Keyword: cathode
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MOPMF070 High Voltage Design for the Electrostatic Septum for the Mu2e Beam Resonant Extraction high-voltage, vacuum, simulation, extraction 289
 
  • M.L. Alvarez, C.C. Jensen, D.K. Morris, V.P. Nagaslaev, H. Pham, D.G. Tinsley
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
 
  Two electrostatic septa (ESS) are being designed for the slow extraction of 8GeV proton beam for the Mu2e experiment at Fermilab. Special attention is given to the high voltage components that affect the performance of the septa. The components under consideration are the high voltage (HV) feedthrough, cathode standoff (CS), and clearing electrode ceramic standoffs (CECS). Previous experience with similar HV systems at Fermilab was used to define the evaluation criteria of the design of the high voltage components. Using electric field simulation software, high E-field intensities on the components and integrated field strength along the surface of the dielectric material were minimized. Here we discuss the limitations found and improvements made based on those studies.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPMF070  
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MOPMK015 Development of a Bunched-Beam Electron Cooler for the Jefferson Lab Electron-Ion Collider electron, linac, kicker, gun 382
 
  • S.V. Benson, Y.S. Derbenev, D. Douglas, F.E. Hannon, A. Hutton, R. Li, R.A. Rimmer, Y. Roblin, C. Tennant, H. Wang, H. Zhang, Y. Zhang
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
 
  Funding: Authored by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC under U.S.DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177.
Jefferson Lab is in the process of designing an electron-ion collider with unprecedented luminosity at a 65 GeV center-of-mass energy. This luminosity relies on ion cooling in both the booster and the storage ring of the accelerator complex. The cooling in the booster will use a conventional DC cooler similar to the one at COSY. The high-energy storage ring, operating at a momentum of up to 100 GeV/nucleon, requires novel use of bunched-beam cooling. We will present a new design for a Circulator Cooler Ring for bunched-beam electron cooling. This requires the generation and transport of very high-charge magnetized bunches, acceleration of the bunches in an energy recovery linac, and transfer of these bunches to a circulating ring that passes the bunches 11 times through the proton or ion beam inside cooling solenoids. This design requires the suppression of the effects of space charge and coherent synchrotron radiation using shielding and RF compensation.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPMK015  
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MOPML060 Self-Consistent Simulation and Optimization of Space-Charge Limited Thermionic Energy Converters simulation, electron, space-charge, feedback 543
 
  • N.M. Cook, J.P. Edelen, C.C. Hall
    RadiaSoft LLC, Boulder, Colorado, USA
  • J.-L. Vay
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
 
  Funding: This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics under Award Number DE-SC0017162.
Thermionic energy converters (TEC) are an attractive technology for modular, efficient transfer of heat to electrical energy. The steady-state dynamics of a TEC are a function of the emission characteristics of the cathode and anode, an array of intra-gap electrodes and dielectric structures, and the self-consistent dynamics of the electrons in the gap. Proper modeling of these devices requires self-consistent simulation of the electron interactions in the gap. We present results from simulations of these devices using the particle-in-cell code Warp, developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. We consider the role of individual energy loss mechanisms in reducing device efficiency, including kinetic losses, radiative losses, and dielectric charging. We discuss the implementation of an external circuit model to provide realistic feedback. Lastly, we illustrate the potential to use nonlinear optimization to maximize the efficiency of these devices by examining grid transparency.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPML060  
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TUYGBF4 Design and Simulation Tools for the High-Intensity Industrial Rhodotron Electron Accelerator cavity, dipole, gun, electron 651
 
  • W.J.G.M. Kleeven, M. Abs, J. Brison, E. Forton, J. M. Hubert, J. Walle
    IBA, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
 
  The Rhodotron is a compact industrial CW recirculating electron accelerator producing intense beams with energies in the range from about 1 to 10 MeV. RF-frequencies are in the range of 100 to 400 MHz. Average beam powers can range from 10 kW to almost 1 MW, depending of the specific type of Rhodotron. Main industrial applications are polymer cross-linking, sterilization, food treatment and container security scanning. Recently, RF pulsing was developed to reduce the average wall power dissipation, thus reducing drastically the energy consumption. Pulsing also permits smaller cavities and higher energies up to 40 MeV, opening the way to applications such as mobile irradiators, or isotopes production by photonuclear reactions, thus offering a compact and high beam duty alternative to linacs. This paper concentrates on some crucial design tools and methods for transverse and longitudinal optics studies, particle tracking with space charge, beam formation studies in the electron gun and dipole magnet design.  
slides icon Slides TUYGBF4 [11.957 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUYGBF4  
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TUPAL041 Vacuum Accelerating Tube with Two Symmetrically Located Targets for Neutron Generation electron, neutron, target, plasma 1097
 
  • V.I. Rashchikov, A.A. Isaev, A.E. Shikanov
    MEPhI, Moscow, Russia
 
  Original neutron generator* on the base of pulse accelerating vacuum tube with two targets, symmetrically located on the both sides of deuteron source is discussed. Two immersion lenses in front of each other uses as accelerating and focusing systems. Lenses cathodes are Faraday cups with targets for neutron production on the bottom. Symmetric ring magnetic elements cover immersion lenses for correcting focusing conditions. Computer simulation allows us to choose electrodes geometry and accelerating pulse value for electron flow from ion-electron emission oscillate between the targets and provide device operate as reflective triode. Estimations of neutron flow and spatio-temporal neutron field structure are done.
* Patent RF N2467526, 14.06.2011
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAL041  
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TUPMF002 A Cu Photocathode for the Superconducting RF Photoinjector of BERLinPro gun, SRF, cavity, laser 1247
 
  • J. Kühn, M. Bürger, A. Frahm, A. Jankowiak, T. Kamps, G. Klemz, G. Kourkafas, A. Neumann, N. Ohm, M. Schmeißer, M. Schuster, J. Völker
    HZB, Berlin, Germany
  • P. Murcek, J. Teichert
    HZDR, Dresden, Germany
 
  The initial commissioning of the Superconducting RF (SRF) photoinjector is done with a Cu photocathode due to its robustness with regard to interactions with the SRF cavity of the injector. Here we present the preparation and characterization of a Cu photocathode plug and the diagnostics to insert the photocathode in the back wall of the SRF cavity. A polycrystalline bulk Cu plug was polished, particle free cleaned and characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. During the transfer of the photocathode insert into the gun module the whole process was controlled by several diagnostic tools monitoring the insert position as well as RF, vacuum and cryogenic signals. We discuss the challenges of the photocathode transfer into an SRF cavity and how they can be tackled.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPMF002  
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TUPMF020 Demonstration of Fast, Single-shot Photocathode QE Mapping Method Using MLA Pattern Beam laser, electron, gun, optics 1293
 
  • E.E. Wisniewski, M.E. Conde, D.S. Doran, W. Gai, Q. Gao, W. Liu, J.G. Power, C. Whiteford
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois, USA
  • Q. Gao
    TUB, Beijing, People's Republic of China
  • G. Ha
    PAL, Pohang, Republic of Korea
  • A. Halavanau, P. Piot
    Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois, USA
  • P. Piot
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
 
  Funding: UChicago Argonne, LLC, Operator of Argonne National Laboratory ("Argonne"). Argonne, a U.S.A. Department of Energy Office of Science laboratory, is operated under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.
Quantum efficiency (QE) is the chief figure of merit in the characterization of photocathodes. Semiconductor photocathodes, especially when used in high rep-rate photo-injectors, are known to show QE degradation over time and must be replaced. The total QE is the basic diagnostic which is used widely and is easy to obtain. However, a QE map indicating variations of QE across the cathode surface has greater utility. It can quickly diagnose problems of QE inhomogeneity. Most QE mapping techniques require hours to complete and are thus disruptive to a user facility schedule. A fast, single-shot method has been proposed (citation) using a micro-lens array (MLA) generated QE map. In this paper we report the implementation of the method at Argonne Wakefield Accelerator facility. A micro-lens array (MLA) is used to project an array of beamlets onto the photocathode. The resulting photoelectron beam in the form of an array of electron beamlets is imaged at a YAG screen. Four synchronized measurements are made and the results used to produce a QE map of the photocathode.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPMF020  
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TUPMF025 LEReC Photocathode DC Gun Beam Test Results gun, operation, laser, electron 1306
 
  • D. Kayran, Z. Altinbas, D. Bruno, M.R. Costanzo, A.V. Fedotov, D.M. Gassner, X. Gu, L.R. Hammons, P. Inacker, J.P. Jamilkowski, J. Kewisch, C.J. Liaw, C. Liu, K. Mernick, T.A. Miller, M.G. Minty, V. Ptitsyn, T. Rao, J. Sandberg, S. Seletskiy, P. Thieberger, J.E. Tuozzolo, E. Wang, Z. Zhao
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
 
  Funding: Work supported by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy.
Low Energy RHIC Electron cooler (LEReC) project is presently under commissioning at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). LEReC requires high average current up to 85mA and high-quality electron beam. A 400 kV DC gun equipped with a photocathode and laser system has been chosen to provide a source of high-quality electron beams. We started testing the DC gun during the RHIC run 2017. First electron beam from LEReC DC gun was delivered in April 2017 *. During the DC gun test critical elements of LEReC such as laser beam system, cathode exchange system, cathode QE lifetime, DC gun stability, beam instrumentation, the high-power beam dump system, machine protection system and controls have been tested. Average current of 10 mA for few hours of operation was reached in August 2017. In this paper we present experimental results and experience learned during the LEReC DC gun beam testing.
* D. Kayran et al., "First Results of Commissioning DC Photo-gun for RHIC Low Energy Electron Cooler (LEReC)", in Proc of ERL2017.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPMF025  
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TUPMF065 The Role of Electron-Phonon Scattering in Transverse Momentum Conservation in PbTe(111) Photocathodes electron, experiment, scattering, photon 1414
 
  • J. K. Nangoi, T.A. Arias
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • S.S. Karkare, H.A. Padmore
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  • W.A. Schroeder
    UIC, Chicago, Illinois, USA
 
  Funding: The U.S. National Science Foundation under Award PHY-1549132, the Center for Bright Beams.
The state of the art in creating high quality electron beams for particle accelerator applications and next generation ultrafast electron diffraction and microscopy involves laser-generated photoemission. A high quality beam requires that electrons emerge from the surface with low mean transverse energy (MTE). Recent density-functional theory calculations by T. Li and W. A. S. [arXiv:1704.00194v1 [physics.acc-ph] (2017)] suggest that PbTe(111) will produce low-MTE photoelectrons due to the low effective electron mass associated with its electronic band structure. Based on this, we measured the distribution of photoelectrons from PbTe(111) and found the MTE to be about 20x larger than expected. To explain the apparent lack of transverse momentum conservation, we carried out many-body photoemission calculations including electron-phonon scattering. Our results are in far better agreement with the experiment, underscoring the importance of electron-phonon scattering in photoemission from PbTe(111), and suggest that cooling could mitigate the phonon effects on the MTE for this material.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPMF065  
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TUPMK008 Highly-stable, High-power Picosecond Laser Optically Synchronized to a UV Photocathode Laser for an ICS Hard X-ray Generation laser, timing, electron, linac 1504
 
  • K.-H. Hong
    MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
  • D. Gadonas, L.M. Hand, K. Neimontas, A. Senin, V. Sinkevicius
    Light Conversion, Vilnius, Lithuania
  • W.S. Graves, M.R. Holl, L.E. Malin, C. Zhang
    Arizona State University, Tempe, USA
  • S. Klingebiel, T. Metzger, K. Michel
    TRUMPF Scientific Lasers GmbH + Co. KG, Munchen-Unterfoehring, Germany
 
  Under the CXLS project at Arizona State University we are developing an inverse Compton scattering (ICS) hard X-ray source* towards a compact XFEL with electron nano-bunching. The ICS interaction is critically dependent on the quality of driver pulses such as: 1) available peak intensity, 2) energy/pointing stability, and 3) relative timing stability to UV pulses initially triggering electron beams. Here, we report on a highly stable, 1 kHz, 200 mJ, 1.1 ps, 1030 nm laser with good beam quality as an ICS driver, optically synchronized to a UV photocathode laser. The ICS driver is based on a Yb:YAG thin-disk regenerative amplifier (RGA), ensuring an excellent energy stability (shot-to-shot 0.52% rms; 0.14% rms over 24 hours). The pointing stability better than 4 urad is obtained. The M2 factor is as good as ~1.5 at the full energy, leading to the achievable laser intensity of >1017 W/cm2 with f/10 focusing. The photocathode laser, a frequency-quadrupled Yb:KGW RGA, share a common seed oscillator with the ICS driver for optical synchronization. The residual sub-ps timing drift is further reduced to 33 fs rms using an optical locking scheme based on a parametric amplifier.
* W.S. Graves et al., "Compact X-ray source based on burst mode inverse compton scattering at 100 kHz," Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams, Vol. 17, p. 120701 (Dec. 2014).
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPMK008  
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TUPML006 Updates of the Argonne Cathode Test-stand laser, electron, gun, experiment 1542
 
  • J.H. Shao, M.E. Conde, D.S. Doran, W. Gai, W. Liu, J.F. Power, C. Whiteford, E.E. Wisniewski, L.M. Zheng
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois, USA
  • S.P. Antipov, G. Chen, E. Gomez, C.-J. Jing
    Euclid TechLabs, LLC, Solon, Ohio, USA
  • S.V. Baryshev
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
 
  The Argonne Cathode Test-stand (ACT) is a unique testbed to develop cathodes and to conduct fundamental surface study under ultra-high rf field (up to 700 MV/m with pin-shaped cathodes). The test-stand consists of an L-band 1.3 GHz single-cell photocathode rf gun and a field emission (FE) imaging system to locate emitters with a resolution of ∼20 𝜇m. In the recent upgrade, UV laser has been introduced to improve the imaging system and to significantly expand the ACT towards photoemission and laser-assisted field emission research. In addition, a load-lock system has been added to the beam line to expedite the cathode switching period. The paper will present details of the upgrade as well as experiments planned in the near future.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML006  
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TUPML019 Design of Multi-Alkali Photocathode Preparation System for CTFEL Facility FEL, vacuum, laser, electron 1571
 
  • D.X. Xiao, M. Li, Q. Pan, H. Wang, X. Yang
    CAEP/IAE, Mianyang, Sichuan, People's Republic of China
 
  The first saturated lasing of the China Academy of Engineering Physics tera-hertz free electron laser (CTFEL) facility has been realized. In order to improve the performance of the CTFEL facility, the multi-alkali photocathode with much longer life-time has been proposed to replace the GaAs photocathode currently used. This paper presents the design of the multi-alkali photocathode preparation system, which consists of three chambers: the suitcase chamber, the preparation chamber, and the loading chamber. The function of each chamber is also discussed.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML019  
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TUPML025 Long Lifetime Spin-Polarized GaAs Photocathode Activated by Cs2Te electron, polarization, vacuum, photon 1589
 
  • J. Bae, L. Cultrera, P. Digiacomo
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • I.V. Bazarov
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
 
  Funding: This work was supported by the Department of Energy Grant Nos. DE-SC0016203 and NSF PHY-1461111.
High intensity and highly spin-polarized electron source is of great interest to the next generation Electron Ion Colliders. GaAs prepared by the standard activation method, which is the most widely used spin-polarized photocathode, is notorious for its vacuum sensitivity and short operational lifetime. To improve the lifetime of GaAs photocathodes, we activated GaAs by Cs2Te, a material well known for its robustness. We confirmed the Cs2Te layer forms negative electron affinity on GaAs with a factor of 5 improvement in lifetime. Furthermore, the new activation method had no adverse effect on spin-polarization. Considering Cs2Te forms much thicker activation layer (~ 2 nm) compared to the standard activation layer (~ monolayer), our results trigger a paradigm shift on new activation methods with other robust materials that were avoided for their thickness.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML025  
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TUPML026 Multi-photon Photoemission and Ultrafast Electron Heating in Cu Photocathodes at Threshold electron, photon, laser, radiation 1593
 
  • J. Bae, L. Cultrera
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • I.V. Bazarov, J.M. Maxson
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • S.S. Karkare, H.A. Padmore
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  • P. Musumeci, X.L. Shen
    UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA
 
  Funding: U.S. National Science Foundation under award PHY-1549132, the Center for Bright Beams.
Operating photocathodes near the photoemission threshold holds the promise of yielding small intrinsic emittance, at the cost of significantly reduced quantum efficiency. In modern femtosecond photoemission electron sources, this requires a very high intensity (10s of GW/cm2) to extract a useful quantity of electrons. At this intensity, the electron occupation function is far from equilibrium and evolves rapidly on sub-ps timescales. Thus, ultrafast laser heating and multiphoton photoemission effects may play a significant role in emission, thereby increasing the minimum achievable emittance. In this work, we use a Boltzmann equation approach to calculate the non-equilibrium occupation function evolution in time for a copper photocathode, yielding a prediction of quantum efficiency and mean transverse energy as a function of input intensity.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML026  
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TUPML027 Barium Tin Oxide Ordered Photocathodes: First Measurements and Future Perspectives electron, photon, laser, emittance 1597
 
  • A. Galdi, E. B. Lochocki, H. Paik, C.T. Parzyck, D. G. Schlom, K.M. Shen
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • G. Adhikari, W.A. Schroeder
    UIC, Chicago, Illinois, USA
  • I.V. Bazarov, L. Cultrera, W. H. Li, J.M. Maxson, C. M. Pierce
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
 
  Funding: This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation under Award PHY-1549132, the Center for Bright Beams.
Single crystalline photocathodes with small electron effective mass are supposed to enable ultra-low emittance beams, by taking advantage of the conservation of transverse (crystal) momentum. We present a preliminary study on photoemission from epitaxial films of La-doped BaSnO3 with (100) orientation. We demonstrate here the possibility of generating and characterizing electron beams by exciting photoelectrons solely from the conduction band. We report quantum efficiency and mean transverse energy meaurements as a function of photon energy from the bare and Cs-activated La-doped BaSnO3 surface.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML027  
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TUPML028 Photocathodes R&D for High Brightness and Highly Polarized Electron Beams at Cornell University electron, emittance, gun, simulation 1601
 
  • L. Cultrera, J. Bae, A.C. Bartnik, I.V. Bazarov, R. Doane, A. Galdi, C.M. Gulliford, W. H. Li, J.M. Maxson, S.A. McBride, T.P. Moore, C. M. Pierce, C. Xu
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
 
  Cornell University is a leader in the development of photocathode materials for the production of high brightness electron beam sources for applications in large scale accelerators and small scale electron scattering experiments. During the last year we have also included Mott polarimetry to investigate long lifetime spin-polarized photocathodes materials. Another thrust of our laboratory is the exploration of ultra low emittance photocathodes at cryogenic temperatures, for which we are building a novel LHe cryogenic electron source. We will review updates from our lab across each of these areas.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML028  
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TUPML029 Novel Photocathode Geometry Optimization: Field Enhancing Photoemission Tips emittance, electron, solenoid, simulation 1605
 
  • W. H. Li, I.V. Bazarov, C.M. Gulliford, J.M. Maxson
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
 
  Funding: This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation under award PHY-1549132, the Center for Bright Beams.
For photoemission sources, the extraction electric field defines the maximum achievable emission current, and hence the maximum achievable beam brightness. Recently, interest has been growing in studying photocathodes with non-flat geometries to produce local field enhancements in excess of what can be achieved with large area flat cathodes. However, such geometries cause image charge effects which require self-consistent field solvers to correctly simulate. We present a novel simulation framework which combines a full particle in cell field solver (WARP) with a fast adaptive mesh space charge particle tracker (GPT) and a parallel multi-objective genetic optimizer to explore photocathode geometries for ultra high brightnesses. A first application of this technique is also shown, namely the use of field enhanced photoemission tips to create bright beams for ultra-fast electron diffraction.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML029  
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TUPML053 The BERLinPro SRF Photoinjector System - From First RF Commissioning to First Beam cavity, SRF, operation, solenoid 1660
 
  • A. Neumann, D. Böhlick, M. Bürger, P. Echevarria, A. Frahm, H.-W. Glock, F. Göbel, S. Heling, K. Janke, A. Jankowiak, T. Kamps, S. Klauke, G. Klemz, J. Knobloch, G. Kourkafas, J. Kühn, O. Kugeler, N. Leuschner, N. Ohm, E. Panofski, H. Plötz, S. Rotterdam, M.A.H. Schmeißer, M. Schuster, H. Stein, Y. Tamashevich, J. Ullrich, A. Ushakov, J. Völker
    HZB, Berlin, Germany
 
  Funding: The work is funded by the Helmholtz-Association, BMBF, the state of Berlin and HZB.
Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) is currently constructing a high average current superconducting (SC) ERL as a prototype to demonstrate low normalized beam emittance of 1 mm-mrad at 100 mA and short pulses of about 2 ps. To attain the required beam properties, an SRF based photo-injector system was developed and during the past year underwent RF commissioning and was setup within a dedicated diagnostics beamline called Gunlab to analyze beam dynamics of both, a copper cathode and a Cs2KSb cathode as well as their quantum efficiency at UV and green light respectively. The medium power prototype - a first stage towards the final high power 100 mA design - presented here features a 1.4 x λ/2 cell SRF cavity with a normal-conducting, high quantum efficiency CsK2Sb cathode, implementing a modified HZDR-style cathode insert. This injector potentially allows for 6 mA beam current and up to 3.5 MeV kinetic energy, limited by the modified twin TTF-III fundamental power couplers. In this contribution, the first RF commissioning results of the photo-injector module will be presented including dark current analysis as well as measured beam properties with an initially installed Copper cathode.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML053  
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TUPML061 Study of Mean Transverse Energy of (N)UNCD with Tunable Laser Source solenoid, photon, electron, laser 1677
 
  • G. Chen
    IIT, Chicago, Illinois, USA
  • G. Adhikari, W.A. Schroeder
    UIC, Chicago, Illinois, USA
  • S.P. Antipov, C.-J. Jing, K. Kovi
    Euclid TechLabs, LLC, Solon, Ohio, USA
  • S.V. Baryshev
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois, USA
  • L.K. Spentzouris
    Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois, USA
 
  Funding: NSF grant No. NSF-1739150, DOE SBIR program grant No. DE-SC0013145, NSF grant No. PHYS-1535279, DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.
There is a strong motivation to develop and understand novel materials with the potential to be utilized as photocathodes, as these could have desirable photoemission properties for research and industrial applications. Nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond ((N)UNCD) photocathodes have potential to become a material of choice for photocathode applications*. (N)UNCD has high quantum efficiency when processed in hydrogen plasma*, low surface roughness, and high electron conductivity through the bulk**. The mean transverse energy (MTE) was calculated for (N)UNCD thin films using the double-solenoid scan method. (N)UNCD thin film with thickness of 160nm was deposited on highly-doped silicon substrate. Studies of the MTE of a (N)UNCD sample were done using a tunable laser source with photon energies of 3.56 eV to 5.26 eV. These results are presented.
* K.J. Pérez Quintero et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 123103 (2014).
** S. Bhattacharyya et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1441 (2001)
 
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WEPAL019 A Novel Field Cage Design for the CPS IPM and Systematic Errors in Beam Size and Emittance electron, detector, extraction, emittance 2193
 
  • K. Satou
    J-PARC, KEK & JAEA, Ibaraki-ken, Japan
  • D. Bodart, S. Levasseur, G. Schneider, J.W. Storey
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • M. Sapinski
    GSI, Darmstadt, Germany
 
  An ionization profile monitor has been recently installed in the CERN proton synchrotron. We design a novel and simple structure field cage that suppresses the secondary electrons that are induced by the ionized ions. We discuss a field cage design, and the systematic error on the basis of beam size and emittance, considering the non-uniformity of the fields, the space-charge effect of the beam, and the lattice parameter errors.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPAL019  
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WEPAL045 An Electrostatic Fixed-Slit Emittance Measurement System emittance, electron, focusing, FEL 2274
 
  • J.W. Lewellen, H.L. Andrews, R.L. Fleming, K.E. Nichols, E.I. Simakov
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
 
  Funding: Los Alamos National Laboratory LDRD Program
The emittance of a field emission cathode can be difficult to measure close to the emitter, due to the high average current density of the beam and the potential for desorbed material from an imaging screen to contaminate the cathode. We present the design for a dual fixed-slit emittance measurement system for a field emitter cathode, implemented using electrostatic deflecting plates. Results from fabrication and initial testing will be presented.
 
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WEPMF002 Operational Experience with IOTs at Alba Synchrotron cavity, electron, operation, controls 2372
 
  • J.R. Ocampo, B. Bravo, R. Fos, F. Pérez, A. Salom, P. Solans
    ALBA-CELLS Synchrotron, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain
  • S. Bethuys, A. Beunas, M. Grezaud, P. Reynaud
    TED, Velizy-Villacoublay, France
  • M. Boyle, J. Cipolla, W.F. Coyle, H. Schult
    L-3, Williamsport, Pennsylvania, USA
 
  ALBA is a 3 GeV Synchrotron light source in operation since 2012. The RF systems are based in Inductive Output Tube (IOT) transmitters. A total of 13 80 kW IOT amplifiers are used to power the Storage Ring and Booster cavities at 500 MHz. The transmitters were initially configured to operate the TH-793-1 and TH-794 IOT from THALES Electron devices. On 2015, the amplifiers have been adapted to operate also the TH-795 from THALES and the L4444-C from L3 Communications. In this paper, a brief overview of the differences between these IOT models will be presented, as well as operation results for each type of IOT from the point of view of performance, reliability and durability.  
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WEPMF055 The REGAE Accelerator Vacuum System gun, vacuum, operation, electron 2493
 
  • S. Lederer, K. Flöttmann, L. Lilje, N. Plambeck
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  Since 2011 the Relativistic Electron Gun for Atomic Exploration (REGAE) is operated at DESY in Hamburg. The accelerator consists mainly of a high gradient S-band RF-gun, which generates ultra-low emittance electron bunches, and an S-band RF-buncher cavity for bunch compression. In this contribution we describe the vacuum system of the REGAE accelerator. We will cover design aspects, applied cleaning and installation procedures as well as operation experience over the last years.  
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WEPMF056 Cs2Te Photocathode Lifetime at Flash and European XFEL FEL, laser, gun, operation 2496
 
  • S. Lederer, S. Schreiber
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  The photo-injectors of FLASH and the European XFEL at DESY (Hamburg, Germany) use Cs2Te photocathodes. In this contribution we give an update on the lifetime and quantum efficiency of the cathodes operated in both facilities. Cathode #680.1 was operated at the European XFEL from the injector commissioning to the first user run for over 700 days. At FLASH cathode #73.3 has been operated with a record of more than 1000 days.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPMF056  
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WEPMK015 Optimization of Vertical Electro-Polishing Process: Experiments with Updated Cathode on Single-Cell Cavity and Performance Achieved in Vertical Test cavity, SRF, linac, superconductivity 2662
 
  • F. Éozénou, L. Maurice
    CEA/DSM/IRFU, France
  • P. Carbonnier, C. Madec, Th. Proslier, C. Servouin
    CEA/DRF/IRFU, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • V. Chouhan, Y.I. Ida, K.N. Nii, T.Y. Yamaguchi
    MGH, Hyogo-ken, Japan
  • H. Hayano, S. Kato, H. Monjushiro, T. Saeki, M. Sawabe
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
 
  Marui Galvanizing Co.Ltd., and CEA have been studying Vertical Electro-Polishing (VEP) on Nb single-cell accelerating superconducting accelerator cavity with the goal of mass-production and cost-reduction, in collaboration with KEK within TYL-FJPPL Particle Physics Laboratory. Marui has invented and patented a rotative cathode called ‘i-Ninja'. The version 5 has been tested for the first time in Europe at CEA Saclay. The four wings of the cathode remove efficiently, bubbles of hydrogen, and the chosen parameters make it possible to achieve better surface and uniform material removal compared to VEP with a fixed cathode. The effect of the temperature of the cavity walls on current oscillations has been precisely studied. Two single-cell cavities have been electro-polished and tested at 2 K in vertical cryostat and the results will be presented.  
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WEPML038 Plasma Window as a Pressure Valve for FAIR plasma, experiment, electron, vacuum 2776
 
  • B. F. Bohlender, M. Iberler, J. Jacoby
    IAP, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
  • A. Michel
    Goethe Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
 
  Funding: Funded by BMBF, Ref. No: 05P15 RFRBA and HIC for FAIR
This contribution shows the progress in the development of a plasma window at the institute for applied physics at Goethe University Frankfurt. A plasma window* is a membrane free transition between two regions of different pressure, enabling beam transmission from a rough vacuum area (~1 mbar) to a higher pressure (up to 1 bar) region on short length scales. In comparison to differential pumping stages a length reduction by a factor of up to 100 is achievable, while the absence of a solid membrane yields prolonged operation time. The sealing effect is based on the high temperature arc discharge sustained in a cooled copper channel between the pressure regimes. Due to a bulk temperature around 10,000K** the viscosity of the gas is dramatically increased, leading to a slower gas flow, enabling a higher pressure gradient. This contribution will present first results regarding the pressure gradient in dependence of the discharge current and the aperture. Until now, a pressure factor around 100 has been established for well over 50 min. This contribution goes along with the one from Mr. A. Michel, he focuses on the spectroscopic analysis of the arc plasma.
*A. Hershcovitch, J. Appl. Phys., AIP Publishing (1995) 78, 5283
**Y.E. Krasik et al., "Plasma Window Characterization", J. Appl. Phys., AIP Publishing (2007) 101, 053305.
 
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THPAF024 Understanding and Compensating Emittance Diluting Effects in Highly Optimized Ultrafast Electron Diffraction Beamlines emittance, electron, space-charge, gun 3004
 
  • C. M. Pierce, I.V. Bazarov, C.M. Gulliford, J.M. Maxson
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • S. Baturin
    Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
  • M.A. Gordon, Y.K. Kim
    University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
 
  Funding: This work was supported by the Center for Bright Beams, NSF PHY-1549132 and Department of Energy grant DE-SC0014338.
The application of Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm optimization (MOGA) to photoemission based ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) beamlines featuring extremely low cathode mean transverse energies has lead to designs with emittances as low as 1 nm for sub-picosecond bunches with 105 electrons*. Analysis of these results shows significant emittance growth during transport: with emittance dilution as high as a factor of 200-4000% for various designs and optics settings. In this study we quantify and model the individual sources of emittance growth (slice mismatches and space charge), and explore the use of the core emittance as a strong invariant.
C. Gulliford, A. Bartnik, and I. Bazarov. Multi-
objective optimizations of a novel cryocooled dc gun based
UED beam line. Phys. Rev. Ac-
celerators and Beams, 19(9):093402, 2016.
 
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THPAK045 Summary of Beam Operation Capability at FXR LIA operation, electron, induction, experiment 3316
 
  • Y.H. Wu, J. Ellsworth
    LLNL, Livermore, California, USA
 
  Funding: This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52- 07NA27344.
In this paper we summarize the current beam operation capability of FXR linear induc-tion accelerator (LIA) at LLNL. Experi-mental measurements for electron beam pa-rameters at different beam operations are pre-sented.
 
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THPAK051 Computer Simulation of Explosive Emission Electrons Acceleration and X-ray Quantum Generation in Pulse Coaxial Diode System with Interior Anode electron, radiation, simulation, target 3333
 
  • V.I. Rashchikov, A.A. Isaev, A.E. Shikanov, E.A. Shikanov
    MEPhI, Moscow, Russia
 
  Computer simulation of electrons from explosive emission acceleration and X-ray quantum generation in pulse coaxial diode system with interior anode, which is used in accelerating tube of compact X-ray generator* with Tesla transformer as high voltage source, was done. The results obtained allow us to choose accelerating tube diode system geometry for different running modes. Comparison of numerical results with experimental data of dose rate dependence on the distance from vacuum tube anode and energy at first circuit Tesla transformer was fulfilled.
*Patent RF N71817, 03.10.2007
 
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THPAK060 Transverse-to-Longitudinal Photocathode Distribution Imaging laser, quadrupole, electron, experiment 3361
 
  • A. Halavanau, P. Piot
    Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois, USA
  • W. Gai, G. Ha, J.G. Power, E.E. Wisniewski
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois, USA
  • G. Ha
    PAL, Pohang, Republic of Korea
  • P. Piot
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  • G. Qiang
    TUB, Beijing, People's Republic of China
 
  In this paper, we present a tunable picosecond-scale bunch train generation technique combining a microlens array (MLA) transverse laser shaper and a transverse-to-longitudinal emittance exchange (EEX) beamline. The modulated beamlet array is formed at the photocathode with the MLA setup. The resulting patterned electron beam is accelerated to 50 MeV and transported to the entrance of the EEX setup. A quadrupole channel is used to adjust the transverse spacing of the beamlet array upstream of the EEX, thereby enabling the generation of a bunch train with tunable separation downstream of the EEX beamline. Additionally, the MLA is mounted on a rotation stage which provides additional flexibility to produce high-frequency beam density modulation downstream of the EEX. Experimental results obtained at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) facility are presented and compared with numerical simulations.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK060  
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THPAK061 Magnetized and Flat Beam Generation at the Fermilab's FAST Facility quadrupole, emittance, simulation, solenoid 3364
 
  • A. Halavanau, P. Piot
    Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois, USA
  • D.J. Crawford, D.R. Edstrom, D. Mihalcea, S. Nagaitsev, P. Piot, A.L. Romanov, J. Ruan, V.D. Shiltsev
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
 
  Funding: This work is supported by the DOE contract No.DEAC02-07CH11359 to the Fermi Research Alliance LLC. A.H. is supported by the DOE under contract No. DE-SC0011831 with Northern Illinois University.
Canonical angular momentum (CAM) dominated beams can be formed in photoinjectors by applying an axial magnetic field on the photocathode surface. Such a beam possess asymmetric eigenemittances and is characterized by the measure of its magnetization. CAM removal using a set skew-quadrupole magnets maps the beam eigenemittances to the conventional emittance along each transverse degree of freedom thereby yielding flat beam with asymmetric transverse emittance. In this paper we report on the experimental generation of CAM dominated beam and their subsequent transformation into flat beams at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility. Our results are compared with numerical simulations and possible applications of the produced beams are discussed.
 
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THPAK065 Application of Transverse-to-Longitudinal Phase-Space-Exchanged Beam Produced from a Nano-Structure Photocathode to a Soft X-Ray Free-Electron Laser acceleration, simulation, quadrupole, laser 3379
 
  • A. Lueangaramwong, P. Piot
    Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois, USA
  • G. Andonian
    RadiaBeam, Santa Monica, California, USA
  • P. Piot
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
 
  Nano-structured cathodes can form transversely modulated beams which can be subsequently converted to temporally modulated beam via a transverse-to-longitudinal phase space-exchanging beamline. We demonstrate via numerical simulation the generation of transversely modulated beam at the nm scale and investigate the corresponding enhancement in a soft-X-ray SASE free-electron laser. Our study is supported by start-to-end simulation combining WARP, IMPACT-T and GENESIS(FEL process) and focuses on the optimization of the beamline to preserve initial modulation at the nanometer level. We also discuss the scaling of the concept to shorter-wavelengths.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK065  
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THPAK071 Simulation Study of the Magnetized Electron Beam solenoid, electron, simulation, gun 3395
 
  • S.A.K. Wijethunga, J.R. Delayen, G.A. Krafft
    ODU, Norfolk, Virginia, USA
  • J. F. Benesch, F.E. Hannon, G.A. Krafft, M.A. Mamun, M. Poelker, R. Suleiman
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
 
  Funding: This work is supported by the Department of Energy, Laboratory Directed Research and Development funding, under contract DE-AC05-06OR23177
Electron cooling of the ion beam plays an important role in electron ion colliders to obtain the required high luminosity. This cooling efficiency can be enhanced by using a magnetized electron beam, where the cooling process occurs inside a solenoid field. This paper compares the predictions of ASTRA and GPT simulations to measurements made using a DC high voltage photogun producing magnetized electron beam, related to beam size and rotation angles as a function of the photogun magnetizing solenoid and other parameters.
 
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THPAK072 Generation of Flat Ultra-Low Emittance Beams quadrupole, emittance, simulation, permanent-magnet 3398
 
  • N.R. Bell
    UCLA, Los Angeles, USA
  • L. Phillips
    PBPL, Los Angeles, USA
 
  By placing a cathode in a longitudinal magnetic field generated by a solenoid or permanent magnet, angular-momentum dominated electron beams can be produced. Such beams can be uncoupled using a skew-quadrupole channel to remove the angular momentum and yield flat beams with an ultralow emittance in one of the transverse dimensions. Flat beams have immediate relevance in our pursuit of ultrahigh brightness in two dimensions for dielectric laser accelerator (DLA) or slab beam applications. We are currently investigating the possibility of implementing flat beam generation at the UCLA Pegasus beamline. We utilize particle tracking simulations to optimize the transverse emittance ratio and normalized transverse emittance. Our simulations show emittance ratios of more than 100 and normalized emittances in the <5 nm range in the vertical dimension, matching analytic estimates. In addition to simulation results, experimental plans to implement and test the flat beam transform (FBT) are also discussed.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK072  
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THPAK086 A 2D Steady-State Space Charge Solver for Azimuthally Symmetric Problems of Arbitrary Degree space-charge, gun, electromagnetic-fields, distributed 3431
 
  • A.R. Gold, A. R. Gold, S.G. Tantawi
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
 
  Correctly and rapidly simulating the steady-state interaction between particle beams and electromagnetic fields is crucial to the design and optimization of accelerator and radiofrequency (RF) source components. Iteratively solving for the self-consistent interaction between particles and fields can prove challenging and highly susceptible to numerical noise and mesh induced instabilities. We present herein two new approaches to solving the self-consistent trajectories of particles in the presence of external and self fields. The first method reformulates the integrated self field contribution as a path integral. The second method uses a hybrid Eulerian framework and produces an interpolated continuous current density, resulting in 1-2 orders of magnitude fewer particles required to obtain an accurate solution. We conclude with benchmarking results which show this method is as accurate as state of the art PIC solvers, while running 80-120X faster.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK086  
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THPAK116 Modeling Surface Roughness Effects and Emission Properties of Bulk and Layered Metallic Photocathode simulation, electron, emittance, experiment 3515
 
  • D.A. Dimitrov, G.I. Bell
    Tech-X, Boulder, Colorado, USA
  • I. Ben-Zvi, J. Smedley
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
  • J. Feng, S.S. Karkare, H.A. Padmore
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
 
  Funding: This work was supported by the Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract Nos. DE-SC0013190, DE-AC02-05CH11231, and KC0407-ALSJNT-I0013.
The thermal limit of the intrinsic emittance of photocathodes represents an important property to measure experimentally and to understand theoretically. Detailed measurements of intrinsic emittance have become possible in momentatron experiments. Moreover, recent developments in material design have allowed growing photoemissive layers with controlled surface roughness. Although analytical formulations of the effects of roughness have been developed, a full theoretical model and experimental verification are lacking. We aim to bridge this gap by developing realistic models for different materials in the three-dimensional VSim particle-in-cell code. We have recently implemented modeling of electron photo-excitation, transport, and emission from photoemissive layers grown on a substrate. We report results from simulations with these models on electron emission from antimony and gold. We consider effects due to density of states, photoemissive layer thickness, surface roughness and how they affect the spectral response of quantum yield and intrinsic emittance.
 
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THPAL005 Construction and Commissioning of the S-Band High-Gradient RF Laboratory at IFIC klystron, network, GUI, linac 3619
 
  • D. Esperante Pereira, C. Blanch Gutiérrez, M. Boronat, J. Fuster, D. Gonzalez Iglesias, A. Vnuchenko
    IFIC, Valencia, Spain
  • N. Catalán Lasheras, G. McMonagle, I. Syratchev, W. Wuensch
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • A. Faus-Golfe
    LAL, Orsay, France
  • B. Gimeno
    UVEG, Burjasot (Valencia), Spain
 
  An S-Band High-Gradient (HG) Radio Frequency (RF) laboratory is under construction and commissioning at IFIC. The purpose of the laboratory is to perform investigations of high-gradient phenomena and to develop normal-conducting RF technology, with special focus on RF systems for hadron-therapy. The layout of the facility is derived from the scheme of the Xbox-3 test facility at CERN* and uses medium peak-power (7.5 MW) and high repetition rate (400 Hz) klystrons, whose RF output is combined to drive two testing slots to the required power. The design and construction of the various components of the system started in 2016 and has been completed. The installation and commissioning of the laboratory is progressing, with first results expected before mid 2018. The technical characteristics of the different elements of the system and the commissioning status together with preliminary results are described.
* N. Catalan Lasheras, et al., 'Commissioning of Xbox3: a very high capacity X-band RF test stand', Proc. LINAC2016, East Lansing, USA, September 2016.
 
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THPAL024 A Simple Variable Focus Lens for Field Emitter Cathodes emittance, focusing, laser, simulation 3677
 
  • R.L. Fleming, H.L. Andrews, K. Bishofberger, D. Kim, J.W. Lewellen, K.E. Nichols, D.Y. Shchegolkov, E.I. Simakov
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
 
  Funding: Los Alamos National Laboratory LDRD Program
We present the design for a simple, variable-focus solenoidal lens with integrated emittance filtering. The design was developed as a first-iteration injection optics solution for transport of a beam from a field-emitter cathode into a dielectric laser accelerator structure. The design is easy to fabricate and, while based on permanent magnets, can readily be modified to allow for remote control of the focal length. The emittance is controlled via selection of collimating irises. The focal length can be changed by altering the spacing between two permanent ring magnets. Results from fabrication and initial testing will be presented.
 
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THPAL029 Comparison of Horizontal and Vertical Electropolishing Methods using Niobium Single-Cell Coupon Cavity cavity, niobium, accumulation, experiment 3692
 
  • V. Chouhan, Y.I. Ida, K.N. Nii, T.Y. Yamaguchi
    MGH, Hyogo-ken, Japan
  • H. Hayano, S. Kato, H. Monjushiro, T. Saeki, M. Sawabe
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
 
  Horizontal electropolishing (HEP) is an established tech-nique for surface treatment of niobium accelerating cavi-ties. Vertical electropolishing (VEP), in which the cavity is electropolished in the vertical posture, is in R&D phase for parameter optimization. We performed HEP and VEP of a niobium single-cell coupon cavity to compare the effect of both the methods on surface state and removal at different positions of the cavity. HEP was performed at STF, KEK with the standard EP parameters. VEP was performed at Marui Galvanizing Company with a cathode called 'Ninja cathode' that can be rotated during the VEP process. The optimized cathode design and VEP parame-ters resulted in symmetric removal as obtained with the HEP technique and yielded a smooth inner surface of the entire cavity  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAL029  
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THPAL030 Vertical Electropolishing of 1.3 GHz Niobium 9-Cell Cavity: Parameter Study and Cavity Performance cavity, accumulation, niobium, linac 3695
 
  • V. Chouhan, Y.I. Ida, K.N. Nii, T.Y. Yamaguchi
    MGH, Hyogo-ken, Japan
  • H. Hayano, S. Kato, H. Monjushiro, T. Saeki, M. Sawabe
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  • H. Ito
    Sokendai, Ibaraki, Japan
  • H. Oikawa
    Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya, Japan
 
  VEP parameters and process have been already optimized with single-cell 1.3 GHz niobium cavity at Marui Galva-nizing Company working in collaboration with KEK. A unique cathode called 'Ninja cathode' with an optimized shape was applied to single-cell cavities. The cathode was effective to stop the bubble accumulation in the upper half-cell of the cavity and yielded smooth surface and uniform removal in the cell. This work shows parameter study with the Ninja cathode and a 9-cell coupon cavity which contains totally 9 coupons and viewports in the first, fifth, and ninth cells. Effects of temperature and acid flow in the cathode housing were studied using coupon currents and by observing bubbles through the viewports. The adequate parameters found with 9-cell coupon cavity were applied on a 9-cell cavity to be tested in vertical cryostat. The VEP and vertical test results are reported.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAL030  
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THPAL031 Development of a Vertical Electropolishing Facility for Nb 9-Cell Cavity cavity, niobium, controls, site 3699
 
  • Y.I. Ida, V. Chouhan, K.N. Nii
    MGH, Hyogo-ken, Japan
  • akabori. Akabori, G.M. Mitoya, K. Miyano
    HKK, Morioka, Japan
  • Y. Anetai, F. Takahashi
    WING. Co.Ltd, Iwate-ken, Japan
  • H. Hayano, S. Kato, H. Monjushiro, T. Saeki, M. Sawabe
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
 
  Our Nb accelerating cavity vertical electropolishing (VEP) facility development group which was led by KEK started single-cell VEP facility development from 2014. This is based on horizontal electropolishing (HEP) techniques developed by KEK over 10 years and stainless steel electropolishing techniques developed by Marui over 30 years. We have reported results of Nb cavity VEP with Ninja cathode so far. In order to achieve international linear collider (ILC) construction, it is said that cost reduction and productivity improvement are necessary, however in case of 9-cell cavity, uniform inner surface polishing is difficult, as well known to predecessors. In this article, we will present the first report of VEP facility development from initial transparent plastic mock-up to improvement for Nb 9-cell cavity.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAL031  
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THPAL032 1.3GHz Nb Single-Cell Cavity Vertical Electropolishing with Ninja Cathode and Results of Vertical Test cavity, accelerating-gradient, experiment, factory 3702
 
  • K.N. Nii, V. Chouhan, Y.I. Ida, T.Y. Yamaguchi
    MGH, Hyogo-ken, Japan
  • H. Hayano, S. Kato, H. Monjushiro, T. Saeki, M. Sawabe
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  • H. Ito
    Sokendai, Ibaraki, Japan
  • H. Oikawa
    Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya, Japan
 
  Marui Galvanizing Co., Ltd. has been developing Nb cavity vertical electropolishing (VEP) technologies in collaboration with KEK. Until now, we reported that inner surface state and removal thickness distribution were improved in VEP with Ninja cathode and coupon cavity. This time, a 1.3GHz Nb single-cell cavity VEP with Ninja cathode was performed in Marui and vertical test was performed in KEK. The inner surface state and removal thickness distribution were satisfactory. And as a result of vertical test, the accelerating gradient of 32MV/m (Q0=8.0E9) was achieved.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAL032  
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THPAL038 Phase Grouping of Larmor Electrons by a Synchronous Wave in Controlled Magnetrons controls, electron, cavity, operation 3723
 
  • G.M. Kazakevich, R.P. Johnson
    Muons, Inc, Illinois, USA
  • V.A. Lebedev, V.P. Yakovlev
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
 
  A simplified analytical model based on the charge drift approximation has been developed. It considers the resonant interaction of the synchronous wave with the flow of Larmor electrons in a magnetron. The model predicts stable coherent generation of the tube above and below the threshold of self-excitation. This occurs if the magnetron is driven by a sufficient resonant injected signal (up to -10 dB). The model substantiates precise stability, high efficiency and low noise at the range of the magnetron power control over 10 dB by variation of the magnetron current. The model and the verifying experiments with 2.45 GHz, 1 kW magnetrons are discussed.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAL038  
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THPAL053 Perveance Measurement of the TLS-Linac Klystron and the Evaluation of Its Operation Performance klystron, electron, operation, linac 3763
 
  • H.H. Chen, C.H. Kuo, K.-K. Lin, Y.-H. Liu
    NSRRC, Hsinchu, Taiwan
 
  The high power klystron is a radio frequency amplifier for TLS linac operation. It is a crucial device for electron acceleration in linac. How to evaluate its efficiency, lifetime and performance of klystron in operation is one of the major concern in this report. The key klystron parameter perveance is introduced and used for performance evaluation and operation status monitoring. It is important to execute periodic monitoring on perveance for ensuring a stable linac operation. Klystron characteristics diagnostics can be achieved through perveance measurement. A couple of klystron diagnostic parameters concerning perveance are explored for field examination purpose. Perveance comparison with factory acceptance test data is also presented.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAL053  
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THPAL069 Simulation of a 10 mm Diameter Cascaded Plasma Window plasma, simulation, vacuum, experiment 3812
 
  • P.P. Gan, S. Huang, Y.R. Lu, S.Z. Wang, K. Zhu
    PKU, Beijing, People's Republic of China
 
  As a windowless vacuum device, the 10 mm diameter 60 mm long plasma window designed by Peking University only achieved to separate 28.8 kPa from 360 Pa experimentally with 50 A direct current and 2.5 kW power. Based on our 10 mm diameter plasma window, we have proposed a cascaded plasma window to achieve the isolation of atmosphere and high vacuum. In this paper, a numerical 2D FLUENT-based magneto-hydrodynamic simulation on 10 mm diameter cascaded plasma window was developed. The gas inlet, arc creation and plasma expansion segments are all contained in this model. A set of parameters including pressure, temperature, velocity and current distribution were obtained and analysed. In our first simulation, the isolation of 100 kPa and 50 Pa pressure has been realised, and some interesting phenomena occurred.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAL069  
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THPAL095 Metal Photocathodes Preparation for Compact Linear Accelerator at Daresbury Laboratory plasma, electron, gun, laser 3865
 
  • A.N. Hannah, J.A. Conlon, L.B. Jones, B.L. Militsyn, T.C.Q. Noakes, R. Valizadeh
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • V. R. Dhanak
    The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
  • L.B. Jones, B.L. Militsyn
    Cockcroft Institute, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • S. Lederer
    DESY Zeuthen, Zeuthen, Germany
  • S. Lederer
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  The photoinjector of the CLARA FEL test facility Front End at Daresbury Laboratory is based on a S-band 10 Hz photocathode RF-gun operating with a copper photocath-ode which is driven by the third harmonic of a Ti:Sapphire laser (266 nm). The main aim of this study was to establish a procedure to prepare the Cu surface prior to installation so a Quantum Efficiency (QE) of 10-5 or higher can be achieved at laser power density below the ablation threshold of copper. The best results have been obtained by ex-situ chemical cleaning. This removed the surface oxide layer whilst at the same time producing a surface buffer layer. This inhibited the regrowth of native oxide for up to a week when exposed to normal ambient atmospheric conditions. With either chemical cleaning or Ar plasma cleaning after heating the sample in-situ to 150 °C for 90 minutes or 250 °C for 40 hours, almost all of the surface oxide was removed. For these surfaces a QE of 4.10-5 or better was measured. Oxygen plasma cleaning at 100% and 20% power produced CuO layer with surface carbon contaminant to 3 atomic %, however in-situ thermal cycling resulted in at best a QE of 3·10-6.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAL095  
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THPAL149 RF System Based on Two Klystrons and Phase Modulation for Photo-Cathode Injector gun, klystron, linac, experiment 3996
 
  • P. Wang, D.Z. Cao, H.B. Chen, J. Shi, Z.H. Wang, H. Zha
    TUB, Beijing, People's Republic of China
 
  We proposed an RF system with two klystrons, of which the powers are combined by a 3dB-hybrid. By managing the phases of the two klystrons respectively, the two pulses from the two output ports of the 3dB-hybrid can be of different powers, phases, and shapes. One of the two pulses can be set to an RF gun, while the other one can feed traveling accelerating structures. Two methods of phase modulation were proposed based on this scheme. Comparing with the state-of-art RF system, the new one can be of high efficiency or can generate electron beams with higher energy. The detailed analysis of the two methods and some experiments are described in this paper.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAL149  
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THPAL156 High-Power Test of a Compact X-Band RF Rotary Joint GUI, linac, network, electromagnetic-fields 4017
 
  • J. Liu, H.B. Chen, J.Q. Qiu, J. Shi, Z.H. Wang, X.W. Wu, H. Zha
    TUB, Beijing, People's Republic of China
 
  A compact X-band (9.3 GHz) RF rotary joint has been developed in the accelerator laboratory of Tsinghua University. Cold measurements on the rotary joint using Vector-Network showed good results. In recent high-power tests, the RF rotary joint was operated under a 1.6 MW X-band magnetron. The incident power, the transmitted power and the pulse width of this rotary joint have been measured. The transmitted power kept stable in different rotation angle. In this paper, the setup and results of the high-power tests of this RF rotary joint are presented.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAL156  
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THPMF029 Novel MCP-Based Electron Source Studies electron, laser, gun, controls 4107
 
  • V.D. Shiltsev, G. Stancari
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  • M.J. Haughey
    Edinburgh University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
 
  Microchannel plates were recently proposed as cathodes for electron guns, as part of a novel electron lens design to be tested in the IOTA facility at FNAL. We experimentally assessed the suitability of microchannel plate technology in this design and studied the microchannel plate based photomultiplier (MCP-PMT) system using different sources of light pulses. Here we present the results of the nanosecond time response tests and the maximum current density tests as well as the dependency on the magnetic field strength. Several ideas how to proceed beyond O(100 mA/cm2) density observed in the first tests.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMF029  
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THPMF032 Preparation and Testing of the BERLinPro Gun 1.1 Cavity cavity, gun, pick-up, niobium 4117
 
  • H.-W. Glock, J. Knobloch, A. Neumann, Y. Tamashevich
    HZB, Berlin, Germany
 
  Funding: Work supported by German Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, Land Berlin, and grants of the Helmholtz Association
For the BERLinPro energy recovery LINAC, HZB is developing a superconducting 1.4-cell electron gun, which, in its final version, is planned to be capable of CW 1.3 GHz operation with 77 pC/bunch. For this purpose a series of three superconducting cavities, denoted as Gun 1.0, Gun 1.1 (both designed for 6 mA) and Gun 2.0 (100 mA) is foreseen. Here the status of the Gun 1.1 cavity is described, including results of the recent vertical testing. Lessons learned from the production and preparation process are summarized, also in order to identify issues critical for the production of Gun 2.0.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMF032  
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THPMF034 Status Report of the Berlin Energy Recovery Linac Project BERLinPro gun, SRF, vacuum, cavity 4127
 
  • M. Abo-Bakr, W. Anders, Y. Bergmann, K.B. Bürkmann-Gehrlein, A.B. Büchel, P. Echevarria, A. Frahm, H.-W. Glock, F. Glöckner, F. Göbel, B.D.S. Hall, S. Heling, H.-G. Hoberg, A. Jankowiak, C. Kalus, T. Kamps, G. Klemz, J. Knobloch, J. Kolbe, G. Kourkafas, J. Kühn, B.C. Kuske, J. Kuszynski, A.N. Matveenko, M. McAteer, A. Meseck, R. Müller, A. Neumann, N. Ohm, K. Ott, E. Panofski, F. Pflocksch, L. Pichl, J. Rahn, M.A.H. Schmeißer, O. Schüler, M. Schuster, J. Ullrich, A. Ushakov, J. Völker
    HZB, Berlin, Germany
  • A. Bundels
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH (HZB), Berlin, Germany
 
  Funding: Work supported by the German Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, Land Berlin and grants of Helmholtz Association
The Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin is constructing the Energy Recovery Linac Prototype BERLinPro, a demonstration facility for the science and technology of ERLs for future light source applications. BERLinPro is designed to accelerate a high current (100 mA, 50 MeV), high brilliance (norm. emittance below 1 mm mrad) cw electron beam. We report on the last year's progress, including the comissioning of the gun module as the first SRF component to be installed in BERLinPro.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMF034  
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THPMF039 Study of Magnesium Photocathodes for Superconducting RF Photoinjectors laser, gun, SRF, cavity 4142
 
  • R. Xiang, A. Arnold, P.N. Lu, P. Murcek, J. Teichert, H. Vennekate
    HZDR, Dresden, Germany
 
  Funding: The work is supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) grant 05K12CR1.
The superconducting RF photoinjector (SRF Gun II) has successfully served for the ELBE user facility at HZDR. Nevertheless, the quality of photocathodes is one of the most critical issues in improving the stability and reliability for its application. Magnesium has a comparably low work function (3.6 eV) and shows a quantum efficiency up to 0.3% after laser cleaning. However, the present cleaning process with a high intensity laser beam is time consuming and produces unwanted surface roughness, which leads to a higher thermal emittance. Thermal treatment and Excimer laser cleaning for Mg cathodes are investigated as alternative methods. In this work, the new cleaning procedures are tested and optimized, and the quantum efficiency of Mg samples with different microstructure, composition and suppliers are compared.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMF039  
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THPMF080 Physical and Chemical Roughness of Alkali-Animonide Cathodes electron, emittance, laser, vacuum 4259
 
  • S.S. Karkare, S. Emamian, G. Gevorkyan, H.A. Padmore, A.K. Schmid
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  • I.V. Bazarov
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • A. Galdi
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
 
  Over the last decade, alkali-antimonides have been investigated as high QE cathodes in green light and more recently as ultra-low intrinsic emittance cathodes in near-threshold red wavelengths at cryogenic temperatures*. Nano-meter scale surface non-uniformities (physical roughness and chemical roughness or work function variations) are thought to limit the smallest possible emittance from these materials at the photoemission threshold under cryogenic conditions**. Despite this, the surfaces of alkali-antimonides have not been well characterized in terms of the surface non-uniformities. Here, we present measurements of both the physical and chemical roughness of alkali-antimonide surfaces using several surface characterization techniques like atomic force microscopy, kelvin probe force microscopy, low energy electron microscopy and near-threshold photoemission electron microscopy and show how such non-uniformities limit the intrinsic emittance.
*L. Cultrera et al Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 18, 113401 (2015)
**J. Feng et al, J. of Appl. Phys. 121, 044904 (2017)
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMF080  
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THPMF081 Intrinsic Emittance of Single Crystal Cathodes photon, electron, acceleration, emittance 4263
 
  • S.S. Karkare, H.A. Padmore
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  • G. Adhikari, W.A. Schroeder
    UIC, Chicago, Illinois, USA
 
  The transverse momentum of electrons is conserved during photoemission from atomically ordered surfaces of single crystal materials. Photocathodes used in all photoinjectors today have disordered surfaces and do not exploit this phenomenon. Recently, using this conservation of transverse momentum, significant reduction in intrinsic emittance was demonstrated from the (111) surface of silver*. Here, we present measurements of transverse momentum distributions of electrons photoemitted from the ordered surfaces of Ag and Cu single crystals at several photon energies. These measurements will help in understanding the photoemission process and show how band-structure and the conservation of transverse momentum can be used to obtain further reduction in intrinsic emittance from photocathodes.
*Karkare et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 164802 (2017)
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMF081  
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THPMF088 R&D Activity on Alkali-Antimonied Photocathodes at INFN-Lasa laser, gun, electron, operation 4284
 
  • D. Sertore, P. Michelato, L. Monaco
    INFN/LASA, Segrate (MI), Italy
  • C. Pagani
    Università degli Studi di Milano & INFN, Segrate, Italy
 
  Based on the long-term experience on R&D and production of cesium telluride photocathodes for the high brightness photo-injectors and the past experience on green photocathodes developed in ‘90s , we have started a new R&D activity aiming to reach a reproducible and robust recipe for green photocathodes usable in RF gun. In this paper we present and discuss the first results so far obtained on K2CsSb photoemissive films deposited on polished Mo plugs and the plan for future studies.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMF088  
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THPMF089 Design of a Radial RF Electron Gun cavity, gun, electron, target 4287
 
  • J.W. Lewellen, F.L. Krawczyk
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
  • J.R. Harris
    Directed Energy Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Albuquerque, USA
 
  Funding: DOE Accelerator Stewardship Program
Most electron beam sources generate beams that propagate away from the source in a single primary direction, with the overall envelope being either pencil-like or sheet-like. We present the design of a radial RF electron gun, intended to produce a radially propagating electron beam (either towards or away from an axis) with the overall envelope being that of an expanding or contracting annulus. Such a source has several potential advantages for materials processing, and may also be useful as the basis for unique optical elements for hadron machines.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMF089  
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THPMK001 Creating Two-Pulse Beams from a Photoinjector for Two Color FEL or Beam Driven PWFA Experiments linac, gun, emittance, simulation 4294
 
  • J. Andersson, J. Björklund Svensson, M. Kotur, F. Lindau, S. Thorin
    MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
 
  The MAX IV linac is investigated as a FEL driver in the SXL project, but there is also an ongoing investigation in using the linac as a driver for beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiments. From both these applications, double pulses from the photoinjector within the same RF period is desired. In this paper we discuss the possibilities of using the current photoinjector at MAX IV as driver and show simulations results from the pre-injector, both for FEL applications and for PWFA applications.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMK001  
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THPMK002 The Pre-Injector Design for the MAX IV SXL gun, emittance, linac, laser 4297
 
  • J. Andersson, M. Kotur, D. Kumbaro, F. Lindau, E. Mansten, D. Olsson, L.K. Roslund, S. Thorin
    MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
 
  In this paper we present the current status of the design for the pre-injector (photo-cathode gun, solenoid and first linac) for the SXL project at MAX IV. The SXL project requires a higher repetition rate and since improved beam quality compared to what the current photo-cathode gun can operate at is needed, a new photo-cathode gun will be manufactured. We briefly describe the components of the pre-injector, followed by the design of the new photo-cathode gun. The design is similar to the old gun but with a new RF cavity using elliptical irises and racetrack profile main cell. The current parameters for the next gun to be manufactured are discussed, and some simulations and expected beam quality from the injector are shown.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMK002  
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THPMK007 Surface Acoustic Wave Enhancement of Photocathodes simulation, electron, laser, photon 4304
 
  • R.P. Johnson
    Muons, Inc, Illinois, USA
  • A. Afanasev, B. Dong, M. E. Zaghloul
    GWU, Washington, USA
 
  Funding: Work supported by DOE HEP STTR Grant DE-SC0017831
Numerical simulations and fabrication techniques are being used to investigate the use of surface acoustic waves to suppress electron-hole recombination on the surface of GaAs photocathodes in order to increase the quantum efficiency for polarized and unpolarized electron beam generation.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMK007  
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THPMK009 Study on Improving Durability of Bialkali Photocathode for an RF-Gun with the CsBr Protective Layer gun, electron, laser, ion-source 4310
 
  • J. Miyamatsu, H. Ono, M. Washio
    Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan
  • H. Iijima
    Tokyo University of Science, Tokyo, Japan
  • K. Sakaue
    Waseda University, Waseda Institute for Advanced Study, Tokyo, Japan
 
  At Waseda University, we have been studying for high quality electron beam generation and developing variety of application experiments using 1.6 cells photocathode RF-gun. We are using photocathode as the electron source, which can generate high-performance electron beam such as low emittance, short pulse. The performance of photocathodes is evaluated mainly in terms of Quantum Efficiency (Q.E.) and the lifetime. Cs-Te photocathode used in the RF-Gun at Waseda University is known for high Q.E. with UV light and relatively longer lifetime among semiconducting photocathodes. For increasing the charge of electron beam and simplify the laser system, we started introducing CsK2Sb photocathode in the RF-gun which has light sensitivity in UV and visible range, and high Q.E. with green light. However, CsK2Sb photocathode has a difficulty in durability and we observed that it was not enough for long-term operation in the RF-gun. Then we plan to improve lifetime and durability of CsK2Sb photocathode by coating the cathode surface with CsBr thin film. In this conference, we report the result of lifetime measurement of CsK2Sb photocathode with CsBr thin film and future prospects.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMK009  
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THPMK018 Design of a rotationally symmetric S-band photocathode RF gun gun, impedance, emittance, coupling 4336
 
  • Zh. X. Tang
    USTC, Hefei, Anhui, People's Republic of China
  • Z.G. He, W.W. Li, Y.J. Pei, L. Wang
    USTC/NSRL, Hefei, Anhui, People's Republic of China
 
  The photocathode RF gun is one of the most critical components for high quality electron beam sources. The asymmetric multi-pole field contributes to the transverse emittance growth and degrades the beam quality. In order to overcome the problem, we propose a novel rotationally symmetric 1.6 cell RF gun to construct the symmetric field in this paper. The concrete proposal is that a coaxial cell with a symmetrical distribution of four grooves is concatenated to the first 0.6 cell at the photocathode end to form a new resonant cell (NRC) to mantain the symmetric multi-pole field in 1.6 cell. Our simulations indicate that 3D multi-pole fields of NRC are with the perfect symmetry. After that, the profile of the RF gun is optimized to improve the shunt impedance and mode separation and make the surface peak electric field at the photocathode end. Our simulations demonstrate promising outlook of using coaxial cell for photocathode RF guns with various applications.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMK018  
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THPMK059 Commissioning of Front End of CLARA Facility at Daresbury Laboratory gun, cavity, controls, MMI 4426
 
  • D. Angal-Kalinin, A.D. Brynes, R.K. Buckley, S.R. Buckley, J.A. Clarke, L.S. Cowie, K.D. Dumbell, D.J. Dunning, B.D. Fell, P. Goudket, A.R. Goulden, S.A. Griffiths, F. Jackson, S.P. Jamison, J.K. Jones, P.A. McIntosh, J.W. McKenzie, K.J. Middleman, B.L. Militsyn, A.J. Moss, B.D. Muratori, T.C.Q. Noakes, T.J. Price, M.D. Roper, Y.M. Saveliev, D.J. Scott, B.J.A. Shepherd, R.J. Smith, E.W. Snedden, N. Thompson, C. Tollervey, R. Valizadeh, D.A. Walsh, T.M. Weston, A.E. Wheelhouse, P.H. Williams
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • A.D. Brynes, J.A. Clarke, L.S. Cowie, K.D. Dumbell, D.J. Dunning, P. Goudket, F. Jackson, S.P. Jamison, J.K. Jones, P.A. McIntosh, J.W. McKenzie, K.J. Middleman, B.L. Militsyn, A.J. Moss, B.D. Muratori, Y.M. Saveliev, D.J. Scott, B.J.A. Shepherd, N. Thompson, R. Valizadeh, A.E. Wheelhouse, P.H. Williams
    Cockcroft Institute, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • R.J. Cash, R.F. Clarke, G. Cox, G.P. Diakun, A. Gallagher, K.D. Gleave, M.D. Hancock, J.P. Hindley, C. Hodgkinson, A. Oates, J.T.G. Wilson
    STFC/DL, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
 
  CLARA (Compact Linear Accelerator for Research and Applications) is a Free Electron Laser (FEL) test facility being developed at STFC Daresbury Laboratory. The principal aim of CLARA is to test advanced FEL schemes which can later be implemented on existing and future short wavelength FELs. The installation of the Front End (FE) section of CLARA, a S-bend merging with existing VELA (Versatile Electron Linear Accelerator) beam line and installation of a high repetition rate RF gun on VELA was completed in 2017. First beam commissioning results and high level software developments are presented in this paper.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMK059  
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THPMK062 Transverse Energy Distribution Measurements for Polycrystalline and (100) Copper Photocathodes with Known Levels of Surface Roughness electron, emittance, experiment, detector 4438
 
  • L.B. Jones, B.L. Militsyn, T.C.Q. Noakes
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • L.B. Jones, D.P. Juarez-Lopez, B.L. Militsyn, T.C.Q. Noakes, C.P. Welsch
    Cockcroft Institute, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • D.P. Juarez-Lopez, C.P. Welsch
    The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
 
  Funding: This work is part of EuCARD-2, partly-funded by the European Commission, GA 312453.
The minimum achievable emittance in an electron accelerator depends strongly on the intrinsic emittance of the photocathode electron source. This is measureable as the mean longitudinal and transverse energy spreads in the photoemitted electrons. ASTeC's Transverse Energy Spread Spectrometer (TESS)* experimental facility can be used with III-V semiconductor, multi-alkali and metal photocathodes to measure transverse and longitudinal energy distributions. Our R&D facilities also include in-vacuum quantum efficiency measurement, XPS, STM, plus ex-vacuum optical and STM microscopy for surface metrology. Intrinsic emittance is strongly affected by the photocathode surface roughness**, and the development of techniques to manufacture the smoothest photocathode is a priority for the electron source community. We present energy distribution measurements for electrons emitted from copper photocathodes with both defined single-crystal (100) and polycrystalline surfaces with measured levels of surface roughness.
* Proc. FEL'13, TUPPS033, pp. 290-293.
** Proc. FEL'06, THPPH013, pp. 583-586.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMK062  
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THPMK063 Photocathode Preparation and Characteristics of the Electron Source for the VELA/CLARA Facility plasma, laser, electron, operation 4442
 
  • T.C.Q. Noakes, D. Angal-Kalinin, L.S. Cowie, F. Jackson, J.W. McKenzie, K.J. Middleman, B.L. Militsyn, M.D. Roper, E.W. Snedden, R. Valizadeh, D.A. Walsh
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • D. Angal-Kalinin, L.S. Cowie, F. Jackson, J.W. McKenzie, K.J. Middleman, B.L. Militsyn, R. Valizadeh
    Cockcroft Institute, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
 
  The VELA and CLARA front end accelerators at Daresbury are test facilities with a focus on FEL research and industrial applications of electron beams. Recently the CLARA injector has been commissioned with acceleration of beam to 50 MeV. For several years a normal conducting 2.5 cell S-band cavity RF gun operated at up to 80 MV/m has been used as the electron source for both VELA and CLARA. For further beam acceleration an S-band travelling wave 2m long cavity has been used. The gun has used several different copper cathodes throughout its operational life, employing different preparation techniques. Oxygen plasma treatment is a well-known procedure for removing hydrocarbon contamination from surfaces whereas Argon plasma treatment also removes contaminants and typically leaves a thinner oxide at the surface. In this study we compare dark current (from field emission), as measured directly after the gun, for these alternate surface preparations and also present results from post-use electron microscopy analysis of the photocathodes. Electromagnetic simulations are used to help explain the results.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMK063  
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THPMK085 Development of a Pre-Injector Test Bench for Future SLRI Light Source electron, gun, cavity, emittance 4499
 
  • K. Kittimanapun, Ch. Dhammatong, N. Juntong, W. Phacheerak, M. Phanak
    SLRI, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand
 
  A pre-injector test bench at the Synchrotron Light Research Institute (SLRI) is under development as one of the preparations for the future SLRI light source and of choices for the possible upgrade of the current injector. The pre-injector test bench includes a pulsed thermionic gun, a fast pulse deflector, a buncher and a pre-buncher. The thermionic electron gun with a cathode made of a single crystal CeB6 is employed as an electron emitter providing small emittance and uniform electron density. The fast pulse deflector shorten the extracted electrons of a few microseconds to that of a few nanoseconds. The electron pulses are further bunched by both the 238 MHz pre-buncher and the 476 MHz buncher to allow the 1-MeV electron beam. The experimental setups for emittance and beam profile measurements are installed on a movable diagnostic stand which is, later on, replaced by the beam bunching devices. The designs of the test bench will be discussed in this paper.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMK085  
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THPMK088 Low Emittance Thermionic Electron Gun at SLRI electron, gun, emittance, high-voltage 4509
 
  • K. Kittimanapun, Ch. Dhammatong, N. Juntong, W. Phacheerak, M. Phanak
    SLRI, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand
 
  The Synchrotron Light Research Institute (SLRI) has developed a new thermionic electron gun producing low emittance electron beam for the future upgrade of the existing one. The thermionic cathode made of a CeB6 single crystal is selected due to its properties providing high electron beam current, uniform current density, and high resistance to contamination. In addition, the CeB6 cathode of 3 mm in diameter can produce up to a few Amperes of electron beam current. The electron gun is pulsed at 500 kV with a few microseconds wide to avoid high voltage breakdown as well as to reduce space charge effect resulting in the emittance growth of the extracted electron beam. The preliminary simulation and design of the electron gun together with the high voltage system are described in the paper.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMK088  
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THPMK095 Design of an RF Modulated Thermionic Electron Source at TRIUMF GUI, electron, impedance, gun 4524
 
  • K. Fong, D.W. Storey
    TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada
 
  The electron source in the TRIUMF ARIEL project is a gridded dispenser cathode. The cathode is biased at -300kV, and the grid requires a RF control signal of up to 150V at 650 MHz. The required RF power is approximately 20 W and is provided by an RF amplifier located outside the gun vessel. This RF power is coupled into the gun circuit through a ceramic transmission line. The design of this ceramic transmission line, as well as the impedance transformation circuit which provides both the impedance matching and the dc powers to the gun assembly are described.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMK095  
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THPMK100 Setup for Cooled GaAs Cathodes With Increased Charge Lifetime electron, cryogenics, vacuum, simulation 4542
 
  • T. Eggert, J. Enders, M. Espig, Y. Fritzsche, N. Kurichiyanil, M. Wagner
    TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany
 
  Funding: DFG (GRK 2128) BMBF (05H15RDRB1)
GaAs photocathode lifetime is limited, and to ensure re- liable operation for high power-applications it is necessary to maximize its charge lifetime. By using a cryogenic sub- volume it is expected to improve the local vacuum condi- tions due to cryogenic adsorption of reactive residual gas molecules. Yielding an enhanced lifetime of the negative- electron-affinity surface of the cathode. Furthermore the cooling of the cathode itself ishould allow higher laser power deposition in the material. Introducing an electrostatic bend is expected to reduces the ion-backbombardment on the cath- ode surface. A dedicated set-up is being developed at the Photo-CATCH test facility in Darmstadt, Germany to measure the charac- teristics of such a cryogenic source. This contribution updates the report given at PSTP 2017.
 
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THPMK101 Inverted Geometry Photo-Electron Gun Research and Development at TU Darmstadt gun, electron, linac, operation 4545
 
  • M. Herbert, J. Enders, Y. Fritzsche, N. Kurichiyanil, V. Wende
    TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany
 
  Funding: Work supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through GRK 2128 'AccelencE'
The Institute for nuclear physics at TU Darmstadt houses the Superconducting Darmstadt Linear Accelerator S-DALINAC. A photo-electron gun using GaAs photocathodes to provide pulsed and/or polarized electron beams, the S-DALINAC Polarized Injector SPIn, has been installed * for future nuclear-structure investigations**. In order to conduct research and development for this source, a test facility for Photo-Cathode Activation, Test and Cleaning using atomic-Hydrogen (Photo-CATCH) has been constructed***. This setup provides several chambers for photocathode handling and a 60 keV beamline for photo-gun design studies****. Currently, an upgraded inverted insulator geometry is under investigation for Photo-CATCH that is supposed to be implemented at SPIn. We will present the current developments at Photo-CATCH and future measurements.
* Y. Poltoratska et al., J. Phys.: Conf. Series 298 (2011)
** J. Enders, AIP Conf. Proc. 1563, 223 (2013)
*** M. Espig, Diss., TU Darmstadt (2016)
**** N. Kurichiyanil, Diss., TU Darmstadt (2016)
 
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THPMK107 Design of a High Charge, Low Energy, Magnetized Electron Injector electron, emittance, solenoid, cavity 4564
 
  • F.E. Hannon
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
 
  Funding: Authored by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC under U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177.
Simulations of a magnetized injector for the bunched-beam electron cooler ring, as part of the Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC) are presented. A challenge of such an injector is in generating a magnetized, 3.2nC electron bunch at low energy and preserving the angular momentum so it can subsequently be merged into the cooler ring and transported to the cooling solenoid without degradation. The design of the proposed injector and the effect it has on the beam are discussed in detail.
 
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THPMK108 Production of Magnetized Electron Beam from a DC High Voltage Photogun solenoid, gun, electron, laser 4567
 
  • M.A. Mamun, P.A. Adderley, J. F. Benesch, D.B. Bullard, J.R. Delayen, J.M. Grames, J. Guo, F.E. Hannon, J. Hansknecht, C. Hernandez-Garcia, R. Kazimi, G.A. Krafft, M. Poelker, R. Suleiman, M.G. Tiefenback, Y.W. Wang, S. Zhang
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  • S.A.K. Wijethunga
    ODU, Norfolk, Virginia, USA
 
  Funding: This work is supported by the Department of Energy, Laboratory Directed Research and Development funding, under contract DE-AC05-06OR23177
Bunched-beam electron cooling is a key feature of all proposed designs of the future electron-ion collider, and a requirement for achieving the highest promised collision luminosity. At the Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC), fast cooling of ion beams will be accomplished via so-called 'magnetized cooling' implemented using a recirculator ring that employs an energy recovery linac. In this contribution, we describe the production of magnetized electron beam using a compact 300 kV DC high voltage photogun with an inverted insulator geometry, and using alkali-antimonide photocathodes. Beam magnetization was assessed using a modest diagnostic beamline that includes YAG view screens used to measure the rotation of the electron beamlet passing through a narrow upstream aperture. Magnetization results are presented for different gun bias voltages and for different laser spot sizes at the photocathode, using 532 nm lasers with DC and RF time structure. Photocathode lifetime was measured at currents up to 4.5 mA, with and without beam magnetization.
 
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THPMK110 300 kV DC High Voltage Photogun with Inverted Insulator Geometry and CsK2sb Photocathode gun, high-voltage, emittance, laser 4571
 
  • Y.W. Wang, P.A. Adderley, J. F. Benesch, D.B. Bullard, J.M. Grames, F.E. Hannon, J. Hansknecht, C. Hernandez-Garcia, R. Kazimi, G.A. Krafft, G.A. Krafft, M.A. Mamun, G.G. Palacios Serrano, M. Poelker, R. Suleiman, M.G. Tiefenback, S. Zhang
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  • G.A. Krafft, S.A.K. Wijethunga
    ODU, Norfolk, Virginia, USA
 
  Funding: This work is supported by the Department of Energy, Laboratory Directed Research and Development funding, under contract DE-AC05-06OR23177
A compact DC high voltage photogun with inverted-insulator geometry was designed, built and operated reliably at 300 kV bias voltage using alkali-antimonide photocathodes. This presentation describes key electrostatic design features of the photogun with accompanying emittance measurements obtained across the entire photocathode surface that speak to field non-uniformity within the cathode/anode gap. A summary of initial photocathode lifetime measurements at beam currents up to 4.5 mA is also presented.
 
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THPMK111 Negative Electron Affinity Gallium Arsenide Photocathodes Based on Optically Resonant Nanostructure resonance, electron, experiment, simulation 4575
 
  • S. Zhang, M. Poelker, M.L. Stutzman
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  • X. Peng, J. Zou
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, People's Republic of China
 
  Funding: DOE
We report the design and fabrication of a new type of negative electron affinity (NEA) gallium arsenide (GaAs) photocathode with optically resonant nanostructures. We observed a significant enhancement of the quantum effi-ciency (QE) from the GaAs photocathode with nanowire arrays (NWA) due to the Mie resonance effect within the intended wavelength range. Theoretical calculations of the expected reflectance behaviour together with experi-mental results of optical and photoemission characteris-tics are presented.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMK111  
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THPMK116 NEA Surface Activation of GaAs Photocathode with CO2 experiment, electron, ECR, emittance 4590
 
  • L.Guo. Guo
    UVSOR, Okazaki, Japan
  • H. Iijima
    Tokyo University of Science, Tokyo, Japan
  • M. Kuriki
    HU/AdSM, Higashi-Hiroshima, Japan
  • K. Uchida
    Cosylab Japan, Ibaraki, Japan
 
  NEA (negative electron affinity)-GaAs cathode is able to generate highly spin polarized electron beam more than 90%. The NEA activation is performed usually with Cs and O2 or NF3, but the exact structure of the NEA surface is not known. In this paper, we performed the NEA activation on a cleaned GaAs surface with CO2, CO, N2, and O2 gases and compared the results to improve our understanding on the NEA surface. We found that CO2 activated the cathode, but N2 and CO did not. By analyzing CO2 activation, we found that atomic oxygen activates the NEA surface and CO degrades the NEA surface simultaneously. We found that the NEA activation ability of atomic oxygen is almost a half of that of O2 molecule.*
*L. Guo, M. Kuriki, H. Iijima, K. Uchida. "NEA surface activation of GaAs photocathode with different gases", Surface Science 664C (2017) pp. 65-69.
 
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THPMK118 GaN Thin Film Photocathodes for High Brightness Electron Beams electron, target, experiment, brightness 4594
 
  • M. Vogel, X. Jiang, M. Schumacher
    University Siegen, Siegen, Germany
 
  Funding: This work was supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research under grant 05K16PS1 "HOPE II: Hochbrillante photoinduzierte Hochfrequenz-Elektronenquellen".
Gallium nitride (GaN) is one promising candidate as photocathode material showing high quantum efficiencies which is one of the requirements for high brightness electron beams. In addition to reported quantum efficiencies of up to 70%, GaN needs to satisfy the demands for long lifetime, low dark current and low thermal emittance. In this contribution, the ongoing activities of the synthesis by means of reactive rf magnetron sputtering and characterization of GaN is presented. The latter is done by standard materials science methods and in-situ measurements of the quantum efficiency in combination with lifetime and dark current measurements to asses and optimize the photocathode's performance. Along with the project's details, first experimental results of GaN thin films synthesized utilizing a GaAs source are presented.
 
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THPML007 An Investigation of Electron Beam Divergence from a Single DFEA Emitter Tip experiment, electron, laser, emittance 4662
 
  • H.L. Andrews, B.K. Choi, R.L. Fleming, D. Kim, J.W. Lewellen, K.E. Nichols, D.Y. Shchegolkov, E.I. Simakov
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
 
  Funding: We gratefully acknowledge the support of the U.S. Department of Energy through the LANL/LDRD Program for this work.
Diamond Field-Emitter Array (DFEA) cathodes are arrays of micron-scale diamond pyramids with nanometer-scale tips. DFEAs can produce high emission currents with small emittance and energy spread. At LANL, we have an ongoing program to test DFEA cathodes for the purpose of using them to generate high-current, low-emittance electron beams for dielectric laser accelerators. We have recently upgraded our cathode test chamber to use a mesh anode in place of a solid luminescent anode. In addition to allowing for downstream beam transport, this arrangement may eliminate earlier problems with reduced cathode performance due to ion back-bombardment. We are measuring divergence of the electron beam past the mesh in an effort to characterize the inherent beam divergence off the diamond tip and divergence contribution from the mesh. We will compare these observations with theoretical and modeled values.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML007  
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THPML025 Operation of an RF Modulated Thermionic Electron Source at TRIUMF electron, TRIUMF, emittance, operation 4705
 
  • F. Ames, K. Fong, B. Humphries, S.R. Koscielniak, A. Laxdal, Y. Ma, T. Planche, S. Saminathan, E. Thoeng
    TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada
 
  ARIEL (Advanced Rare IsotopE Laboratory) at TRIUMF will use a high-power electron beam to produce radioactive ion beams via photo-fission. The system has been designed to provide up to 10 mA of electrons at 30 MeV. The electron source delivers electron bunches with charge up to 16 pC at a repetition frequency of 650 MHz at 300 keV. The main components of the source are a gridded dispenser cathode (CPI - Y845) in an SF6 filled vessel and an in-air HV power supply. The beam is bunched by applying DC and RF fields to the grid. A macro pulse structure can be applied by additional low frequency modulation of the RF signal. This allows adjusting the average beam current by changing the duty factor of the macro pulsing. Unique features of the gun are its cathode/anode geometry to reduce field emission, and transmission of RF modulation via a dielectric (ceramic) waveguide through the SF6. The source has been installed and fully commissioned to a beam power up to 1 KW and tests with accelerated beams have been performed. Measurements of the beam properties and results from the commissioning and operational experiences of the source will be presented.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML025  
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THPML053 Computational Screening for Low Emittance Photocathodes electron, database, vacuum, emittance 4755
 
  • J.T. Paul, R.G. Hennig
    University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA
  • I.V. Bazarov, A. Galdi
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • S.S. Karkare, H.A. Padmore
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
 
  The majority of photocathode materials in use in accelerator applications have been discovered empirically through trial and error with little guidance from material science calculations. Alternatively, one can envision a process which is heavily guided by computational search using latest advances in density functional theory (DFT). In this work, the MaterialsProject database is searched for potential single crystal photocathodes that would be suitable for ultralow emittance beam production. The materials in the database are initially screened on the basis of experimental practicality. Following this, the expected emittance is calculated from the DFT computed band structures for the pre-screened materials using the conservation of energy and transverse momentum during photoemission. Based on such computational screening, we provide a list of potential low emittance photocathode materials which can be investigated experimentally as high brightness electron sources.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML053  
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THPML054 Design Studies of an S-Band Multipacting Electron Gun electron, cavity, gun, operation 4759
 
  • C. Henkel, W. Hillert, V. Miltchev
    University of Hamburg, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Hamburg, Germany
  • K. Flöttmann
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  A multipacting electron gun (MEG) is a micro-pulse electron source based on secondary electron emission in a resonant microwave cavity structure for the generation of low emittance electron bunches with high repetition rate. By theoretical simulations a suitable radio-frequency gun design at 3 GHz is established, simultaneously meeting the demands of bunch production and amplification process as well as including the effects of space charge and beam loading for the evolution of a stable beam. In this contribution we show detailed simulation studies of the impact of important design parameters like mechanical dimensions and choice of material on the average output current, which is in the order of several mA. For the experimental investigation a test setup is under construction, which may demonstrate the application of MEG's as a serious alternative or addition to commonly used electron sources like thermionic and photocathodes.  
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THPML055 Scaled Studies on Radio Frequency Sources for Megawatt-Class Ionospheric Heaters electron, gun, impedance, experiment 4763
 
  • B.L. Beaudoin, T.M. Antonsen, J.A. Karakkad, A.H. Narayan, G.S. Nusinovich, K.J. Ruisard
    UMD, College Park, Maryland, USA
  • R. Fischer
    Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), Washington, USA
  • S.H. Gold, A. Ting
    NRL, Washington,, USA
 
  Funding: Funding for this project and travel is provided by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under grant FA95501410019.
The ionosphere plays a prominent role in the performance of critical civilian and military communication systems. The key instrument in Ionospheric Modification (IM) research is a powerful, ground-based, High Frequency (HF) source of electromagnetic waves known as a heater. With a mobile heater, investigators would be able to conduct IM research at different latitudes without building a costly permanent installation. A new highly efficient Megawatt class of Radio Frequency sources is required to reduce the overall power demands on a fully deployable system. Such a source has been described previously*. Results of a scaled experiment, using the electron beam produced by a gridded gun to drive an external lumped element circuit for high efficiency radio frequency generation is presented. The IOT gun produces an electron beam bunched at the driving frequency that is then collected by an external circuit for impedance matching to the load. Results showed that effects such as the internal resistance of the inductor and deflection of beam electrons by the induced RF voltages on the beam collector are important considerations to be included in the design of a practical device.
* B.L. Beaudoin, G.S. Nusinovich, G. Milikh, A. Ting, S. Gold, J.A. Karakkad, A.H. Narayan, D.B. Matthew, D.K. Papadopoulos, T.M. Antonsen Jr., Journal of Elec. Waves and Appl.,31,17,pp.1786, 2017.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML055  
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THPML090 Optical Beam Loss Monitors Based on Fibres for the CLARA Phase 1 Beam-Line electron, MMI, diagnostics, gun 4869
 
  • A.S. Alexandrova, L.J. Devlin, V. Tzoganis, C.P. Welsch
    The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
  • A.D. Brynes, F. Jackson
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • A.D. Brynes, F. Jackson, V. Tzoganis, C.P. Welsch
    Cockcroft Institute, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • E. Effinger, E.B. Holzer
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  Funding: Work supported by STFC Cockcroft Institute core Grant No. ST/G008248/1
Fibre based Optical Beam Loss Monitors (oBLMs) are on-line devices used in-situ to measure losses along a beam-line. The technology is based on the detection of Cherenkov radiation, produced inside quartz fibres placed alongside the beampipe, from the interaction of secondary showers generated from losses hitting the vacuum pipe. This contribution presents ongoing developments of an oBLM system installed along the Compact Linear Accelerator for Research and Applications (CLARA). The oBLM system consists of 4 channels which allows for sub-metre loss resolution with two dimensional coverage along the entirety of the beam line, as opposed to conventional localised BLM systems. The system was first commissioned to measure dark current from the injector. The ability of the system to locate longitudinal positions of known beam loss locations has also been measured and has shown excellent agreement. We present measurements acquired from the detector during regular operation and during dedicated beam tests. We also discuss the incorporation of the monitor into the accelerator diagnostics system and its use in assisting accelerator characterisation and performance.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML090  
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THPML133 Design and Optimization of the Electron Gun electron, gun, software, simulation 4995
 
  • K. Huang, T.L. He, Z.L. Ren, D.R. Xu, H. Xu
    USTC/NSRL, Hefei, Anhui, People's Republic of China
  • Y. Chen
    Department of Information Engineering , Anhui Economic Management Cadres' Institute, Hefei, Anhui, People's Republic of China
 
  Funding: Work supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos.11375176 and 10875118.
Design of an energy-modified electron gun is of significance to do some research on the properties of Diamond-amplified cathode. Based on the design method of the Pierce electron gun, the optimum parameters of the electron gun have been obtained using the Opera-3D program. And the beam waist's position, the beam current, the beam size and the beam emittance related to the electron bean energy was investigated in this paper.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML133  
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THPML136 Study of Secondary Electron Generation and Transport in Diamond electron, simulation, scattering, database 5004
 
  • T.L. He, K. Huang, Z.L. Ren, L. Wang, D.R. Xu, H. Xu
    USTC/NSRL, Hefei, Anhui, People's Republic of China
 
  Energetic primary electrons (~ keV) impinging on the diamond film with its both surface under bias field in ~ MV/m, will excite secondary electron (SE) response including SE generation & transport. Although there have been 3D Monte Carlo (MC) simulation to study the two processes, this paper will introduce another method. Based on optical dielectric model, 3D MC simulation was implemented to study the generation process, and SE generation function was obtained by fitting the calculations. Using this function, the diffusion-drift equation of charge carriers (electron and hole) can be solved in 1D for the transport process, and the variation of SE depth distribution with time can be obtained.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML136  
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