Keyword: heavy-ion
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MOZGBE1 Development of Gas Stripper at RIBF acceleration, plasma, target, electron 41
 
  • H. Imao
    RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, Wako, Saitama, Japan
 
  Charge strippers are almost inevitable for accelerations in heavy-ion accelerator complex. The fixed solid strip-pers including carbon-foil strippers are difficult to be used in on-going or upcoming new-generation in-flight RI beam facilities, e.g., RIBF (RIKEN, Japan), FAIR (GSI, Germany), FRIB (NSCL/MSU, US), HIAF (IMP, China) and RAON (RISP, Korea). The He gas stripper developed at RIBF is the first successful stripper significantly be-yond the applicable limit of the fixed carbon-foil strip-pers. We discuss the development of the gas strippers at RIBF and overview the related new-generation strippers being developed in the world.  
slides icon Slides MOZGBE1 [11.802 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOZGBE1  
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MOPMF038 Cleaning Performance of the Collimation System with Xe Beams at the Large Hadron Collider simulation, collimation, betatron, proton 176
 
  • N. Fuster-Martínez, R. Bruce, P.D. Hermes, J.M. Jowett, D. Mirarchi, S. Redaelli
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  The LHC heavy-ion program with Pb ions has delivered substantial physics results since the startup of the LHC. There was a Xe run in 2017 in which collimation losses and cleaning were assessed. These studies give a unique opportunity for very valuable benchmark of simulation models with measurements, which could also be very important to understand limitations for future runs with Pb and other species. In this paper, we present collimation loss maps measured in the first ever operation of the LHC with Xe ions. The measurements are compared with simulations and first conclusions are discussed for possible future operation.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPMF038  
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MOPMF090 First Studies of Ion Collimation for the LHC Using BDSIM simulation, collimation, hadron, proton 341
 
  • A. Abramov, S.T. Boogert, L.J. Nevay, S.D. Walker
    JAI, Egham, Surrey, United Kingdom
 
  At the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN ion physics runs are performed in addition to proton physics runs. In ion operation the cleaning efficiency of the collimation system is lower than in the case of protons and the ion showering process is more complicated and produces a larger variety of secondary particles. In particular, lighter ion species can be produced as fragmentation products in the collimation system and specialised physics lists are required to simulate their production and propagation in matter. The Geant4 toolkit offers comprehensive physics process lists that extend to the case of arbitrary ion species at high energies. First results from a study of ion collimation for the LHC using the Geant4 physics library in BDSIM are presented here. These include simulations of a full ring loss map and particle spectra for collimator leakage for a Pb beam at injection energy in the LHC.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPMF090  
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TUXGBD2 Colliding Heavy Ions in the LHC luminosity, experiment, operation, proton 584
 
  • J.M. Jowett
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  The Large Hadron Collider at CERN not only collides protons but also heavier nuclei. So far Pb+Pb, Xe-Xe and p+Pb collisions, at multiple energies, have been provided for what was initially conceived as a distinct physics program on the collective behavior of QCD matter at extreme energy density and temperature. However unexpected phenomena observed in p+Pb and p+p collisions at equivalent energies have blurred the distinction. Intense, low-emittance, ion beams are provided by a dedicated source and injector chain setup. When Pb beams collide, new luminosity limits arise from photon-photon and photonuclear interactions but effective mitigations have allowed luminosities over 3 times design. Asymmetric p+Pb collisions introduce new features and beam-dynamical phenomena into operation of the LHC but have also achieved luminosity far beyond expectations. With experimental requirements for multiple changes in energy and data-taking configurations during very short heavy-ion runs, high operational efficiency and reliability are vital. This invited talk discusses performance, future prospects, and technical challenges for the LHC heavy ion program, including injector performance.  
slides icon Slides TUXGBD2 [5.322 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUXGBD2  
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TUPAF088 Final factory-side Measurements of the Next SC CH-Cavities for the HELIAC-Project cavity, linac, resonance, factory 943
 
  • M. Basten, M. Busch, H. Podlech, M. Schwarz
    IAP, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
  • K. Aulenbacher, W.A. Barth, V. Gettmann, T. Kürzeder, M. Miski-Oglu
    HIM, Mainz, Germany
  • W.A. Barth, F.D. Dziuba, M. Heilmann, S. Yaramyshev
    GSI, Darmstadt, Germany
 
  Funding: Work supported by the EU Framework Programme H2020 662186 (MYRTE); Work supported by BMBF Contr. No. 05P15RFBA;
The upcoming FAIR project (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) at GSI will use the existing UNILAC (UNIversal Linear Accelerator) as an injector to provide high intensity heavy ion beams at low repetition rates. As a consequence a new superconducting (sc) continous wave (cw) high intensity heavy ion Linac is required to provide ion beams above the coulomb barrier to keep the Super Heavy Element (SHE) physics program at GSI competitive on an international level. The fundamental Linac design comprises a high performance ion source, the High Charge State Injector (HLI) upgraded for cw-operation and a matching line (1.4 MeV/u) followed by a sc Drift Tube Linac (DTL). Four cryo modules each equipped with three Crossbar-H-mode (CH) structures provide for acceleration up to 7.3 MeV/u. The first section of this ambitious accelerator project has been successfully commissioned and tested with heavy ion beam from the HLI in 2017. It comprises two sc 9.3 T solenoids and a sc 217 MHz CH-cavity with 15 equidistant gaps as a demonstrator. The construction of the next two sc 217 MHz 8 gap CH-cavities is nearly finished and final factory-side measurements will be presented.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAF088  
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TUPAK002 Advanced Approach for Beam Matching along the Multi-Cavity SC CW Linac at GSI cavity, linac, emittance, proton 955
 
  • S. Yaramyshev, W.A. Barth, M. Heilmann
    GSI, Darmstadt, Germany
  • K. Aulenbacher
    IKP, Mainz, Germany
  • K. Aulenbacher, W.A. Barth, V. Gettmann, T. Kürzeder, M. Miski-Oglu
    HIM, Mainz, Germany
  • M. Basten, M. Busch, H. Podlech, M. Schwarz
    IAP, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
 
  A multi-stage program for the development of a heavy ion superconducting (sc) continuous wave (cw) linac is in progress at HIM (Mainz, Germany) and GSI (Darmstadt, Germany) under support of IAP (Frankfurt, Germany). In 2017 the first section of the CW-Linac has been successfully commissioned at GSI. Beam acceleration at the CW-Linac is foreseen to be performed by up to twelve multi-gap CH cavities. The linac should provide the beam for physics experiments, smoothly varying the output particle energy from 3.5 to 7.3 MeV/u, simultaneously keeping high beam quality. Due to a wide variation of the input- and output -beam energy for each cavity, a longitudinal beam matching to every cavity is of high importance. An advanced algorithm for an optimization of matched beam parameters under variable rf-voltage and rf-phase of each cavity has been developed. The description of the method and the obtained results are presented in the paper.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAK002  
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TUPAK003 Beam Dynamics Simulations for the New Superconducting CW Heavy Ion LINAC at GSI cavity, linac, cryomodule, solenoid 959
 
  • M. Schwarz, M. Basten, M. Busch, H. Podlech
    IAP, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
  • K. Aulenbacher
    IKP, Mainz, Germany
  • K. Aulenbacher, W.A. Barth, F.D. Dziuba, V. Gettmann, T. Kürzeder, M. Miski-Oglu
    HIM, Mainz, Germany
  • W.A. Barth, M. Heilmann, A. Rubin, A. Schnase, S. Yaramyshev
    GSI, Darmstadt, Germany
 
  Funding: Work supported by BMBF Contr. No. 05P15RFBA and EU Framework Programme H2020 662186 (MYRTE)
For future experiments with heavy ions near the coulomb barrier within the super-heavy element (SHE) research project a multi-stage R&D program of GSI/HIM and IAP is currently in progress. It aims for developing a supercon-ducting (sc) continuous wave (CW) LINAC with multiple CH cavities as key components downstream the High Charge State Injector (HLI) at GSI. The LINAC design is challenging due to the requirement of intense beams in CW mode up to a mass-to-charge ratio of 6, while covering a broad output energy range from 3.5 to 7.3 MeV/u with unchanged minimum energy spread. Testing of the first CH-cavity in 2016 demonstrated a promising maximum accelerating gradient of Ea = 9.6 MV/m; the worldwide first beam test with this sc multi-gap CH-cavity in 2017 was a milestone in the R&D work of GSI/HIM and IAP. In the light of experience gained in this research so far, the beam dynamics layout for the entire LINAC has recently been updated and optimized.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAK003  
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TUPAK004 Superconducting CH-Cavity Heavy Ion Beam Testing at GSI cavity, linac, acceleration, emittance 962
 
  • W.A. Barth, M. Heilmann, A. Rubin, A. Schnase, S. Yaramyshev
    GSI, Darmstadt, Germany
  • K. Aulenbacher
    IKP, Mainz, Germany
  • K. Aulenbacher, F.D. Dziuba, V. Gettmann, T. Kürzeder, M. Miski-Oglu
    HIM, Mainz, Germany
  • M. Basten, M. Busch, H. Podlech, M. Schwarz
    IAP, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
 
  Recently the first section of a standalone superconducting (sc) continuous wave (cw) heavy ion Linac as a demonstration of the capability of 217 MHz multi gap Crossbar H-mode structures (CH) has been commissioned and extensively tested with beam from the GSI- High Charge State Injector. The demonstrator set up reached acceleration of heavy ions up to the design beam energy and beyond. The required acceleration gain was achieved with heavy ion beams even above the design mass to charge ratio at high beam intensity and full beam transmission. This contribution presents systematic beam measurements with varying RF-amplitudes and phases of the CH-cavity, as well as versatile phase space measurements for heavy ion beams with different mass to charge ratio. The worldwide first and successful beam test with a superconducting multi gap CH-cavity is a milestone of the R&D work of Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM) and GSI in collaboration with Goethe University Frankfurt (GUF) in preparation of the sc cw heavy ion Linac project and other cw-ion beam applications.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAK004  
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WEPAK006 Bunch Shape Measurements at the GSI CW-Linac Prototype linac, cavity, bunching, emittance 2091
 
  • T. Sieber, W.A. Barth, P. Forck, V. Gettmann, M. Heilmann, H. Reeg, A. Reiter, S. Yaramyshev
    GSI, Darmstadt, Germany
  • F.D. Dziuba, T. Kürzeder, M. Miski-Oglu
    HIM, Mainz, Germany
  • A. Feschenko, S.A. Gavrilov
    RAS/INR, Moscow, Russia
 
  The existing GSI accelerator will become the injector for FAIR. To preserve and enhance the current experimental program at UNILAC, a new Linac is under development, which shall run in parallel to the FAIR injector, providing cw-beams of ions at energies from 3.5 - 7.3 MeV/u. For this cw-Linac a superconducting prototype cavity has been developed and was first operated with beam in summer 2017. The resonator is a cross-bar H-structure (CH) of 0.7 m length, with a resonant frequency of 216.8 MHz. It has been installed behind the GSI High Charge State Injector (HLI), which provided 108 MHz bunches of 1.4 MeV/u Ar6+/9+/11+ ions at a duty cycle of 25 %. Due to the frequency jump and small longitudinal acceptance of the CH, proper matching of the HLI beam to the prototype was required. The bunch properties of the injected beam as well as the effect of different phase- and amplitude-settings of the cavity were measured in detail with a bunch shape monitor (BSM) fabricated at INR, Moscow, while the mean energy was analyzed by time of flight method. In this contribution, the bunch shape measurements are described and the capabilities of the used BSM measurement principle are discussed.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPAK006  
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WEPML028 NEG Coated Vacuum Chambers and Bake-Out-Concept for the HESR at FAIR dipole, quadrupole, vacuum, storage-ring 2745
 
  • H. Jagdfeld, N.B. Bongers, J. Böker, P. Chaumet, F.M. Esser, F. Jordan, F. Klehr, G. Langenberg, D. Prasuhn, L. Semke, R. Tölle
    FZJ, Jülich, Germany
  • A. Mauel, G. Natour, U. Pabst
    Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Central Institute of Engineering, Electronics and Analytics, Jülich, Germany
 
  The High-Energy Storage Ring (HESR) is part of the international Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI Darmstadt. Forschungszentrum Jülich (IKP and ZEA-1) is responsible for the design and installation of the HESR. The HESR is designed for antiprotons and heavy ion experiments as well. Therefore the vacuum is required to be 10-11 mbar or better. To achieve this extreme high vacuum (XHV), NEG coated chambers will be used in combination with common vacuum pumps to reach the needed pumping speed and capacity everywhere in the accelerator ring. For activation of the NEG material a bake-out system will be developed and installed. A bake-out test bench was used for checking the achievable end pressure and developing the bake-out system for the NEG coated chambers of the HESR. The results of the tests and the bake-out concept including the layout of the control system are presented. In addition, the temperature distribution of the dedicated heater jackets inside the dipole and quadrupole magnets are shown.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPML028  
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WEPML036 Truncated Cosine Theta Magnet and the Applications septum, extraction, injection, collider 2772
 
  • K. Sugita, E.S. Fischer, P.J. Spiller
    GSI, Darmstadt, Germany
 
  Typically septum magnets are designed with a combination of a C-shape iron yoke and a copper cable. Due to leakage of a magnetic field at a circulating beam passing through a saturated iron area, high field septum magnets with this concept is not feasible. Thus, this conventional design approach is limited magnetic field strength below 2 Tesla. For high energy machines, like SIS300 at FAIR or FCC at CERN, high field septum magnets are required to shorten the injection and extraction branch lines. Recently superconducting magnets, which enable to reduce the size of a building, are being introduced to medical accelerators. However, even if bending magnets are replaced by high field magnets, long straight sections, which is partly composed by a conventional septum magnet, remain. By introducing high field septum magnets, more compact accelerator can be designed. To get over the limitation of 2 Tesla, a novel concept of a septum magnet generating high magnetic field has been developed and design studies are ongoing. By using superconducting technology, a septum magnet can be designed to generate more than 2 Tesla. We present the concept and various application for the accelerators.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPML036  
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WEPML039 Design of the Two-Gap Superconducting Re-Buncher cavity, linac, simulation, proton 2779
 
  • M. Gusarova, W.A. Barth, S. Yaramyshev
    MEPhI, Moscow, Russia
  • W.A. Barth, S. Yaramyshev
    GSI, Darmstadt, Germany
  • W.A. Barth, M. Miski-Oglu
    HIM, Mainz, Germany
  • M. Basten, M. Busch
    IAP, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
  • M. Gusarova
    JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region, Russia
 
  A new design of a spoke cavity for low relative velocities of heavy ions has been elaborated. Simulation results for a 2-gap spoke cavity with a resonance frequency of 216.816 MHz and a relative velocity of 0.07с are presented.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPML039  
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WEPML040 Further Tests on the Final State of the SC 325 MHz CH-Cavity and Coupler Test Bench Update cavity, linac, framework, SRF 2783
 
  • M. Busch, M. Basten, J. List, P. Müller, H. Podlech, M. Schwarz
    IAP, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
  • W.A. Barth, J. List
    GSI, Darmstadt, Germany
  • W.A. Barth
    HIM, Mainz, Germany
  • W.A. Barth
    MEPhI, Moscow, Russia
 
  Funding: Work supported by BMBF Contr. No. 05P15RFBA
At the Institute for Applied Physics, Goethe-University Frankfurt, a sc 325 MHz CH-cavity has been developed and successfully tested up to 14.1 mV/m and has now reached the final production stage with the helium vessel welded to the frontal joints of the cavity and final processing steps have been performed. Further tests in a vertical and horizontal environment are being prepared for intensive studies. This cavity is a prototype for envisaged beam tests with a pulsed ion beam at 11.4 AMeV. In this contribution the results of the performed RF tests are being presented. Furthermore, first measurements of the recently installed 217 MHz coupler test bench are shown.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPML040  
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WEPML041 Comparative Study of Low Beta Multi-Gap Superconducting Bunchers cavity, linac, proton, accelerating-gradient 2786
 
  • K.V. Taletskiy, W.A. Barth, M. Gusarova, S. Yaramyshev
    MEPhI, Moscow, Russia
  • W.A. Barth, S. Yaramyshev
    GSI, Darmstadt, Germany
  • W.A. Barth, M. Miski-Oglu
    HIM, Mainz, Germany
  • M. Basten, M. Busch
    IAP, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
  • M. Gusarova
    JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region, Russia
 
  The results of a comparative study of low beta multi-gap superconducting bunchers for 216.816 MHz and a relative velocity of 0.07с with dedicated limitations of the overall geometrical dimensions are presented. A comparison of electrodynamic, mechanical and thermal properties of 3-gap and 2-gap cavities is shown.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPML041  
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WEPML045 Infrastructure for Superconducting CH-Cavity Preparation at HIM cavity, linac, vacuum, SRF 2796
 
  • T. Kürzeder, K. Aulenbacher, W.A. Barth, F.D. Dziuba, V. Gettmann, M. Miski-Oglu, E. Riehn
    HIM, Mainz, Germany
  • K. Aulenbacher, R.G. Heine, T. Stengler
    IKP, Mainz, Germany
  • W.A. Barth, S. Yaramyshev
    GSI, Darmstadt, Germany
  • F. Hug
    KPH, Mainz, Germany
 
  A superconducting cw LINAC for heavy ions is currently under development at GSI in Darmstadt and HIM in Mainz. This Linac is based on 217 MHz multigap bulk niobium Crossbar H-mode RF-cavities. In order to treat and prepare RF-cavities with such a complex geometry a new cleanroom facility has been already built at the Helmholtz-Institut in Mainz. All tools and machines inside the cleanroom can handle cavities with up to 800 mm in diameter and with up to 1300 mm in length. In its ISO-class 6 and 4 zones, respectively it features a large ultrasonic and conductance rinsing bath, a high pressure rinsing (HPR) cabinet and a vacuum oven. The HPR cabinet has an inside clearance of 1.4 m. The large cavities sit on a rotating table, while the rising wand moves vertically up and down. Due to the crossbar structure of the RF-cavities the HPR device allows for off axis-rinsing in their quadrants. For RF testing a 52 m² (4 m x 13 m) concrete shielded area with sufficient liquid helium and nitrogen supply is located next to the cleanroom and the cryo-module assembly area. We will report on the new SRF infrastructure in Mainz and the commissioning of the new high pressure rinsing cabinet.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPML045  
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WEPML046 Multipactor Discharge in Superconducting Accelerating CH Cavities multipactoring, electron, cavity, linac 2800
 
  • M. Gusarova, D. I. Kiselev
    MEPhI, Moscow, Russia
  • F.D. Dziuba, T. Kürzeder, M. Miski-Oglu
    HIM, Mainz, Germany
  • M. Gusarova
    JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region, Russia
 
  The results of numerical simulations of multipacting discharge in a superconducting accelerating CH cavity are presented in this paper. The localization of multipactor trajectories in the 15-gap 217 MHz superconducting (sc) CH cavity at various levels of accelerating voltage is considered.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPML046  
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THPAL128 Autonomous Topography Detection and Traversal for an Inspection Robot Within the Beamline of Particle Accelerators vacuum, experiment, FEL, kicker 3943
 
  • N. Schweizer
    Technische Universität Darmstadt (TU Darmstadt, RMR), Darmstadt, Germany
  • I. Pongrac
    GSI, Darmstadt, Germany
 
  Particle accelerators feature ultra-high vacuum pipe systems with unique topography, i.e. with a multitude of different vacuum chambers of varying dimensions and varying pipe apertures. In order to be able to examine the interior of the entire vacuum system, even those parts which are not accessible without disassembling large parts of the accelerator, a semi-autonomous robot is being developed which shall traverse and visually inspect the vacuum system of particle accelerators. We present a generic concept based on distance sensors for the inspection robot to detect steps between vacuum chambers and gaps in the beamline. Movement strategies to autonomously overcome these basic obstacles are introduced. For evaluation we use simulations of ideal environments with flat surfaces as well as realistic beam pipe environments of the SIS100 particle accelerator. Additionally, a prototype of our robot concept confirms the implementation of all maneuvers. Results show that obstacles of previously unknown dimensions can be detected and reliably traversed.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAL128  
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FRXGBF3 Perspectives in High Intensity Heavy Ion Sources for Future Heavy Ion Accelerators ion-source, ECR, ECRIS, electron 5047
 
  • L.T. Sun
    IMP/CAS, Lanzhou, People's Republic of China
 
  Driven by the development of next generation heavy ion accelerators such as IMP-HIAF, GSI-FAIR, RIKEN-RIBF, SPIRAL 2, JLEIC and so on that need very intense highly charged heavy ion beam injectors working at either pulsed or CW modes, intense research and development work towards more powerful ion sources have been made in different laboratories, which likewise has stimulated obvious advancement of the performances in recent years. However, even the best performing ion sources can't meet all the requirements. While the ion source researchers are tackling the next generation ion sources development, it is worth investigating the possibilities of other solutions, especially when very intense heavy ion beams are needed for the more intense and powerful heavy ion accelerators, for instance the driver accelerator to study inertial confinement fusion with heavy ion. This invited talk presents recent advancements of highly charged heavy ion sources, and discusses the other possible approaches for intense highly charged heavy ion beams for future heavy ion accelerators.  
slides icon Slides FRXGBF3 [10.019 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-FRXGBF3  
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