06 Beam Instrumentation, Controls, Feedback, and Operational Aspects
T22 Reliability and Operability
Paper Title Page
WEPAF075 Availability Allocation to Particle Accelerators Subsystems by Complexity Criteria 2009
  • O. Rey Orozko, A. Apollonio, M. Jonker, J.A. Uythoven
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  In the early design stages of an accelerator, an effective allocation method is needed to translate an overall accelerator availability goal into availability requirements for its subsystems. During the allocation process, many factors are considered to obtain so-called ‘complexity weights', which are at the basis of the system availability allocation. Some of these factors can be measured quantitatively while other have to be assessed qualitatively. Based on our analysis of factors affecting availability, we list six criteria for complexity resulting in an availability allocation of accelerator subsystems. System experts determine the scales of factors and relationships between subsystems. In this paper, we consider four availability apportionment techniques to allocate complexity weights to subsystems. Finally, we apply this method to the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) and we propose another application of the complexity weights to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPAF075  
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WEPAF076 Availability Studies Comparing Drive Beam and Klystron Options for the Compact Linear Collider 2013
  • O. Rey Orozko, S. Döbert, M. Jonker
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  The initial proposal for the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is based on a two beam-scheme to accelerate the main colliding beams. For low collision energies, the main beam could also be accelerated by powering the accelerating structures with klystrons instead of the two-beam scheme. This paper studies the feasibility of this new alternative in terms of machine availability. An implemented bottom-up availability model considers the components failure modes to estimate the overall availability of the system. The model is defined within a Common Input Format scheme and the AvailSim3 software package is used for availability simulations. This paper gives an overview of the systems affecting the beam powering availability and makes recommendations for availability improvements.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPAF076  
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WEPAF077 Performance Evaluation of Linac4 During the Reliability Run 2016
  • O. Rey Orozko, A. Apollonio, S.S. Erhard, G. Guidoboni, B. Mikulec, J.A. Uythoven
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  Linac4 will replace Linac2 as the first element in the CERN proton injector chain from 2020 onwards, following the second LHC long shutdown (LS2). With more than three times higher energy and number of compo-nents than Linac2, beam availability is one of the main challenges of Linac4. Intended as a smooth transition from commissioning to operation, a Linac4 Reliability Run was started in July 2017 and is foreseen to last until mid-May 2018. The goal is to achieve the target availability of 95 %. This implies consolidated routine operation and identification of recurring problems. This paper introduces the schedule and operational aspects of the Linac4 Reliability Run, including the developed tools and methods for availability tracking. The paper also summarizes the lessons learned during the first period of the Linac4 Reliability Run with respect to fault tracking and provides an in-depth analysis of the failure modes and observed availability.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPAF077  
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WEPAF079 A Smart Framework for the Availability and Reliability Assessment and Management of Accelerators Technical Facilities 2024
  • L. Serio, A. Castellano, U. Gentile
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • F. Antonello, P. Baraldi, E. Zio
    Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy
  CERN operates and maintains a large and complex technical infrastructure serving the accelerator complex and experiments detectors. A performance assessment and enhancement framework based on data mining, artificial intelligence and machine-learning algorithms is under development with the objective of structuring, collecting and analyzing systems and equipment operation and failure data, to guide the identification and implementation of adequate corrective, preventive and consolidation interventions. The framework is designed to collect and structure the data, identify and analyze the associated driving events. It develops dynamically functional dependencies and logic trees, descriptive and predictive models to support operation and maintenance activities to improve the reliability and availability of the installations. To validate the performance of the framework and quality of the algorithms several case studies are being carried out. We report on the design, implementation and on the preliminary results inferred on historical and live stream data from CERN's technical infrastructure. Proposal for the full deployment and expected long-term capabilities will also be discussed.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPAF079  
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WEPAF090 CS-Studio Operator Training at ReA3 2061
  • T. Summers, D.B. Crisp
    NSCL, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
  • A.C.C. Villari
    FRIB, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
  Funding: This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1565546
In the past year, Control System Studio (CS-Studio) has become the predominant graphical user interface tool at ReA3, the 3 MeV/u rare isotope beam Reaccelerator at Michigan State University's National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. CS-Studio is a set of control system interface tools that include operator interfaces, history plots, an alarm handler, save/restore, scanning, and more. Becoming an effective user of these tools takes considerable time and training. This contribution will describe the challenges and strategies for training operators on the general use of the CS-Studio tools. It will describe the use of a simulated user interface environment for training operators at any time without affecting the operating facility.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPAF090  
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WEPAL022 Operating Experience of Water Cooling System in the J-PARC LINAC and RCS 2203
  • K. Suganuma, K. Fujirai, M. Kinsho, P.K. Saha, Y. Yamazaki
    JAEA/J-PARC, Tokai-Mura, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki-Ken, Japan
  The cooling system for the J-PARC LINAC and RCS uses a total of 25 circulation pumps to cool the accelerator devices. In February 2017, we experienced damage of circulation pumps due to low flow rate, and started the development of an abnormality detection system concentrating on the vibration measurements of the circulation pumps. In this report, the vibration measurement results of the coolant circulation pumps and the development status of abnormality detection through multivariate analysis using vibration values are discussed.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPAL022  
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WEPAL030 Deep Learning Based Predictive Control for RFT-30 Cyclotron 2230
  • Y.B. Kong, M.G. Hur, E.J. Lee, J.H. Park, H.S. Song, S.D. Yang
    KAERI, Jeongeup-si, Republic of Korea
  Successful construction of the control system is an important problem in the accelerator. The RFT-30 cyclotron is 30 MeV cyclotron for radioisotope production and fundamental researches. To operate the RFT-30 cyclotron for beam irradiation, the human operators should carefully manipulate the control parameters. If the control does not function properly, it becomes difficult to handle the cyclotron and cannot perform the accurate operations for the control. In this work, we propose a deep learning based model predictive control approach for the RFT-30 cyclotron. The proposed approach is composed of two steps: system identification and a control design. In the system identification procedure, the proposed approach constructs the predictive model of the accelerator using the deep learning approach. In the control design stage, the controller finds the optimal control inputs by solving the optimization problem. To analyze the performance of the proposed approach, we applied the approach into the RFT-30 cyclotron.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPAL030  
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WEPAL057 Methods to Detect Error Sources and Their Application at the TPS 2305
  • C.H. Huang, Y.-S. Cheng, P.C. Chiu, K.T. Hsu, K.H. Hu, C.Y. Wu
    NSRRC, Hsinchu, Taiwan
  For a low-emittance photon light source, beam stability is a very important property to attain a high-quality photon beam. While it is hard to avoid beam perturbations in a storage ring, it is more important to quickly find the source locations and to remove or eliminate the sources as soon as possible. In this report, we develop a method to identify the locations of multiple sources. For a source with a particular frequency, the relative phase between sources can also be obtained. This method has been a useful tool during TPS operation and its methodology and practical applications are described in this report.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPAL057  
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THPML076 Design of Control System for Dual-Head Radiation Therapy 4826
SUSPL059   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
  • H.S. Kim, J.-S. Chai, M. Ghergherehchi, D.H. Ha, J.C. Lee, H. Namgoong, J.H. Seo, Shin, S.W. Shin
    SKKU, Suwon, Republic of Korea
  • D. Lipka
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  Sungkyunkwan University groups have been developed advanced radiation therapy machine named dual-head radiation therapy gantry for reducing the treatment time by up to 30%. The main difference between previous radiation therapy machine is using two electron LINAC as X-ray sources at radiation therapy. In support of this system, control system based on SCADA and hardware development was implemented. The control system consists of supervisory computers and local controllers and the control network was ethernet and software was written by labVIEW. An overview of this control system is presented in paper.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML076  
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THPML081 Beam-Based Measurements of the ISAC-II Superconducting Heavy Ion Linac 4841
  • S. Kiy, R.E. Laxdal, M. Marchetto, S.D. Rädel, O. Shelbaya
    TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada
  Preparation for experiments, which typically run for one to two weeks in the ISAC-II facility at TRIUMF, requires some amount of overhead, limiting the efficiency of the facility. Efforts are underway to improve the ISAC-II linac model to reduce this overhead while also improving the quality of the delivered ion beam. This can be accomplished with beam-based measurements and corrections of alignment, cavity gradients, focal strengths, and more. A review of the present state of the linac will be given, including measured mis-alignments and other factors that affect the reproducibility of tunes. The outlook on expected improvements will also be summarized, including progress on the automatic phasing of cavities with a focus on integration to the High Level Application platform being developed at TRIUMF. Lastly, a summary will be given on the expected paradigm shift in the tuning approach taken: moving from re-active tuning by operators or beam delivery experts to pro-active measurements and investigations, version-controlled tunes, and continuous feedback from beam physicists.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML081  
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FRXGBD1 Reliability and Availability of Particle Accelerators: Concepts, Lessons, Strategy 5014
  • A. Apollonio, L. Ponce, O. Rey Orozko, R. Schmidt, A.P. Siemko, B. Todd, J.A. Uythoven, A.P. Verweij, D. Wollmann, M. Zerlauth
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  This paper will present the results and latest status of an extensive effort to analyse and improve the reliability and availability of the LHC. After the introduction of basic concepts and definitions, the paper reviews the performance of the LHC in 2015-2017. A direct comparison of the luminosity production years 2016 and 2017 is presented, with a focus on the main differences in the observed failure modes. Based on the lessons learnt in this time window, expectations for the performance during future LHC runs are discussed. In particular, the thought process for the evaluation of the possible full energy exploitation of the LHC is described, considering relevant factors such as the expected availability loss and the risk associated to magnet training.  
slides icon Slides FRXGBD1 [7.090 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-FRXGBD1  
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