08 Applications of Accelerators, Tech Transfer and Industrial Relations
U07 Industrial Applications
Paper Title Page
MOPML022 Development of Travelling Wave Accelerating Structure for a 10 MeV E-Linac 443
  • J.H. Yang, Y. Yang
    CIAE, Beijing, People's Republic of China
  • G. Han
    China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing, People's Republic of China
  Electron irradiation processing is a vital application field of nuclear technology application. China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) developed several 10 MeV high power electron irradiating accelerator successfully, promoting the development of high energy high power irradiating accelerator technology and electron irradiation processing in China. The paper introduced the development of a 10 MeV travelling wave accelerating tube. The tube operates at 2856 MHz in 2π/3 mode. The SUPERFISH and PARMELA are used for the physical design. Several methods are used for microwave parameter measurement and tuning. The high power test shows the beam energy is 10.3 MeV and average beam power is 24.3 kW.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPML022  
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MOPML029 A Portable X-ray Source Based on Dielectric Accelerators 464
  • C.-J. Jing
    Euclid TechLabs, LLC, Solon, Ohio, USA
  • S.P. Antipov, A. Kanareykin, R.A. Kostin
    Euclid Beamlabs LLC, Bolingbrook, USA
  Funding: The work has been supported by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO), under a competitively awarded contract No. HSHQDC-17-C-00007.
The portable low energy accelerator based X-ray sources have attractive applications in the non-destructive examination as a replacement of radiological gamma isotope sources. We are developing an inexpensive ultra-compact dielectric accelerator technology for low energy electron beams. The portability in the realm of this proposal is unprecedented ~ 1 ft3 volume with ~ 50 lbs of weight. The use of ceramics makes the transverse size of the accelerating waveguide comparable to that of a pencil. Because of this size reduction, additional weight reduction of shielding becomes possible. The article will report on the progress of this project.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPML029  
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MOPML052 The Path to Compact, Efficient Solid-State Transistor-Driven Accelerators 520
  • D.C. Nguyen, C.E. Buechler, G.E. Dale, R.L. Fleming, M.A. Holloway, J.W. Lewellen, D. Patrick
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
  • V.A. Dolgashev, E.N. Jongewaard, E.A. Nanni, J. Neilson, A.V. Sy, S.G. Tantawi
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  Funding: Research presented in this work is supported by (LANL) Laboratory Directed Research and Development 20170521ER and by (SLAC) Department of Energy contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.
Small, lightweight, few-MeV electron accelerators that can operate with low-voltage power sources, e.g., solid-state transistors running on 50 VDC, instead of high-voltage klystrons, will provide a new tool to enhance existing applications of accelerators as well as to initiate new ones. Recent advances in gallium nitride (GaN) semiconductor technologies * have resulted in a new class of high-power RF solid-state devices called high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). These HEMTs are capable of generating a few hundred watts at S-, C- and X-bands at 10% duty factor. We have characterized a number of GaN HEMTs and verified they have suitable RF characteristics to power accelerator cavities **. We have measured energy gain as a function of RF power in a single low-beta C-band cavity. The HEMT powered RF accelerators will be compact and efficient, and they can operate off the low-voltage DC power buses or batteries. These all-solid-state accelerators are also more robust, less likely to fail, and are easier to maintain and operate. In this poster, we present the design of a low-beta, 5.1-GHz cavity and beam dynamics simulations showing continuous energy gain in a ten-cavity C-band prototype.
* See for example, http://www.wolfspeed.com/downloads/dl/file/id/463/product/174/cghv59350.pdf
** J.W. Lewellen et al., Proceedings of LINAC2016, Paper MO3A03
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPML052  
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MOPML055 Preliminary Physics Design of a Linac with the Variable Energy for Industrial Applications 530
  • Zh. X. Tang
    USTC, Hefei, Anhui, People's Republic of China
  • L. Wang, D.R. Xu
    USTC/NSRL, Hefei, Anhui, People's Republic of China
  This paper describes the physics design of a S-band (2856 MHz) linear accelerator (linac) with variable energy tuning. The system consists of a DC gun for generating electron, prebuncher for velocity modulation and two travelling wave (TW) accelerating sections for acceleration. The accelerating structure is a 2'Ð/3 mode constant gradient TW structure, which comprises TW buncher cells, followed by uniform cells. The structure is designed to accelerate 45 keV electron beam from the electron gun to 3.2 MeV, and then 10 MeV. An important feature of the TW linac is that the RF output power of the first linac is as the RF input power of the second linac. Three dimensional transient simulations of the accelerating structure along with the input and output couplers have been performed to explicitly demonstrate this feature. Beam dynamics is performed to calculate the beam parameter.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPML055  
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MOPML067 9/6 MeV European S-band Linac Structure for Container Inspection System at RTX and KAERI 560
  • P. Buaphad, H.D. Park, S. Song
    RTX, Daejeon, Republic of Korea
  • P. Buaphad, Y. Joo
    University of Science and Technology of Korea (UST), Daejeon, Republic of Korea
  • P. Buaphad, S.C. Cha, Y. Joo, Y. Kim, H.R. Lee
    KAERI, Jeongeup-si, Republic of Korea
  Recently, demands on low energy electron linear accelerators (linacs) for industrial applications are rapidly growing. Their beam energies are lower than 20 MeV, and they require a compact, cheap, and stable accelerator system. For the Container Inspection System (CIS), KAERI successfully developed a 9/6 MeV American S-band (= 2856 MHz) linac with a 5 MW klystron in 2013. To reduce the cost of the RF source, recently, KAERI and RTX also have been developing another 9/6 MeV European S-band (= 2998 MHz) linac by using a magnetron with a lower RF power of about 3.1 MW. Its accelerating structure is designed to be operated in π/2 mode by coupling 13 accelerating cells together through 12 side-coupling cells. The CST Microwave Studio is used for electromagnetic simulations and optimization of the accelerating structure. After various optimizations, a shunt impedance of 84 MΩ/m is obtained at π/2 mode frequency of 2998.31 MHz. In this paper, we describe design concept, optimization, and RF measurement of the new 9/6 MeV European S-band linac structure. Then, we compare it with our old American S-band linac structure.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPML067  
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Review on Accelerator Based Compact Neutron Sources  
  • H.M. Shimizu
    Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan
  High intensity spallation sources are providing opportunities to obtain leading-edge quality data, while new demands of neutron use are emerging not only in the frontier scientific studies but also in practical applications, education of non-specialists, feasibility studies and development of neutron devices. Small- and medium-scale neutron sources have the potential to meet such demands since they offer the on-demand access and long-term occupation of neutron beam. This invited talk presents a review of present activities and facilities, and future prospects of this trend around the world, including the Japan Collaboration on Accelerator-driven Neutron Sources (JCANS).  
slides icon Slides TUYGBF1 [2.807 MB]  
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Commercial Applications of High-Yield Accelerator-Based Neutron Generators  
  • M. Michalak, R.F. Radel, K.M. Rittenhouse
    PNL, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
  Phoenix, LLC. has developed an accelerator-based high-yield neutron generator. This system utilizes a microwave ion source (MWS), 300 kV DC accelerator, magnetic solenoid focus element, differential pumping system, and gaseous deuterium target to achieve neutron yields of 3x1011 n/s. Lower-yield variations of the device have been built using a solid titanium target, and design for a DT version of the gas target system is underway that will increase neutron yield to 5x1013 n/s. Phoenix has delivered a number of systems to government and commercial customers and has identified a number of longer-term commercial applications for this high-yield neutron generator. These include medical isotope production, neutron radiography, radiation effects testing, active interrogation for explosives and SNM detection, and Cf-252 replacement. Most applications require the development of specialized moderator assemblies and fixtures to meet customer requirements. This presentation will discuss the base neutron generator technology and custom variations and will address a number of the commercial applications in which Phoenix neutron generators have been utilized.  
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TUYGBF4 Design and Simulation Tools for the High-Intensity Industrial Rhodotron Electron Accelerator 651
  • W.J.G.M. Kleeven, M. Abs, J. Brison, E. Forton, J. M. Hubert, J. Walle
    IBA, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
  The Rhodotron is a compact industrial CW recirculating electron accelerator producing intense beams with energies in the range from about 1 to 10 MeV. RF-frequencies are in the range of 100 to 400 MHz. Average beam powers can range from 10 kW to almost 1 MW, depending of the specific type of Rhodotron. Main industrial applications are polymer cross-linking, sterilization, food treatment and container security scanning. Recently, RF pulsing was developed to reduce the average wall power dissipation, thus reducing drastically the energy consumption. Pulsing also permits smaller cavities and higher energies up to 40 MeV, opening the way to applications such as mobile irradiators, or isotopes production by photonuclear reactions, thus offering a compact and high beam duty alternative to linacs. This paper concentrates on some crucial design tools and methods for transverse and longitudinal optics studies, particle tracking with space charge, beam formation studies in the electron gun and dipole magnet design.  
slides icon Slides TUYGBF4 [11.952 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUYGBF4  
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THPML126 Design of High Efficiency High Power CW Linacs for Environmental and Industrial Applications 4974
  • M. Shumail, V.A. Dolgashev, C.M. Markusen
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  Funding: US Department of Energy, Office of High Energy Physics, through Accelerator Stewardship Grant
We have used our accelerator design toolbox equations to design three high efficiency and high power CW accelerators for the environmental and medical applications. These are: 2MeV-1MW, 10MeV-10MW, and 10MeV-1MW linacs. These are all 10 m long, 1.3 GHz, π-mode standing wave structures with design efficiencies of 96.8, 97.4 and 86.5 %, and optimal coupling coefficients of 32.9, 43.5, and 7.45, respectively. We present the detailed design parameters of these linacs. The study of single-bunch beam breakup for these linacs and the simulations results from ABCI are also included. The initial cavities are optimized according to the speed of the electron bunch to maximize the shunt impedance. The plots of peak surface fields on these cavities are also presented. We have also included a detailed thermal analysis of these linacs. Finally, we present the results of ASTRA simulations of the three linacs with magnetic focusing. We have also included the complete design of rf-distributed-coupling manifold for the third linac along with the HFSS® simulation results.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML126  
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