Keyword: cyclotron
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MOXGB2 ARIEL at TRIUMF: Science and Technology TRIUMF, ISAC, target, linac 6
 
  • J.A. Bagger, F. Ames, Y. Bylinskii, A. Gottberg, O.K. Kester, S.R. Koscielniak, R.E. Laxdal, M. Marchetto, P. Schaffer
    TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada
  • M. Hayashi
    TRIUMF Innovations Inc., Vancouver, Canada
 
  The Advanced Rare Isotope Laboratory (ARIEL) is TRIUMF's flagship project to create isotopes for science, medicine and business. ARIEL will triple TRIUMF's rare isotope beam capability, enabling more and new experiments in materials science, nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics, and fundamental symmetries, as well as the development of new isotopes for the life sciences. Beams from ARIEL's new 35 MeV, 100kW electron linear accelerator and from TRIUMF's original 500 MeV cyclotron will enable breakthrough experiments with the laboratory's suite of world-class experiments at the Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC) facility. This invited talk will present an overview of TRIUMF, the ARIEL project, and the exciting science they enable.  
slides icon Slides MOXGB2 [65.009 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOXGB2  
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MOPML024 Implementation of a Non-Invasive Online Beam Monitor at a 60 MeV Proton Therapy Beamline detector, proton, operation, monitoring 449
 
  • R. Schnuerer, C.P. Welsch, S.L. Yap, H.D. Zhang
    Cockcroft Institute, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • O. Girard, G.J. Haefeli
    EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
  • C.P. Welsch
    The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
 
  To fully exploit the advantageous dose distribution profiles of ion radiotherapy, an exact knowledge of the beam properties through online beam monitoring is essential, ensuring thus an effective dose delivery to the patient. One potential candidate for an online beam monitor is the LHCb Vertex Locator (VELO). This detector, originally developed for the LHCb experiment, has been adapted to the specific conditions of the clinical environment in a proton therapy centre. The semicircular design and position of its sensitive silicon detector offers a non-invasive way to measure the beam intensity without interfering with the beam core. In this contribution, modifications for VELO are described. The detector is synchronized with the readout of a locally-constructed Faraday Cup and the 25.7 MHz RF frequency of the cyclotron at the Clatterbridge Cancer Centre (CCC). Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations investigate the integration of the detector in the treatment line and behaviour of the beam during delivery. The capability of VELO as a beam monitor will be assessed by measuring the beam current and by monitoring the beam profile along the beamline this summer.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPML024  
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MOPML035 Betatron Frequencies in Cotangential Trajectory Accelerator for Proton Beam Therapy betatron, alignment, resonance, extraction 485
 
  • T. Aoki, F. Ebina, C. Hori, Y. Nakashima, T. Seki
    Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki-ken, Japan
  • T. Hae
    Hitachi Ltd., Hitachi Research Laboratory, Ibaraki-ken, Japan
 
  It is important that downsizing of an accelerator for spreading proton beam therapy. The synchrotron is the solution of accelerator of proton beam therapy system which can vary energy of extracted beam in the range of from 70 MeV to 235 MeV with a merit of requiring no energy selection system. In order to downsize accelerator with above merit, we suggested smaller variable energy accelerator which have cotangential trajectories. This new type accelerator is expected to realize variability of beam energy with static main magnetic field. One of technological problems of this new type accelerator is stability of betatron oscillation. We plan to utilize week focusing field as main magnetic field, which is decreasing on the radial direction outward and uniform in longitudinal direction, of this new type accelerator. We found the main magnetic field which realizes stable betaron oscillations in the range of from 70 MeV to 235 MeV as the result of estimating the betaron oscillations in this main field by numerical calculation. We report new type accelerator concept and results of analysis of betatron oscillation in cotangential trajectories.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPML035  
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TUPAL015 Progress in the Realization and Commissioning of the Exotic Beam Facility SPES at INFN-LNL rfq, target, proton, acceleration 1035
 
  • G. Bisoffi, A. Andrighetto, P. Antonini, L. Bellan, D. Benini, J. Bermudez, D. Bortolato, M. Calderolla, M. Comunian, S. Corradetti, A. Facco, E. Fagotti, P. Favaron, A. Galatà, F. Galtarossa, M.G. Giacchini, F. Gramegna, A. Lombardi, M. Maggiore, M. Manzolaro, D. Marcato, T. Marchi, P. Mastinu, P. Modanese, M.F. Moisio, A. Monetti, M. Montis, A. Palmieri, S. Pavinato, D. Pedretti, A. Pisent, M. Poggi, G.P. Prete, C. R. Roncolato, M. Rossignoli, L. Sarchiapone, D. Scarpa, D. Zafiropoulos, L. de Ruvo
    INFN/LNL, Legnaro (PD), Italy
  • V. Andreev
    ITEP, Moscow, Russia
  • M.A. Bellato
    INFN- Sez. di Padova, Padova, Italy
  • A.J. Mendez
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA
 
  SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) is an ISOL type facility for production and post-acceleration of exotic nuclei for forefront research in nuclear physics. Radioactive (RA) species (A=80/160) will be produced by fissions induced by a proton beam impinging on an UCx target: the proton beam will be delivered by a com-mercial cyclotron with a 40 MeV maximum energy and a 0.25 mA maximum current. The RA species, extracted from the Target-Ion-Source system as a 1+ beam , will be cooled in a RFQ (radiofrequency quadrupole) beam cool-er (RFQ-BC) and purified from the isobars contaminants through a High Resolution Mass Separator (HRMS). Post-acceleration will be performed via an ECR-based charge breeder, delivering the obtained q+ RA beam to a being built CW RFQ and to the being upgraded superconducting (sc) linac ALPI (up to 10 MeV/A for a mass-to-charge ratio A/q=7).  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAL015  
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TUPAL062 Recent Developments for Cyclotron Extraction Foils at TRIUMF electron, extraction, simulation, TRIUMF 1159
 
  • Y. Bylinskii, R.A. Baartman, P.E. Dirksen, Y.-N. Rao, V.A. Verzilov
    TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada
 
  Funding: Funded under a contribution agreement with NRC (National Research Council Canada).
The TRIUMF 500 MeV H− cyclotron employs stripping foils to extract multiple beams for different experimental programs. The upgrades in foil material and foil holders lead to significant improvements in beam quality and foil life time, as well as reduction of Be-7 contamination originated in the foils. Thus, an accumulated beam charge extracted with a single foil increased from ~60 mA·hours to more than 500 mA·hours. A key role that lead to these advances was an understanding of the foil heating mechanism, major contribution to which is paid by the power deposition from electrons stripped by the foil. To further diminish this effect, we recently introduced a foil tilt from the vertical orientation that allows stripped electrons fast escape from the foil, well before losing their original momentum through the heat deposition. Other improvements were related to operational issues. Introduction of a "combo" foil consisting of wide portion and thin wire allowed both high and low intensity beam extraction without foils sacrifice. Deploying a wedge foil for extraction at 100 MeV helped reduction of beam intensity instabilities caused by beam vertical size and position fluctuations.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAL062  
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TUZGBF4 The South African Isotope Facility target, isotope-production, proton, radiation 1240
 
  • J.L. Conradie, L.S. Anthony, F. Azaiez, S. Baard, R.A. Bark, A.H. Barnard, P. Beukes, J.I. Broodryk, J.C. Cornell, J.G. De Villiers, H. Du Plessis, W. Duckitt, D.T. Fourie, P.G. Gardiner, M.E. Hogan, I.H. Kohler, J.J. Lawrie, C. Lussi, N.R. Mantengu, R.H. McAlister, J. Mira, K.V. Mjali, H.W. Mostert, C. Naidoo, F. Nemulodi, M. Sakildien, V.F. Spannenberg, G.F. Steyn, N. Stodart, R.W. Thomae, M.J. Van Niekerk, P.A. van Schalkwyk
    iThemba LABS, Somerset West, South Africa
 
  iThemba LABS has developed a strategy to respond to the need to expand the research agenda of the facility, as well as to seize the opportunity to exploit the growing global demand for radioisotopes. This strategy will depend on the existing accelerator and isotope production infrastructure, as well as the acquisition of a cyclotron capable of accelerating protons to 70 MeV at beam currents in excess of 700 microampere. This development will be approached in two phases: Phase 1 will include the migration of the existing radioisotope production from the separated-sector cyclotron (SSC) to a new 70 MeV cyclotron. This rearrangement will increase the isotope production capability and also free up the SSC for research. In phase 2, beams of artificial isotopes will be produced at energies up to 5 MeV/nucleon to allow iThemba LABS to expand its research capabilities to new frontiers. The various different aspects of the proposed project will be discussed.  
slides icon Slides TUZGBF4 [23.494 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUZGBF4  
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WEPAL030 Deep Learning Based Predictive Control for RFT-30 Cyclotron controls, network, simulation, operation 2230
 
  • Y.B. Kong, M.G. Hur, E.J. Lee, J.H. Park, H.S. Song, S.D. Yang
    KAERI, Jeongeup-si, Republic of Korea
 
  Successful construction of the control system is an important problem in the accelerator. The RFT-30 cyclotron is 30 MeV cyclotron for radioisotope production and fundamental researches. To operate the RFT-30 cyclotron for beam irradiation, the human operators should carefully manipulate the control parameters. If the control does not function properly, it becomes difficult to handle the cyclotron and cannot perform the accurate operations for the control. In this work, we propose a deep learning based model predictive control approach for the RFT-30 cyclotron. The proposed approach is composed of two steps: system identification and a control design. In the system identification procedure, the proposed approach constructs the predictive model of the accelerator using the deep learning approach. In the control design stage, the controller finds the optimal control inputs by solving the optimization problem. To analyze the performance of the proposed approach, we applied the approach into the RFT-30 cyclotron.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPAL030  
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WEPAL067 Number of Turn Measurements on the HIPA Cyclotrons at PSI pick-up, proton, operation, LabView 2334
 
  • P.-A. Duperrex, A. Facchetti
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
 
  The number of turns is an important parameter for the tuning of a cyclotron; it is even more important for high intensity machines such as the 1.4 MW High Intensity Proton Accelerator (HIPA) facility. Up to recently, the number of turns had to be measured using radial probes, which cannot be performed during user operation but only during beam development shifts. For user shifts, the estimate of the number of turns was based on the acceleration voltage measurements, with the inherent limited precision of RF measurements. A new scheme based on the time of flight (ToF) measurements has been deployed on the two cyclotrons of HIPA. It is based on the cross-correlation of fast sampled data from pickups located at the entrance and at the exit of the cyclotrons. For the first cyclotron, called Injector 2 (accelerating the beam from 870 keV to 72MeV), the beam had to be externally modulated whereas, for the Ring Cyclotron (72 MeV to 590 MeV), no external modulation was necessary. This paper will present the details of both implementations, their limitations and the quality of the results that can be obtained with the ToF techniques.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPAL067  
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WEPML064 Design of the Trim Coil for the Superconducting Cyclotron Extraction extraction, resonance, controls, flattop 2840
 
  • L.G. Zhang, K. Fan, S. Hu, Z.Y. Mei, Z.J. Zeng
    HUST, Wuhan, People's Republic of China
 
  A proton therapy system is being developed at Huazhong university of science and technology (HUST). A 250 MeV superconducting cyclotron with an average magnetic filed of 3.1 T in the extraction region is selected to reduce the machine size, which creates difficulties for beam extraction because of the small turn separation of the beam orbits in the extraction region. To obtain high extraction efficiency, a carefully controlled magnetic perturbation is introduced to excite resonance when beam passes through the νr =1 resonance. The first-order perturbation in the magnetic field is generated by trim coils within confined regions. The profile of the trim coil and the resultant perturbation fields are optimized iteratively with orbit tracking. Simulation shows that sufficient turn separation can be obtained with the proper setting of trim coils.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPML064  
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THPAK007 Beam Extraction from TR24 Cyclotron at IPHC extraction, betatron, closed-orbit, emittance 3218
 
  • N.Yu. Kazarinov, I.A. Ivanenko
    JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region, Russia
  • F.R. Osswald
    IPHC, Strasbourg Cedex 2, France
 
  The CYRCé cyclotron is used at IPHC (Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien) for the production of radio-isotopes for diagnostics, medical treatments and fundamental research in radiobiology. The TR24 cyclotron manufactured and commercialized by ACSI delivers a 16-25 MeV proton beam with intensity from few nA up to 500 microA. The TR24 is a separated-sector isochronous cyclotron with normal-conducting magnet and stripper foil. It is a challenge to fit the high intensity proton beam used for target irradiation to radiobiology and analytical applications due to requirements on beam quality and energy resolution. Field distribution in the region of the extraction performed with OPERA 3D as well as beam dynamics related with stripping are analysed. 3D calculation model and hypothesis about geometry and beam are described. Our goal is to evaluate the extraction efficiency and the beam characteristics in the focusing plane outside the cyclotron which will serve as inputs for the design of future beam lines and enable beam matching conditions. Therefore, different issues are discussed: energy dispersion, transverse dynamics and orbit separation.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK007  
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THPAK028 Beam Dynamics Simulations in the Dubna SC202 Superconducting Cyclotron for Hadron Therapy extraction, proton, simulation, cavity 3270
 
  • O. Karamyshev, G.A. Karamysheva, D.V. Popov, G. Shirkov, S.G. Shirkov
    JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region, Russia
  • V. Malinin
    JINR/DLNP, Dubna, Moscow region, Russia
 
  In 2015 the joint project JINR (Dubna, Russia) - ASIPP (Hefei, China) on design and construction of supercon-ducting proton cyclotron SC202 was started. Two cyclo-trons are planned to be manufactured in China, according to the Collaboration Agreement between JINR and ASIPP. The first cyclotron will be used for proton therapy in Hefei and the second one will replace the Phasotron in the research and treatment program on proton therapy in Dubna. New schema of extraction system and results of beam acceleration and extraction simulations for Dubna cyclotron are presented.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK028  
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THPAK104 New Proton Driver Beamline Design for ARIEL* Project at TRIUMF** target, proton, TRIUMF, optics 3473
 
  • Y.-N. Rao, R.A. Baartman, Y. Bylinskii, F.W. Jones
    TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada
 
  Funding: ∗ Capital funding from CFI (Canada Foundation for Innovation). ** Funded under a contribution agreement with NRC (National Research Council Canada).
The new radioisotope facility at TRIUMF, ARIEL, under construction, comprises two primary driver beams: 50 MeV electrons from the SC linac and 480 MeV protons from the main TRIUMF cyclotron. New 80 m long proton beam line will transport up to 100 microamps beam from existing cyclotron extraction port to an ISOL target station. H− cyclotron stripping foil extraction allows to feed this additional user simultaneously with 3 present different experimental programs. Distinctive features of the new beam line include: a) compensation of the cyclotron energy dispersion; b) low-loss (< 1 nA/m) beam transport after a collimator dedicated to remove the beam halo produced by large-angle scattering in the extraction foil; c) broad range of beam size variability at the production target by applying beam rastering at 400 Hz; d) sharing the same tunnel with electron beam line that requires unique beam loss protect system. Details of beam optics design as well as beam instrumentation are discussed in the paper.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK104  
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THPAK105 Construction Progress of Two Superconducting Cyclotrons for Proton Therapy and Proton Irradiation at CIAE proton, cavity, extraction, controls 3477
 
  • T.J. Zhang, S. An, H.R. Cai, L.C. Cao, X.L. Cao, T. Cui, X.L. Fu, T. Ge, P.F. Gong, F.P. Guan, L.L. Guan, S.G. Hou, B. Ji, X.L. Jia, M. Li, X.L. Li, Y.Q. Li, J. Lin, J.Y. Liu, X.T. Lu, Y.L. Lv, C. Wang, F. Wang, F. Wang, L. Wang, J.Y. Wei, S.M. Wei, J.S. Xing, G. Yang, J.J. Yang, M. Yin, Z.G. Yin, D.S. Zhang, S.P. Zhang, X. Zhen
    CIAE, Beijing, People's Republic of China
  • K. Fong
    TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada
 
  Funding: Supported partly by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11375273 and 11475269) and by the Ministry of Science and Technology under Grant 2016YFC0105300.
There are very strong demand for mid-energy of proton machine recent years due to the surging cancer patients and fast progress of the space science in China. For the applications of proton therapy and proton irradiation, the energy range of proton beam usually is from 200 MeV to 250 MeV, or even higher for astronavigation. Based on the R&D starting from 2009, two construction projects of 230 MeV and 250 MeV superconducting cyclotron, which have been implemented recently at China Institute of Atomic Energy(CIAE). That was started in Jan 2015 for the 230 MeV machine, for the program of proton therapy and space science launched by China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC), and in Jan 2016 for the 250 MeV machine, for the program of proton therapy launched by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (MOST). In this paper, the designs for the two SC cyclotrons and their key components, including the main magnet, SC coils, RF system, internal ion source and central region, extraction system, etc, and the construction progress of the machines will be presented.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK105  
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THPAK109 Improved Simulation for Centre Region of TRIUMF 500 MeV Cyclotron with Space Charge space-charge, TRIUMF, simulation, focusing 3489
 
  • Y.-N. Rao, R.A. Baartman, T. Planche
    TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada
 
  Funding: TRIUMF receives federal funding via a contribution agreement through the National Research Council of Canada
The TRIUMF 500 MeV cyclotron delivered routinely a total current up to 200 µA protons for 15 years till 2001. Since 2002, developments towards 300 µA total extraction became compelling because of the ISAC expansion. To meet future requirements (for addition of a new beam-line), a total extraction of 310 − 450 µA shall be envisioned. With such an increase of beam current, the space charge effect becomes a major concern in the centre region, as it limits the maximum amount of beam current achievable out of the machine. Therefore, numerical simulation on beam orbits with the space charge force has has been initiated, starting from the injection gap. This study is focused on the beam bunches which are very long compared with transverse size (because TRIUMF extraction is by stripping of H-minus and separated turns are not required). In order to achieve an improved understanding of the space charge effect, we worked to validate the simulations performed without and with the space charge force, using realistic centre region geometry. Our goal is to work out the space charge limits and their dependence upon the bunchers, rf voltage, and matching. In this paper we present our recent progress in this study.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK109  
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THPAK110 Correction of νrz=1 Resonance in TRIUMF Cyclotron resonance, coupling, TRIUMF, simulation 3492
 
  • Y.-N. Rao, R.A. Baartman, T. Planche
    TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada
 
  Funding: TRIUMF receives federal funding via a contribution agreement through the National Research Council of Canada
The second order linear coupling resonance nur-nuz=1 is driven by an asymmetry in the median plane of the cyclotron due to presence of the first harmonic in Br component. In TRIUMF cyclotron, this resonance is encountered at about 166 MeV and 291 MeV, where nur=1.2 and nuz=0.2. When the beam is off-centered radially to pass through this resonance, the radial oscillation gets converted into vertical oscillation, which can cause beam loss to occur, though these loss modes do not reduce the machine transmission under normal operation. In this paper, we present the results of simulations and measurements that we have performed to correct this resonance by using the existing harmonic coils.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK110  
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THPAK118 Beam Dynamics Studies for a Strong-Focusing Cyclotron cavity, dipole, focusing, betatron 3522
 
  • J. Gerity, S. Assadi, P.M. McIntyre, A. Sattarov
    Texas A&M University, College Station, USA
 
  Results are presented from end-to-end simulation of a 100 MeV strong focusing cyclotron (SFC). The develop-ment of the high-current SFC is motivated by applica-tions for production of medical isotopes and for a proton driver for subcritical fission. It uses a novel superconducting cavity to provide suffi-cient energy gain to fully separate all turns. An arc-contour F-D doublet, trim dipole winding, and sextupole are located along each turn within the aperture of each sector dipole to control the betatron and synchrotron motion and to stabilize non-linear dynamics with high-current operation. The phase space evolution of a proton bunch in the SFC was simulated using both the code OPAL and an ad hoc Runge-Kutta tracker. Iterative optimization of the dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole fields was used to provide precise isochronicity, favorable betatron phase advance, and cancellation of dispersion in each cell.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK118  
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THPAL004 Research and Development of RF System for SC200 Cyclotron cavity, LLRF, simulation, acceleration 3616
 
  • G. Chen, C. Chao, G. Liu, X.Y. Long, Z. Peng, Y. Song, Y.S. Wang, C.S. Wei, M. Xu, Q. Yang, X. Zhang, Y. Zhao
    ASIPP, Hefei, People's Republic of China
  • L. Calabretta, A.C. Caruso
    INFN/LNS, Catania, Italy
  • O. Karamyshev, G.A. Karamysheva, N.A. Morozov, E. Samsonov, G. Shirkov
    JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region, Russia
 
  A 200MeV compact isochronous superconducting cyclotron, named SC200, for proton therapy is under development by collaboration of ASIPP (Hefei, China) and JINR (Dubna, Russia). The radio frequency (RF) system as one of most significant subsystems in cyclotron consists of acceleration cavity, low level RF, RF source and transmission network. SC200 has two cavities connected in the centre, which are operated at 91.5 MHz with second harmonic. To meet the required acceleration voltage, the cavities have been carefully designed with comprised choices between several aspects, such as Q factor, mechanic stability and so on. The low-level RF (LLRF) system has been implemented by using the FPGA to achieve the significant accelerating voltage with an amplitude stability of <0.2% and a phase stability of < 0.1 degree. The cavity and LLRF system have been tested outside of cyclotron, the results will be presented. For future, the commissioning of whole RF system will be started after the assembly of SC200 at the end of 2019.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAL004  
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THPAL115 The Design of 1.1 MW RF Dummy Load for the RF System of 520 MeV Cyclotron simulation, TRIUMF, pick-up, controls 3911
 
  • N.V. Avreline, Y. Bylinskii, B. Jakovljevic, Y. Ma, V. Zvyagintsev
    TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada
 
  The RF System of 520-MeV Cyclotron is operating at 23 MHz with 1 MW CW RF power. The RF dummy load is required to troubleshoot and tune the RF amplifier. The RF system is being constantly improved and the future goal is to increase cyclotron's beam current up to 400 μA, which requires increasing the RF amplifier's power. As a part of this goal, a new RF dummy load was designed.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAL115  
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