
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THPAK040 Bunched Beam Envelope Instability in a Periodic Focusing Channel 3301
  • J. Qiang
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  The space-charge driven envelope instability presents a great danger in high intensity accelerator design. In this paper, we report on the study of bunched beam envelope instability in a periodic focusing channel using three-dimensional envelope model for a 3D uniform Waterbag distribution and a 3D Gaussian distribution. Our results show that the envelope instability stopband becomes broader with the increase of longitudinal focusing and are not sensitive to the type of distribution. Self-consistent macroparticle simulations using both distributions show similar structure in emittance growth but also extra instability stopbands. The emittance growth from the Waterbag distribution has larger stopband than that from the Gaussian distribution.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK040  
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THPAK044 Self-Consistent Modeling using a Lienard-Wiechert Particle-Mesh Method 3313
  • R.D. Ryne, C.E. Mitchell, J. Qiang
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  • B.E. Carlsten
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
  In this paper we describe a parallel, large-scale simulation capability using a Lienard-Wiechert Particle-Mesh (LWPM) method. The approach is a natural extension of the convolution-based technique to solve the Poisson equation in space-charge codes. It provides a unified method to compute both Coulomb-like self-fields and radiative phenomena like coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). The approach brings together several mathematical and computational capabilities including the use of integrated Green function (IGF) methods and adaptive quadrature methods. We will describe the theoretical model and our progress to date.  
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THPAK045 Summary of Beam Operation Capability at FXR LIA 3316
  • Y.H. Wu, J. Ellsworth
    LLNL, Livermore, California, USA
  Funding: This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52- 07NA27344.
In this paper we summarize the current beam operation capability of FXR linear induc-tion accelerator (LIA) at LLNL. Experi-mental measurements for electron beam pa-rameters at different beam operations are pre-sented.
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THPAK046 The Ion-Hose Instability in High-Current Multi-Pulse Induction Linacs 3320
  • C. Ekdahl
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
  The ion-hose instability has long been considered a danger for long-pulse, high-current electron linear induction accelerators (LIAs)*. This instability is enabled by beam-electron ionization of residual background gas in the accelerator. The space-charge of the high-energy beam ejects low-energy electrons from the ionized channel, leaving a positively-charged ion channel that attracts the electron beam. The beam can oscillate in the potential well around the channel position. Likewise, the electron beam attracts the ions, which can oscillate about the beam position. Because of the vast differences in particle mass, the oscillations are out of phase, and the amplitudes grow unstably. The number of instability e-foldings is proportional to the channel ion density*, which in turn is proportional to the background pressure and pulse length. This scaling of the instability growth was demonstrated on the long-pulse DARHT-II linear induction accelerator (LIA) at Los Alamos**. The ion-hose instability is also problematic for high-current multi-pulse LIAs, because ion recombination times are so very long at typical background pressures. Moreover, because of low ion channel ion densities, and massive ions, channel expansion is too slow to reduce the instability growth by very much. In particular, the ion channel is expected to persist and its density to increase during the 3-microsecond duration of a four-pulse burst from the 2-kA, 20-MeV Scorpius LIA now being developed. Recent simulations with an experimentally validated code that was used to predict DARHT-II growth rates have shown that the magnetic focusing field designed for Scorpius will be strong enough to inhibit ion-hose instability if the background pressure is kept below a value that is readily attainable with the present designs of induction cells and other accelerator components. Details and results of these calculations are the subject of this presentation.
*H. L. Buchanan, Phys. Fluids, vol. 30, pp. 221 - 231, 1987
**C. A. Ekdahl, et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., vol. 34, pp. 460-466, 2006
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK046  
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THPAK052 Single Bunch Instabilities in FCC-ee 3336
SUSPF076   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
  • E. Belli
    Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
  • G. Castorina, M. Migliorati
    INFN-Roma1, Rome, Italy
  • G. Rumolo
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • B. Spataro, M. Zobov
    INFN/LNF, Frascati (Roma), Italy
  FCC-ee is a high luminosity lepton collider with a centre-of-mass energy from 91 to 365 GeV. Due to the machine parameters and pipe dimensions, collective effects due to electromagnetic fields produced by the interaction of the beam with the vacuum chamber can be one of the main limitations to the machine performance. In this frame, an impedance model is required to analyze these instabilities and to find possible solutions for their mitigation. This paper will present the contributions of specific machine components to the total impedance budget and their effects on the beam stability. Single bunch instability thresholds will be estimated in both transverse and longitudinal planes.   
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THPAK070 Coupled Bunch Instability from JLEIC Crab Cavity Higher Order Modes 3392
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  • S.I. Sosa Guitron, S.U. De Silva, J.R. Delayen, H. Park
    ODU, Norfolk, Virginia, USA
  • R. Li, V.S. Morozov, H. Park
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  Particle bunches traveling in a ring can excite wakefields inside any radio-frequency element present. These electromagnetic modes can resonate long enough and interact with subsequent passing bunches. A coherent oscillation between bunches can quickly become an instability and needs to be addressed. The Jefferson Lab electron ion collider has a large 50 mrad crossing angle and thus relies on bunch crabbing to achieve high luminosity. Bunch crabbing is done with compact superconducting rf dipole cavities. We study coupled bunch oscillations driven by the higher order modes of multicell RFD crab cavities under study for JLEIC, we calculate the instability growth time assuming a symmetric beam spectrum, identify the HOMs driving the instability and discuss mitigation measures.  
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THPAK078 GPT-CSR: a New Simulation Code for CSR Effects 3414
  • S.B. van der Geer, M.J. de Loos
    Pulsar Physics, Eindhoven, The Netherlands
  • A.D. Brynes, P.H. Williams
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • I.D. Setija, P.W. Smorenburg
    ASML Netherlands B.V., Veldhoven, The Netherlands
  For future applications of high-brightness electron beams, including the design of next generation FEL's, correct simulation of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) is essential as it potentially degrades beam quality to unacceptable levels. However, the long interaction lengths compared to the bunch length, numerical cancellation, and difficult 3D retardation conditions make accurate simulation of CSR effects notoriously difficult. To ease the computational burden, CSR codes often make severe simplifications such as an ultra-relativistic bunch travelling on a prescribed reference trajectory. Here we report on a new CSR model implemented in the General Particle Tracer (GPT) code that avoids most of the usual assumptions: It directly evaluates the Liénard'Wiechert potentials based on the stored history of the beam. It makes no assumptions about reference trajectories, and also takes into account the transverse size of the beam. Example results demonstrating normalised emittance growth in the first bunch compressor of FERMI@Elettra are presented.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK078  
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THPAK115 Numerical Multiparticle Tracking Studies on Coupled-Bunch Instabilities in the Presence of RF Phase Modulation 3511
  • M. Sommer, B.D. Isbarn, S. Koetter, B. Riemann, T. Weis
    DELTA, Dortmund, Germany
  Funding: Work supported by the BMBF under contract no. 05K13PEB.
Since 2008, longitudinal coupled-bunch instabilities are suppressed at DELTA by a modulation of the phase of the accelerating RF field inside the cavity. To achieve a deeper understanding of the interaction of both effects, experimental studies have been made in 2016. These studies show a quadratic dependency of the coupled-bunch mode damping rates on the phase modulation amplitude. Recently, a numerical particle tracking code has been developed to confirm the experimental results. It is based on long range wake field effects produced inside an RF cavity acting on multi particle bunches of arbitrary charge, together with phase focusing by a phase modulated accelerating field. The numerical results confirm the quadratic dependency of damping rates on the phase shift obtained in experimental studies before.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK115  
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THPAK122 Longitudinal Coupled Bunch Instability in JLEIC 3530
  • R. Li, J. Guo, F. Marhauser, S. Wang
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  Funding: This work is supported by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC under U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177.
The luminosity performance of the JLEIC design is achieved by using a high bunch repetition rate (476MHz) with moderate bunch charges, similar to the strategy employed in modern lepton colliders. Such a bunch configuration will make single bunch instabilities less probable, yet makes the machine more prone to the onset of longitudinal and transverse coupled bunch instabilities. Consequently, this will set higher demands on the bunch-by-bunch feedback systems to mitigate the multi-bunch instabilities. In this paper we present our detailed analysis of the growth rate of the coupled bunch instabilities for beams in both the electron and ion rings in JLEIC at the collision scenario. The implication of the growth rate on the feedback system will be discussed.
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THPAK123 Updates on Collective Effects Estimations for JLEIC 3533
  • R. Li, K. E. Deitrick, T.J. Michalski
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  Funding: This work is supported by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC under U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177.
JLEIC is the high luminosity and high polarization electron-ion collider (EIC) currently under active design at Jefferson Lab. It aims at high luminosity (1033~1034 cm-2s−1) for a wide range of ion species and center-of-mass energies. This luminosity performance relies sensibly on beam stability with high intensity electron and ion beam operation. The impedance budget analysis and the estimations of the single and multibunch instabilities are currently underway. In this paper, we present the update status of estimations for the longitudinal and transverse coherent instabilities, and identify areas or parameter regimes where special attentions for instability mitigations are required.
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THPAK138 Development of Efficient Tree-Based Computation Methods for the Simulation of Beam Dynamics in Sparsely Populated Phase Spaces 3569
  • Ph. Amstutz
    University of Hamburg, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Hamburg, Germany
  • M. Vogt
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  Collective instabilities pose a major threat to the quality of the high brightness electron beams needed for the operation of a free electron laser. Multi-stage bunch compression schemes have been identified as a possible source of such an instability. The dispersive sections in these compressors translate energy inhomogeneities within the bunch into longitudinal charge density inhomogeneities. In conjunction with a collective force driving locally density-dependent energy modulations this leads to intricate longitudinal beam dynamics. As a consequence of the thin shape those bunches form in the longitudinal phase space, efficient simulation of such systems is not straight forward. At high resolutions, the numerical representation of the phase space density on a uniform grid is too wasteful, due to the large unpopulated phase space regions. In this contribution we present advances made in the development of a simulation code that addresses the problem of sparsely populated phase spaces by means of quadtree domain decomposition. A focus lies on the explanation of the underlying tree data structure.  
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THPAK140 Pyroelectric Detection of Coherent Radiation on the CLARA Phase 1 Beamline 3577
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  • B.S. Kyle
    University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom
  • R.B. Appleby, T.H. Pacey
    UMAN, Manchester, United Kingdom
  • P.H. Williams
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • J. Wolfenden
    The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
  The impacts of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) and space charge in the bunch compressor section of the CLARA Free Electron Laser (FEL) are expected to be significant, given the relatively high charge and short bunch lengths expected. The General Particle Tracer (GPT) code allows for the modelling of these effects in tandem, presenting an opportunity to more reliably estimate their effects on the CLARA beam. To provide confidence in future studies using GPT, a benchmarking study on the CLARA Phase 1 beamline is presented alongside relevant simulations. This study will make use of pyroelectric detectors to measure the emitted coherent power of the CLARA beam as it passes through a dispersive section whilst varying the chirp imparted on the bunches longitudinal phase space (LPS). Simulations presented demonstrate the viability of such a study, with energies between ∼ 10-100 nJ per pulse expected to be incident upon the detector face.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK140  
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