07 Accelerator Technology
T16 Pulsed Power Technology
Paper Title Page
WEYGBF4 Development of a Solid-State Pulse Generator Driving Kicker Magnets for a Novel Injection System of a Low Emittance Storage Ring 1804
  • T. Inagaki, H. Tanaka
    RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo, Japan
  • H. Akikawa, K. Sato
    Nihon Koshuha Co. Ltd, Yokohama, Japan
  • K. Fukami, C. Kondo, S. Takano
    Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Hyogo, Japan
  Funding: Funded by MEXT Japan
A next generation electron storage ring represented by a diffraction-limited light source pursues an extremely low emittance leading to a small dynamic aperture and short beam lifetime. The top-up injection is hence indispensable to keep the stored beam current. The beam orbit fluctuation caused by the injection magnets should seriously obstruct utilization of an electron beam with sharp transverse profile. In order to solve these problems, a novel off-axis in-vacuum beam injection system was proposed. In the system, twin kicker magnets driven by a single solid-state pulsed power supply to launch a linear pi- bump orbit is the key to suppress the horizontal orbit fluctuation down to a level of several microns. Here, a big challenge is to achieve the magnetic field identity of the two kickers within an accuracy of 0.1%. This presentation overviews the proposed injection system and reports the development status focusing on the solid-state pulse generator.
slides icon Slides WEYGBF4 [3.067 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEYGBF4  
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WEPMF020 Pulsed Systems for eRHIC Beam Injection and Extraction 2410
  • W. Zhang, M. Blaskiewicz, A. Hershcovitch, C.J. Liaw, H. Lovelace III, M. Mapes, G.T. McIntyre, J.-L. Mi, C. Montag, C. Pai, V. Ptitsyn, J. Sandberg, N. Tsoupas, J.E. Tuozzolo, G.M. Wang, W.-T. Weng, F.J. Willeke, H. Witte, Q. Wu
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
  Funding: Work supported by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy.
The electron-ion collider eRHIC requires a variety of kickers and septa for injection and extraction of beams throughout the entire collider complex. We plan to use pulsed systems for beam injection and extraction in Electron RCS, Electron Storage Ring, and Hadron ring. In this paper, we describe the pulsed systems required for beam transfer in the eRHIC Ring-Ring Pre-conceptual Design. We will outline the parameter ranges, technology choices, and opportunities for research and development in pulsed power technology.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPMF020  
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WEPMF053 XFEL Modulators with Pulse Cables 2487
  • H.-J. Eckoldt, S. Choroba, T. Grevsmühl, A. Hauberg, J. Havlicek, N. Heidbrook, K. Machau, N. Ngada
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • M. Frei, S.G. Keens, T.H. Strittmatter
    Ampegon AG, Turgi, Switzerland
  • H. Leich
    DESY Zeuthen, Zeuthen, Germany
  The modulators of the European XFEL produce high voltage, at the 10kV level, having a power of up to 16.8 MW for 1.54 ms. The operation frequency of the super-conducting inac is 10 Hz. The series production of the 29 modulators started in 2012. The first modulator began operation in 2014 and the start of linac was beginning 2017. The R&D phase for the modulators started directly with the development of superconducting cavities. Besides the pulse generation, the modulator had to suppress the 10 Hz repetition rate in order not to disturb the grid. Another unique demand was the development of pulse cables. Since the power RF had to be generated in the tunnel, the klystrons were installed near the cavities. However, the modulators had to be installed outside of the tunnel for space, maintenance reasons and radiation concerns. This transmission of high power pulses via long cables is unique in the world and the suppression of EMI effects was mandatory. During the first year operation no EMI disturbances of other systems were detected and the modulator system works as expected.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPMF053  
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WEPMF063 Thyratron Replacement* 2512
  • I. Roth, N. Butler, M.P.J. Gaudreau, M.K. Kempkes, R.E. Simpson
    Diversified Technologies, Inc., Bedford, Massachusetts, USA
  Funding: Funded under US DOE grant no. DE-SC0011292.
Thyratrons are typically used as the switch in high power, short pulse modulators with pulse-forming networks. However, thyratrons have a lifetime of only ten to twenty thousand hours, their reservoir heater voltage needs to be adjusted periodically, and reduced overall demand has led multiple thyratron vendors to slow or cease production. In contrast, solid-state switches have a much longer lifetime, need no maintenance, and are based on widely-available commercial items. Despite these advantages, solid-state devices have not historically seen use, due to limited voltage, current, and risetime. Diversified Technologies, Inc. (DTI) has removed this barrier, having developed, built, and tested a thyratron-replacement switch for SLAC based on an array of series and parallel-connected commercial insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). This switch has demonstrated operation at very high voltage and current, meeting the full specifications required by SLAC to completely replace (form-fit-function-interface) the L-4888 thyratron: 48 kV, 6.3 kA, and 1 µs risetime.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPMF063  
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WEPMF064 Daresbury Laboratory Short Pulse Klystron Modulators 2515
  • C. Chipman, M.P.J. Gaudreau, L. Jashari, M.K. Kempkes, J. Kinross-Wright, R.E. Simpson
    Diversified Technologies, Inc., Bedford, Massachusetts, USA
  • S.A. Griffiths, A.E. Wheelhouse
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • H.J. Zhang
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology,, Hubei, People's Republic of China
  Diversified Technologies, Inc. (DTI) has developed a unique short pulse klystron modulator system for the Compact Linear Advanced Research Accelerator (CLARA) Project at Daresbury Laboratory. One unit has been delivered and three more are on contract. This system is based on the combination of a high voltage solid-state switch, with a conventional 1:7 pulse transformer, and a passive pulse corrector with automated adjustment. This unique passive circuitry delivers the extremely flat output pulse required for advanced accelerator applications. The CLARA modulators share design elements with previous DTI modulators which provides both a lower cost and easier to maintain system. The modulators are designed to pulse 80 MW-class klystrons at an avg power of 250 kW and provides adjustable high efficiency operation in the 45 kV to 450 kV range for currents up to 545 A and pulse lengths of 1.5 to 4.0 µs. One key objective of modulator development is optimization of voltage flatness (± 0.02 %), stability (± 0.05 %), and reproducibility (± 0.05 %).  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPMF064  
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WEPMF075 Performance Measurements and Analysis of Jitter Like Events for the PS Injection Kicker System 2549
  • A. Ferrero Colomo, J.C.C.M. Borburgh, L. Ducimetière, L.M.C. Feliciano, V. Forte, M.A. Fraser, T. Kramer, L. Sermeus
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  In the framework of the LIU project, several modifications have been made to the CERN PS injection kicker system during the winter stop 2016-2017 (EYETS). Current waveform and beam-based measurements were carried out in 2017 to validate the implemented design changes by observing the magnetic field impact on the beam. During these long-term measurements, increased values for the rise and fall times were observed when compared to single shot observations of the current waveform. An unknown source of jitter-like pre-firing in the main switch has been identified, creating an additional challenge to meet the already tight system rise and fall time specifications. This paper briefly describes the efforts made to fine tune the pulse generator after the EYETS, summarises the optimised configuration and analyses the observed jitter events. A new triggering system design is briefly outlined to address the issue.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPMF075  
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WEPMF076 First Prototype Inductive Adder for the FCC Injection 2553
  • D. Woog, M.J. Barnes, A. Ferrero Colomo, J. Holma, T. Kramer
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  A highly reliable kicker system is required as part of the injection for the FCC. A significant weak point of conventional kicker systems is often the pulse generator, where a Pulse Forming Network/Line (PFN/PFL) is discharged through a thyratron switch to generate the current pulse for the kicker magnet. This design has several disadvantages: in particular the occasional erratic turn-on of the switch which cannot be accepted for the FCC. A potential replacement is the inductive adder (IA) that uses semiconductor switches and distributed capacitors as energy storage. The modular design, low maintenance and high flexibility make the IA a very interesting alternative. In addition, the ability to both turn-on and off the current also permits the replacement of PFN/PFL by the capacitors. A first FCC prototype IA, capable of generating 9 kV and 2.4 kA pulses, has been designed and built at CERN. It will be upgrade to a full-scale prototype (15 kV, 2.4 kA) in 2018. This paper presents measurement results from the 9 kV prototype and outlines the conceptual changes and expected performance of the 15 kV prototype.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPMF076  
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WEPMF077 Demonstration of Feasibility of the CLIC Damping Ring Extraction Kicker Modulators 2557
  • J. Holma, M.J. Barnes, A. Ferrero Colomo
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  The CLIC study is investigating the technical feasibility of an electron-positron collider with high luminosity and a nominal centre-of-mass energy of 3 TeV. Pre-damping rings and damping rings (DRs) will produce ultra-low emittance beam with high bunch charge. The DR kicker systems must provide extremely stable field pulses to avoid beam emittance increase. The DR extraction kicker system consists of a stripline kicker and two pulse modulators. Specifications for the electromagnetic field pulses require that the modulator produce pulses of 160 or 900 ns flattop duration, ±12.5 kV and 305 A, with ripple and droop of not more than ±0.02 % (±2.5 V) with respect to an ideal waveform. Inductive adder topology has been chosen for the pulse modulators where the output waveform can be adjusted by applying analogue modulation methods. Two full-scale, 20-layer, 12.5 kV prototype inductive adders have been designed and built, and they are being tested at CERN. These modulators will be tested with a prototype stripline kicker, installed in a beamline at ALBA Synchrotron Light Source in Spain. The results of the laboratory tests and measurements are presented.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPMF077  
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WEPMF086 Eradication of Mercury Ignitron from the 400 kA Magnetic Horn Pulse Generator for CERN Antiproton Decelerator 2586
  • V. Namora, M. Calviani, L. Ducimetière, P. Faure, L.E. Fernandez, G. Gräwer, V. Senaj
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  The CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD) produces low-energy antiprotons for studies of antimatter. A 26 GeV proton beam impacts the AD production target which produces secondary particles including antiprotons. A magnetic Horn (AD-Horn) in the AD target area is used to focus the diverging antiproton beam and increase the antiproton yield enormously. The horn is pulsed with a current of 400 kA, generated by capacitor discharge type generators equipped with ignitrons. These mercury-filled devices present a serious danger of environmental pollution in case of accident and safety constraints. An alternative has been developed using solid-state switches and diodes. Similar technology was already implemented at CERN for ignitron eradication in the SPS Horizontal beam dump in the early 2000s. A project was launched to design and set up a full-scale test-bench, to install and test a dedicated solid-state solution. Following the positive results obtained from the test-bench, the replacement of ignitrons by solid-state devices in the operational AD-Horn facility is currently under preparation. This paper describes the test-bench design and results obtained for this very high current pulser.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPMF086  
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WEPMF089 Measurements of Electromagnetic Properties of Ferrites as a Function of Frequency and Temperature 2592
  • A. Chmielinska, M.J. Barnes, F. Caspers, B.K. Popovic, C. Vollinger
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  Fast kicker magnets are used to inject beam into and extract beam out of the CERN accelerator rings. These kickers are often ferrite loaded transmission line type magnets with a rectangular shaped aperture through which the beam passes. The interaction of the beam with the resistive part of the longitudinal beam coupling impedance leads to power dissipation and heating of different elements in the accelerator ring. In particular, power deposition in the kicker magnets can be a limitation: if the temperature of the ferrite yoke exceeds the Curie temperature, the beam will not be properly deflected. In addition, the imaginary portion of the beam coupling impedance contributes to beam instabilities. A good knowledge of electromagnetic properties of materials up to GHz frequency range is essential for a correct impedance evaluation. This paper presents the results of transmission line measurements of complex initial permeability and permittivity for different ferrite types. We present an approach for deriving electromagnetic properties as a function of both frequency and temperature; this information is required for simulating ferrite behaviour under realistic operating conditions.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPMF089  
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WEPMK001 Preliminary Design of a Cooling System for the LHC Injection Kicker Magnets 2624
SUSPL086   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
  • L. Vega Cid, M.J. Barnes, L. Ducimetière, M.T. Moester, V. Vlachodimitropoulos, W.J.M. Weterings
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • A. Abánades
    ETSII UPM, Madrid, Spain
  The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is equipped with two fast pulsed magnet systems (MKIs) that inject particle beams from the injector chain. Future operation for High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) with high intensity beams will cause heating of the ferrite yokes of the MKIs beyond their Curie temperature, preventing injection until the yokes cool down. Beam coupling impedance studies show that it is possible to move a substantial portion of the beam induced power deposition from the upstream ferrite yokes, which are the yokes with the highest power deposition, to ferrite rings located at the upstream end of the magnet. Thermal predictions show that this power redistribution, combined with the installation of a cooling system around the rings, will maintain the temperatures of all the yokes and ferrite rings below their Curie point. Since the rings are not pulsed to high voltage, whereas the ferrite yokes are, the installation of a cooling system is feasible around the rings. The proposed design of the cooling system will be tested to ensure good performance before its installation on the MKIs. The details of the simulations and the design process are reported.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPMK001  
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WEPMK002 Longitudinal Impedance Analysis of an Upgraded LHC Injection Kicker Magnet 2628
  • V. Vlachodimitropoulos, M.J. Barnes, L. Vega Cid, W.J.M. Weterings
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  Prior to Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) one of the LHC injection kickers (MKIs) occasionally exhibited high temperatures leading to significant turnaround times. After a successful impedance mitigation campaign during LS1, the MKI ferrite yokes have remained below their Curie point and have not limited LHC's availability. However, for HL-LHC operation the MKI yokes are expected to exceed their Curie temperatures after long physics runs. To ensure uninterrupted future HL-LHC operation, a modified beam screen design, relocating some of the heat load to more easily cooled parts, and a suitable cooling system are under development as the current baseline for the HL-LHC upgrade of the MKIs. An upgraded beam screen providing such relocation has been designed, simulated and compared to the existing model. To validate simulations, two longitudinal beam coupling impedance measurement techniques have been used and the results are compared to predictions. The modified beam screen was implemented in an upgraded MKI installed in the LHC during the Year End Technical Stop (YETS) 2017/18.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPMK002  
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WEPMK003 An Upgraded LHC Injection Kicker Magnet 2632
  • M.J. Barnes, C. Bracco, G. Bregliozzi, A. Chmielinska, L. Ducimetière, B. Goddard, T. Kramer, H. Neupert, L. Vega Cid, V. Vlachodimitropoulos, W.J.M. Weterings, C. Yin Vallgren
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • A. Chmielinska
    EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
  Funding: Work supported by the HL-LHC project.
An upgrade of the LHC injection kickers is necessary for HL-LHC to avoid excessive beam induced heating of these magnets: the intensity of the HL-LHC beam will be twice that of LHC. In addition, in the event that it is necessary to exchange an injection kicker magnet, the newly installed kicker magnet would limit HL-LHC operation for a few hundred hours due to dynamic vacuum activity. Extensive studies have been carried out to identify practical solutions to these problems: these include redistributing a significant portion of the beam induced power deposition to ferrite parts of the kicker magnet which are not at pulsed high voltage and water cooling of these parts. Furthermore a surface coating, to mitigate dynamic vacuum activity, has been selected. The results of these studies, except for water cooling, have been implemented on an upgraded LHC injection kicker magnet: this magnet was installed in the LHC during the 2017-18 Year End Technical Stop. This paper presents the upgrades, including some test and measurement results.
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WEPMK005 Preliminary Results from Validation Measurements of the Longitudinal Power Deposition Model for the LHC Injection Kicker Magnet 2636
  • V. Vlachodimitropoulos, M.J. Barnes, A. Chmielinska
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • A. Chmielinska
    EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
  During Run 1 of the LHC, one of the injection kicker magnets (MKIs) exhibited an excessively high ferrite temperature, caused by coupling of the high intensity beam to the real impedance of the magnet. Beam-screen upgrades, implemented during Long Shutdown 1 (LS1), have been very effective in reducing beam coupling impedance and since then the MKIs have not limited LHC's availability. However, temperature measurements during operation have shown that one end of the MKI's ferrite yoke is consistently hotter than the other. Detailed simulation models and data post-processing algorithms have been developed to understand and mitigate the observed behaviour. In the present paper, the model used to obtain the power loss distribution along the magnet is presented. The model is subsequently applied to two MKI design configurations under study: (i) the one currently in operation and (ii) an upgraded magnet that was installed in the LHC tunnel during the Year End Technical Stop (YETS) 2017/18. In order to validate the expected behaviour a novel measurement technique was developed, applied in both configurations and compared to predictions. The results obtained are reported and conclusions regarding the effectiveness of the design are drawn.  
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WEPML021 First Performance Results of the PIP2IT MEBT 200 Ω Kicker Prototype 2724
  • G.W. Saewert, M.H. Awida, B.E. Chase, A.Z. Chen, J. Einstein-Curtis, D. Frolov, K.S. Martin, H. Pfeffer, D. Wolff
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  • S. Khole
    BARC, Trombay, Mumbai, India
  • D. Sharma
    RRCAT, Indore (M.P.), India
  Funding: This manuscript has been authored by Fermi Research Alliance, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11359 with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics
The PIP-II project is a program to upgrade the Fermilab accelerator complex. The PIP-II linac includes a 2.1 MeV Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) section that incorporates a unique chopping system to perform arbi-trary, bunch-by-bunch removal of 162.5 MHz structured beam. The MEBT chopping system will consist of two identical kickers working together and a beam absorber. One design of two having been proposed has been a 200 Ω characteristic impedance traveling wave dual-helix kicker driven with custom designed high-speed switches. This paper reports on the first performance results of one prototype kicker built, installed and tested with beam at the PIP-II Injector Test (PIP2IT) facility. The helix deflector design details are discussed. The electrical performance of the high-speed switch driver operating at 500 V bias is presented. Tests performed were chopping beam at 81.25 MHz for microseconds as well as with a truly arbitrary pattern for 550 us bursts having a 45 MHz average switching rate and repeating at 20 Hz.
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WEPML069 Fast Kicker and Pulser R&D for the HEPS on-Axis Injection System 2846
  • H. Shi, J. Chen, Z. Duan, L. Huo, P. Liu, X.L. Shi, G. Wang, L. Wang, N. Wang
    IHEP, Beijing, People's Republic of China
  The HEPS plans to adopt on-axis injection scheme because the dynamic aperture of machine is not large enough for off-axis injection for its baseline 7BA lattice design. A sets of super fast kicker and pulser of ±15kV amplitude, 15ns pulse bottom width are needed for bunch spacing of 10ns to minimize perturbation on adjacent bunches. To achieve these requirement, a multifaceted R&D program including the strip-line kicker and HV pulser, was initiated last 2 years. So far, the prototype development of a 750mm long strip-line kicker and a DSRD pulser was completed and the preliminary test results show they can meet the baseline requirement of the HEPS.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPML069  
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THPAL082 Development of a New Modular Switch Using a Next-Generation Semiconductor 3841
  • T. Takayanagi, K. Horino, T. Ueno
    JAEA/J-PARC, Tokai-mura, Japan
  An ultra-high-speed short pulse switch for high power have been developed by using SIC - MOSFET which is one of next generation semiconductors. Semiconductor switches using SIC-MOSFETs are expected to replace the thyratron, and they are composed of circuits in which many semiconductor switches are multiplexed in series and parallel for high power. Semiconductor switches using SIC-MOSFETs are expected to replace the thyratron, and they are also designed by connecting many semiconductor switches in parallel-series. To realize a low switching noise, it is common to form a symmetrical circuit. However, as the number of parallel connections increases, the circuit length between input and output becomes longer, so the output waveform is distorted due to any timing jitter or level fluctuation. Therefore, we propose a radially symmetric type of a module switch which does not cause level fluctuation due to the timing jitter by equalizing the circuit length independently of the number of semiconductor switches. The design and preliminary test results of two types of switch circuits, radially symmetric type and line symmetric type are presented here.  
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THPAL102 Design a High Power Pulse Transformer for C-band Klystron Modulator 3875
  • Y.F. Liu, Z.H. Chen, M. Gu, Y. Wu, Q. Yuan, X.X. Zhou
    SINAP, Shanghai, People's Republic of China
  Shanghai soft X-ray Free Electron Lasers (SXFEL) first uses C band accelerator structure to accelerate electrons at SINAP. SXFEL is an X-ray free electron laser facility, which requests very stable amplitude stability and very tight tolerances of phase jitter. 50MW C-band klystron and 110MW modulator is used to provide power supply for accelerator structure. Typical specifications of the modulator are peak beam voltage 350KV, peak beam current 320A, 10Hz repetition rate, 3us flat-top pulse width. In order to meet these demands, we developed a reliable and stable high power pulse transformer. In this paper, the analysis and design of high power pulse transformer for C band klystron modulator are presented. The methods of shortening rise time, diminishing droop and diminishing flat top oscillation are highlighted. Detailed design, simulation and relevant experimental results are given. The relevant experiments show that this pulse transformer can meet the requirement of 50MW C band klystron.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAL102  
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