Keyword: proton
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MOZGBE3 Primary Study of High-Power Graphene Beam Window vacuum, Windows, target, scattering 47
 
  • H. Wang, C. Meng, H. Qu, D.H. Zhu
    IHEP, Beijing, People's Republic of China
  • X. Sun, P.C. Wang
    DNSC, Dongguan, People's Republic of China
 
  Beam windows are usually used to isolate vacuum or other special environments, which is a key device for high-power accelerators. Graphene has extremely high thermal conductivity, high strength and high transparency to high energy ions. It is highly suitable for beam windows if the technology is allowable. This paper will discuss the primary tests of graphene films, including vacuum per-formance and thermal conductivity performance, as well as the simulated performance of an assumed graphene window.  
slides icon Slides MOZGBE3 [1.756 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOZGBE3  
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MOZGBF2 Status of the FAIR Project antiproton, target, cavity, dipole 63
 
  • P.J. Spiller, M. Bai, O. Boine-Frankenheim, A. Dolinskyy, F. Hagenbuck, C.M. Kleffner, K. Knie, S. Menke, C. Omet, A. Schuhmann, H. Simon, M. Winkler
    GSI, Darmstadt, Germany
  • J. Blaurock, M. Ossendorf
    FAIR, Darmstadt, Germany
  • I. Koop
    BINP SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
  • D. Prasuhn, R. Tölle
    FZJ, Jülich, Germany
 
  The realization of the new Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, FAIR at GSI, Germany, has advanced significantly. The civil construction process of the Northern part of the building complex, including the excavation of the SIS100 synchrotron tunnel has been launched end of 2017. On site of the GSI campus, major preparations and upgrade measures for the injector operation of the existing accelerator facilities are ongoing and will be completed mid of 2018. The shielding of the SIS18 accelerator tunnel has been enhanced for the booster operation at high repetition rates and high intensity Proton beams. Two new transformer stations were set-up and commissioned which will provide the required pulse and common power for FAIR. All major contracts for series production of SIS100 components have been signed and a large number of the superconducting SIS100 magnets has been produced and accepted. Major testing infrastructures for superconducting magnets of SIS100 and Super-FRS have been set-up at JINR, CERN and GSI. Also for all other FAIR accelerator systems, the procurement of the components is progressing well  
slides icon Slides MOZGBF2 [4.271 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOZGBF2  
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MOZGBF3 40 Years of Electron Cooling at CERN electron, antiproton, experiment, gun 69
 
  • G. Tranquille
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  For nearly 40 years electron cooling has been used extensively on the storage rings of the CERN accelerator complex for the accumulation of ions or for the improvement of beam quality for precision experiments. Since the first cooling experiments on ICE the coolers have evolved to incorporate the latest advances in electron cooling technology and many unique experiments have also been performed when the coolers are not used for everyday operation. The trapping of anti-hydrogen atoms and more recently lead-lead and proton-lead ion collisions in the LHC have been made possible thanks to cooling in the AD and cooling and accumulation of lead ions in the LEIR respectively. The next cooler to be built at CERN will be installed on ELENA and will operate at electron energies below 350 eV. Many challenges lie ahead in operating at such a low energy with minimum perturbation to the storage ring. The present AD cooler, which has already seen two re-incarnations, will also be replaced with a new state-of-the-art device operating at higher energies in order to improve the quality of the antiproton beam in this ring.  
slides icon Slides MOZGBF3 [14.907 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOZGBF3  
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MOPMF004 Spin Dynamics in the JLEIC Alternative Pre-Booster Ring resonance, booster, polarization, dipole 87
 
  • J.L. Martinez Marin, B. Mustapha
    ANL, Argonne, USA
 
  In order to reduce the foot-print of the JLEIC ion complex, we have designed a more compact and cost-effective octagonal 3-GeV pre-booster ring half the size of the orig-inal figure-8 design. However, this new ring does not preserve ion polarization by design as the figure-8 shape, making it necessary to study the spin dynamics to find the best solution for spin correction. Different codes, Zgoubi and COSY, are used to model and simu-late the spin dynamics in the octagonal 3 GeV ring, in-cluding spin correction with Siberian snakes.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPMF004  
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MOPMF005 Beam Formation in the Alternative JLEIC Ion Complex booster, linac, collider, injection 91
 
  • B. Mustapha, J.L. Martinez Marin
    ANL, Argonne, USA
  • Y.S. Derbenev, F. Lin, V.S. Morozov, Y. Zhang
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
 
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy / ONP, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 for ANL and by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC under U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177.
The proposed alternative design approach for the JLab-EIC (JLEIC) ion complex uses a more compact linac and pre-booster, and consolidates the electron storage ring (e-ring) as a large booster for the ions. Following a parameter study* showing the feasibility of this alternative design approach, we have adapted the e-ring lattice by adding RF sections to accelerate ion beams**. In this study, we focus on the beam formation for protons and lead ions from the linac to the pre-booster, then into the e-ring until injection to the ion collider ring. Effects such as space charge, intra-beam scattering and the need for beam cooling will determine the total accumulated charge in each ring and the time required from injection from the injector linac to collision in the collider ring.
* B. Mustapha et al, Proceedings of NAPAC-2016, October 9-14, Chicago, IL.
** B. Mustapha et al, Proceedings of IPAC-2017, May 14-19, Copenhagen, Denmark.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPMF005  
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MOPMF006 Test of Stepwise Electron Bunch Replacement in eRHIC Using an Electron Lens in RHIC electron, emittance, experiment, simulation 95
 
  • W. Fischer, M.R. Costanzo, A.V. Fedotov, X. Gu, A. Marusic, M.G. Minty, C. Montag, Y. Tan, P. Thieberger
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
 
  Funding: Work supported by U.S. DOE under contract No DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy.
The electron-ion collider eRHIC requires an electron bunch replacement about every second to maintain both high luminosity and polarization. If the bunch can be replaced in several steps, the requirements for both the electron gun and the electron accelerator are greatly reduced due to the reduced bunch charge. However, a stepwise replacement of electron bunches in eRHIC will give rise to transient effects from the beam-beam interaction that will lead to emittance growth. Such a scheme was tested using one of the RHIC electron lenses with a multiple step increase of the electron current. The test provides an order-of-magnitude estimate of the effect without any further mitigating measures.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPMF006  
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MOPMF011 Beam-Beam Issues With Two Interaction Points in eRHIC electron, detector, simulation, luminosity 102
 
  • Y. Luo, M. Blaskiewicz, A. He, C. Montag, V. Ptitsyn
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
 
  Funding: Work supported by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy.
In this article, we study the beam-beam interaction related issues with two interaction points in the current eRHIC ring-ring design. We carried out strong-strong beam-beam simulation in a 2-d bunch intensity scan. We observed coherent beam-beam instability and emittance blowup with 2 collisions per turn at lower bunch intensities than the case with only 1 collision per turn. To deliver collisions to the two experiments simultaneously, we proposed a new bunch filling pattern to avoid 2 collisions per turn for any electron or proton bunch. We proved that the parasitic beam-beam effect with the new bunch filling pattern is negligible.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPMF011  
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MOPMF012 Study of Crabbed Collision in eRHIC With a Combination of Strong-Strong and Weak-Strong Simulations simulation, electron, cavity, luminosity 105
 
  • Y. Luo, G. Bassi, M. Blaskiewicz, W. Fischer, Y. Hao, C. Montag, V. Ptitsyn, V.V. Smaluk, F.J. Willeke
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
  • J. Qiang
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
 
  Funding: Work supported by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy.
In the present design of the future electron-ion collider eRHIC at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, a crossing angle of 22~mrad between the electron and proton orbits at the interaction region is adopted. To compensate the geometric luminosity loss, a local compensation scheme with two sets of crab cavities for each beam is considered. In this article, we first carry out strong-strong beam-beam simulation to study possible coherent beam-beam instability. Under the assumption of no coherent beam-beam motion, we then carry out a weak-strong beam-beam simulation to determine the long-term stability of the proton beam with the equilibrium electron beam sizes extracted from the strong-strong beam-beam simulation.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPMF012  
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MOPMF022 Luminosity Reduction Caused by the Full-Detuning LLRF Scheme on the HL-LHC Crab Cavities luminosity, cavity, simulation, LLRF 129
 
  • E. Yamakawa, R. Apsimon, A.C. Dexter
    Cockcroft Institute, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom
  • P. Baudrenghien, R. Calaga, F.J. Galindo Guarch
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  The High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) crab cavities (CCs) will be installed on both sides of IP1 (ATLAS) and IP5 (CMS) to compensate for the geometric luminosity reduction due to the crossing angle. To cope with the increased beam current (0.55 A DC for LHC, 1.1 A for HL-LHC), the operation of the LLRF system has been changed: rather than fully compensating the transient beam loading, we allow the phase to vary along the turn (100 ps peak-peak with 1.1 A DC). This has been implemented at LHC since July 2017. The CCs have high loaded Q (5e5) and the available RF power is insufficient to follow the bunch phase modulation. The crabbing voltage is not modulated, causing a phase error w.r.t. the individual bunch centroids, leading to transverse kicks of the centroids and an asymmetric crabbing of the bunch cores. We present an analytical model for the resulting luminosity reduction and validate with particle tracking simulations. Due to the symmetry of the bunch filling patterns for the counter-rotating beams, the peak luminosity is reduced by only 2% for nominal HL-LHC parameters at IPs 1 and 5, which is within tolerable limits.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPMF022  
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MOPMF038 Cleaning Performance of the Collimation System with Xe Beams at the Large Hadron Collider simulation, collimation, betatron, heavy-ion 176
 
  • N. Fuster-Martínez, R. Bruce, P.D. Hermes, J.M. Jowett, D. Mirarchi, S. Redaelli
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  The LHC heavy-ion program with Pb ions has delivered substantial physics results since the startup of the LHC. There was a Xe run in 2017 in which collimation losses and cleaning were assessed. These studies give a unique opportunity for very valuable benchmark of simulation models with measurements, which could also be very important to understand limitations for future runs with Pb and other species. In this paper, we present collimation loss maps measured in the first ever operation of the LHC with Xe ions. The measurements are compared with simulations and first conclusions are discussed for possible future operation.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPMF038  
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MOPMF039 First Xenon-Xenon Collisions in the LHC luminosity, experiment, injection, emittance 180
 
  • M. Schaumann, R. Alemany-Fernández, P. Baudrenghien, T. Bohl, C. Bracco, R. Bruce, N. Fuster-Martínez, M.A. Jebramcik, J.M. Jowett, T. Mertens, D. Mirarchi, S. Redaelli, B. Salvachua, M. Solfaroli, H. Timko, J. Wenninger
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  In 2017, the CERN accelerator complex once again demonstrated its flexibility by producing beams of a new ion species, xenon, that were successfully injected into LHC. On 12 October, collisions of fully stripped xenon nuclei were recorded for the first time in the LHC at a centre-of-mass energy per colliding nucleon pair of 5.44 TeV. Physics data taking started 9.5 h after the first injection of xenon beams and lasted a total of 6 h. The integrated luminosity delivered to the four LHC experiments was sufficient that new physics results can be expected soon. We provide a general overview of this Xe-Xe pilot run before focussing on beam data at injection energy and at flat-top.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPMF039  
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MOPMF040 Crossing Angle Anti-Leveling at the LHC in 2017 luminosity, operation, simulation, experiment 184
 
  • N. Karastathis, K. Fuchsberger, M. Hostettler, Y. Papaphilippou, D. Pellegrini
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  In 2017, LHC incorporated in operation an anti-leveling procedure of adapting in steps the crossing angle of the colliding beams to increase the integrated luminosity. In this paper, we present the Dynamic Aperture simulations that were employed to identify the operational margins, and therefore define the leveling steps. The results are complemented by observations from nominal operation and projections for the 2018 operation. Additional anti-leveling techniques, investigated in dedicated machine studies are also discussed  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPMF040  
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MOPMF046 Simulation of Hydrodynamic Tunneling Caused by High Energy Proton Beam in Copper through Coupling of FLUKA and Autodyn target, simulation, collider, coupling 204
 
  • Y.C. Nie, A. Bertarelli, F. Carra, C. Fichera, L.K. Mettler, R. Schmidt, D. Wollmann
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  For machine protection of high-energy colliders, it is important to assess potential damages caused to accelerator components in case large number of bunches are lost at the same place. The numerical assessment requires an iterative execution of an energy-deposition code and a hydrodynamic code, since the hydrodynamic tunneling effect will likely play an important role in the beam-matter interactions. For proton accelerators at CERN and for the Future Circular Collider (FCC), case studies were performed, coupling FLUKA and BIG2. To compare different hydrocodes and not to rely only on BIG2, FLUKA and a commercial tool, Autodyn, have been used to perform these simulations. This paper reports a benchmarking study against a beam test performed at the HiRadMat (High-Radiation to Materials) facility using beams at 440 GeV from the Super Proton Synchrotron. Good agreement has been found between the simulation results and the test as well as previous simulations with FLUKA and BIG2, particularly in terms of penetration depth of the beam in copper. This makes the coupling of FLUKA and Autodyn an alternative solution to simulating the hydrodynamic tunneling. More case studies are planned for FCC and other high-beam-power accelerators.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPMF046  
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MOPMF050 LHC Operational Experience of the 6.5 TeV Proton Run with ATS Optics operation, luminosity, optics, emittance 216
 
  • M. Pojer, M. Albert, R. Alemany-Fernández, T. Argyropoulos, E. Bravin, A. Calia, G.E. Crockford, S.D. Fartoukh, K. Fuchsberger, R. Giachino, M. Giovannozzi, G.H. Hemelsoet, M. Hostettler, W. Höfle, Y. Le Borgne, D. Nisbet, L. Ponce, S. Redaelli, B. Salvachua, M. Solfaroli, R. Suykerbuyk, D.J. Walsh, J. Wenninger, M. Zerlauth
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  In May 2017, the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) restarted operations at 6.5 TeV using the Achromatic Telescopic Squeeze (ATS) scheme with a target beta-star of 40 cm in ATLAS and CMS. The number of bunches was progressively increased to a maximum of 2556 with emittances of 2.5 um. In August, several machine parameters had to be re-tuned to mitigate beam loss induced instabilities and maintain a steady increase of the instantaneous luminosity. The use of a novel beam type and filling pattern produced in the injectors, allowed filling the machine with very low emittance beam (1.5 um) achieving an equivalent luminosity with 1868 bunches. In September, the beta-star was further lowered to 30 cm (using, for the first time, the telescopic technique of the ATS) and the bunch intensity pushed to 1.25·1011 protons. In the last 3 months of 2017, the LHC produced more than 500 pb-1 of integrated luminosity per day, delivering to each of the high luminosity experiments 50.6 fb-1, 10% above the 2017 target. A general overview of the operational aspects of the 2017 proton run will be presented.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPMF050  
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MOPMF051 LHC Operational Scenarios During 2017 Run luminosity, experiment, optics, hadron 220
 
  • B. Salvachua, M. Albert, R. Alemany-Fernández, T. Argyropoulos, E. Bravin, H. Burkhardt, G.E. Crockford, JCD. Dumont, S.D. Fartoukh, K. Fuchsberger, R. Giachino, M. Giovannozzi, G.H. Hemelsoet, W. Höfle, J.M. Jowett, Y. Le Borgne, D. Nisbet, M. Pojer, L. Ponce, S. Redaelli, M. Solfaroli, R. Suykerbuyk, D.J. Walsh, J. Wenninger, M. Zerlauth
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  During 2017, the Large Hadron Collider LHC delivered luminosity for different physics configuration in addtion to the nominal 6.5 TeV proton-proton run. About 18.5 days were dedicated to commission and to deliver special physics to the experiments. Condifurations with large beta-star of 19 m and 24 m were prepared for luminosity calibration with Van de Meer scans. A proton-proton run at 2.51 TeV took place during the last weeks of November to provide reference data for the heavy ion (Pb-Pb, p-Pb) collisions at the same equivalent nucleon energy . A very short (0.5 days) but effective ion run was scheduled where the LHC saw the first Xe beams collissions and delivered around 3 ub-1 to ATLAS and CMS. The run ended with a low event pile-up run at 6.5TeV. This contribution summarizes the operational aspects and delivered targets for the different configurations.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPMF051  
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MOPMF054 Comparison of Different Transverse Emittance Measurement Techniques in the Proton Synchrotron Booster emittance, extraction, optics, booster 232
 
  • G.P. Di Giovanni, S.C.P. Albright, V. Forte, M.A. Fraser, G. Guidoboni, B. Mikulec, F. Roncarolo, A. Santamaría García
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  The measurement of the transverse emittance in an accelerator is a crucial parameter to evaluate the performance of the machine and to understand beam dynamics processes. In recent years, controlling and understanding the emittance became particularly relevant in the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) at CERN as part of the LHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU). The LIU project is a necessary step to achieve the goals of the High-Luminosity LHC project. In this framework, an accurate and reliable emittance measurement of high brightness beams is mandatory to study the brightness reach of the LHC injectors. In the PSB there are two main instruments available for emittance measurements: wire scanners and secondary-emission (SEM) grids. In this paper emittance measurements performed during the 2017 physics run with these two systems are compared, taking into account various systematic error sources.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPMF054  
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MOPMF063 Asynchronous Beam Dump Tests at LHC extraction, beam-losses, quadrupole, operation 265
 
  • C. Wiesner, W. Bartmann, C. Bracco, E. Carlier, L. Ducimetière, M.I. Frankl, M.A. Fraser, B. Goddard, C. Heßler, T. Kramer, A. Lechner, N. Magnin, V. Senaj, D. Wollmann
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  The detailed understanding of the beam-loss pattern in case of an asynchronous beam dump is essential for the safe operation of the future High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) with nearly twice the nominal LHC beam intensity, leading to correspondingly higher energy deposition on the protection elements. An asynchronous beam dump is provoked when the rise time of the extraction kickers is not synchronized to the 3 us long particle-free abort gap. Thus, particles that are not absorbed by dedicated protection elements can be lost on the machine aperture. Since asynchronous beam dumps are among the most critical failure cases of the LHC, experimental tests at low intensity are performed routinely. This paper reviews recent asynchronous beam dump tests performed in the LHC. It describes the test conditions, discusses the beam-loss behaviour and presents simulation and measurement results. In particular, it examines a test event from May 2016, which led to the quench of four superconducting magnets in the extraction region and which was studied by a dedicated beam experiment in December 2017.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPMF063  
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MOPMF064 High-Energy LHC Design impedance, optics, luminosity, injection 269
 
  • F. Zimmermann, D. Amorim, S. A. Antipov, S. Arsenyev, M. Benedikt, R. Bruce, M.P. Crouch, S.D. Fartoukh, M. Giovannozzi, B. Goddard, M. Hofer, R. Kersevan, V. Mertens, Y. Muttoni, J.A. Osborne, V. Parma, V. Raginel, S. Redaelli, T. Risselada, I. Ruehl, B. Salvant, D. Schoerling, E.N. Shaposhnikova, L.J. Tavian, E. Todesco, R. Tomás, D. Tommasini, F. Valchkova-Georgieva, V. Venturi, D. Wollmann
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • J.L. Abelleira, E. Cruz Alaniz, P. Martinez Mirave, A. Seryi, L. van Riesen-Haupt
    JAI, Oxford, United Kingdom
  • A. Apyan
    ANSL, Yerevan, Armenia
  • J. Barranco García, L. Mether, T. Pieloni, L. Rivkin, C. Tambasco
    EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
  • F. Burkart
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • Y. Cai, Y.M. Nosochkov
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • G. Guillermo Cantón
    CINVESTAV, Mérida, Mexico
  • K. Ohmi, K. Oide, D. Zhou
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
 
  In the frame of the FCC study we are designing a 27 TeV hadron collider in the LHC tunnel, called the High Energy LHC (HE-LHC).  
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MOPMF072 On the Feasibility of a Pulsed 14 TeV C.M.E. Muon Collider in the LHC Tunnel collider, luminosity, acceleration, SRF 296
 
  • V.D. Shiltsev, D.V. Neuffer
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
 
  We will consider technical feasibility, key machine parameters and major challenges of the recently proposed 14 TeV c.m.e. muon-muon collider in the LHC tunnel.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPMF072  
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MOPMF090 First Studies of Ion Collimation for the LHC Using BDSIM simulation, collimation, hadron, heavy-ion 341
 
  • A. Abramov, S.T. Boogert, L.J. Nevay, S.D. Walker
    JAI, Egham, Surrey, United Kingdom
 
  At the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN ion physics runs are performed in addition to proton physics runs. In ion operation the cleaning efficiency of the collimation system is lower than in the case of protons and the ion showering process is more complicated and produces a larger variety of secondary particles. In particular, lighter ion species can be produced as fragmentation products in the collimation system and specialised physics lists are required to simulate their production and propagation in matter. The Geant4 toolkit offers comprehensive physics process lists that extend to the case of arbitrary ion species at high energies. First results from a study of ion collimation for the LHC using the Geant4 physics library in BDSIM are presented here. These include simulations of a full ring loss map and particle spectra for collimator leakage for a Pb beam at injection energy in the LHC.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPMF090  
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MOPML006 Multi-Stage Electron Cooling Scheme for JLEIC emittance, electron, simulation, collider 397
 
  • H. Zhang, S.V. Benson, Y.S. Derbenev, Y. Roblin, Y. Zhang
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
 
  Funding: Authored by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC under U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177 and DE-AC02-06CH11357.
JLEIC is the future electron ion collider under design at Jefferson Lab, which will provide a luminosity up to 1034 cm-2s-1. Electron cooling is essential for JLEIC to overcome the intrabeam scattering effect, reduce the ion beam emittance and thus achieve the high luminosity. The cooling time is approximately in proportion to the square of the energy and the 6D emittance. To avoid the difficulty of cooling the ion beam with large emittance at high energy, a multi-stage cooing scheme was designed for JLEIC. The ion beam was cooled at the low energy to reduce the emittance. Then it was ramped up to the collision energy. During the collision, electron cooling is implemented to maintain the emittance and the luminosity. Simulations for proton beam and lead ion beam at various stages are presented in this paper.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPML006  
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MOPML007 Analysis of Spin Response Function at Beam Interaction Point in JLEIC resonance, collider, polarization, sextupole 400
 
  • V.S. Morozov, Y.S. Derbenev, F. Lin, Y. Zhang
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  • Y. Filatov
    MIPT, Dolgoprudniy, Moscow Region, Russia
  • A.M. Kondratenko, M.A. Kondratenko
    Science and Technique Laboratory Zaryad, Novosibirsk, Russia
 
  Funding: This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under con-tracts DE-AC05-06OR23177 and DE-AC02-06CH11357.
The spin response function is determined by a collid-er's magnetic lattice and allows one to account for con-tributions of perturbing fields to spin resonance strengths. The depolarizing effect of an incoming beam depends significantly on the response function value at the interaction point (IP). We present an analytic calcula-tion of the response function for protons and deuterons at the IP of Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC) over its whole momentum range. We find a good agreement of the analytic calculation with our numerical modeling results obtained using a spin tracking code, Zgoubi.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPML007  
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MOPML014 Status of the Commissioning of the LIGHT Prototype DTL, MMI, linac, rfq 425
 
  • A. Degiovanni, J. Adam, D. Aguilera Murciano, S. Ballestrero, A. Benot-Morell, R. Bonomi, F.C.M. Cabaleiro Magallanes, M. Caldara, G. D'Auria, G. De Michele, M. Esposito, S. Fanella, D. Fazio, D.A. Fink, Y. Fusco, M. Gonzalez, P. Gradassi, A. Jeff, L. Kobzeva, G. Levy, G. Magrin, A. Marraffa, A. Milla, R. Moser, P. Nadig, G. Nuessle, A. Patino-Revuelta, T. Rutter, F. Salveter, A. Samoshkin, L. Wallet
    A.D.A.M. SA, Meyrin, Switzerland
  • M. Cerv, V.A. Dimov, L.S. Esposito, S. H. Gibson, M. Giunta, Ye. Ivanisenko, V. F. Khan, S. Magnoni, C. Mellace, J.L. Navarro Quirante, H. Pavetits, PPA. Paz Neira, P. Stabile, K. Stachyra, D. Ungaro, A. Valloni, C. Zannini
    AVO-ADAM, Meyrin, Switzerland
 
  The company A.D.A.M. (Application of Detectors and Accelerators to Medicine), a CERN spin-off, is working on the construction and testing of its first linear accelerator for medical application: LIGHT (Linac for Image-Guided Hadron Therapy). LIGHT is an innovative high frequency proton linac designed to accelerate proton beams up to 230 MeV for protontherapy applications. The LIGHT accelerator consists of three different linac sections: a 750 MHz Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerating the beam up to 5 MeV; a 3 GHz Side Coupled Drift Tube Linac (SCDTL) up to 37.5 MeV; and a 3 GHz Cell Coupled Linac (CCL) section up to 230 MeV. The compact and modular design is based on cutting edge technologies developed for particle colliders and adapted to the needs of hadron therapy beams. A prototype of LIGHT is presently under commissioning at CERN. This paper describes the design aspects and the different stages of installation and commissioning of the LIGHT prototype with emphasis on beam tests results obtained during the past year at different energies.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPML014  
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MOPML015 Simulations and Measurements of the CCL Modules of the LIGHT Accelerator coupling, linac, GUI, cavity 429
 
  • V. F. Khan, G. De Michele, S. Fanella, S. H. Gibson, Ye. Ivanisenko, C. Mellace, J.L. Navarro Quirante, C. Zannini
    AVO-ADAM, Meyrin, Switzerland
  • M. Esposito, P. Gradassi
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  A 230 MeV proton LINAC system for medical applications is being developed and commissioned for the LIGHT (Linac Image Guided Hadron Therapy) project by AVO-ADAM. The LINAC system consists of a 750 MHz RFQ (Radio frequency quadrupole) for the low energy proton acceleration, 2998 MHz SCDTL (Side Coupled Drift Tube Linacs) for the medium energy and 2998 MHz CCL (Coupled Cavity Linacs) for the high energy. In particular, the CCL accelerating modules are used in the energy range from 37.5 - 230 MeV. In this paper we discuss the 3D EM (electro-magnetic) simulation results and measurements of the CCL modules.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPML015  
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MOPML020 Numerical Simulations to Evaluate and Compare the Performances of Existing and Novel Degrader Materials for Proton Therapy scattering, simulation, emittance, shielding 435
 
  • R. Tesse, A. Dubus, N. Pauly
    ULB - FSA - SMN, Bruxelles, Belgium
  • C. Hernalsteens, W.J.G.M. Kleeven, F. Stichelbaut
    IBA, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
 
  The performance of the energy degrader in terms of beam properties directly impacts the design and cost of cyclotron-based proton therapy centers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performances of different existing and novel degrader materials. The quantitative estimate is based on detailed Geant4 simulations that analyze the beam-matter interaction and provide a determination of the beam emittance increase and transmission. Comparisons between existing (aluminium, graphite, beryllium) and novel (boron carbide and diamond) degrader materials are provided and evaluated against semi-analytical models of multiple Coulomb scattering. The results showing a potential in emittance reduction for novel materials are presented and discussed in detail.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPML020  
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MOPML021 Shorter Treatment Time by Intensity Modulation with a Betatron Core Extraction betatron, extraction, radiation, synchrotron 439
 
  • M. G. Pullia, E. Bressi, G.M.A. Calvi, M. Donetti, L. Falbo, S. Foglio, V. Lante, A. Parravicini, C. Priano, E. Rojatti, S. Savazzi, C. Viviani
    CNAO Foundation, Pavia, Italy
 
  The CNAO (National Center for Oncological Hadrontherapy) main accelerator is a synchrotron capable to accelerate carbon ions up to 400 MeV/u and protons up to 250 MeV. Three treatment rooms are available and are equipped with horizontal beam lines; one of the treatment rooms also features a vertical treatment line to allow additional treatment ports. All of the beamlines are equipped with an active beam scanning system for dose delivery. With such a dose distribution technique, particles are sent to different depths by changing the energy from the synchrotron and are moved transversally by means of two scanning magnets. The number of particles to be deposited in each position varies strongly within the same iso-energetic layer. Part of the dose needed in a given position is in fact delivered by particles directed to deeper layers. In order to maintain the required precision on the number of particles delivered to each spot, the intensity is reduced when spots that require low number of particles are present in a layer. A method to shorten the irradiation time based on variable intensity within the same layer is presented that works also with a betatron based extraction scheme.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPML021  
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MOPML023 Very-High Energy Electron (VHEE) Studies at CERN's CLEAR User Facility experiment, simulation, electron, scattering 445
 
  • A. Lagzda, R.M. Jones
    UMAN, Manchester, United Kingdom
  • A. Aitkenhead, K. Kirkby, R. MacKay, M. Van Herk
    The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom
  • R. Corsini, W. Farabolini
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  Funding: Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) - United Kingdom
Here we investigate how inserts of various densities (0.001-2.2 g/cm3) affect the dose distribution properties of VHEE beams at ~150 MeV. A range variation comparison was also made with clinical proton beams using TOPAS/GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, we assess the viability of scattering foils for optimizing the size of VHEE beams for radiotherapy purposes. The experiments were conducted at CERN's CLEAR user facility.
 
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MOPML024 Implementation of a Non-Invasive Online Beam Monitor at a 60 MeV Proton Therapy Beamline detector, cyclotron, operation, monitoring 449
 
  • R. Schnuerer, C.P. Welsch, S.L. Yap, H.D. Zhang
    Cockcroft Institute, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • O. Girard, G.J. Haefeli
    EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
  • C.P. Welsch
    The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
 
  To fully exploit the advantageous dose distribution profiles of ion radiotherapy, an exact knowledge of the beam properties through online beam monitoring is essential, ensuring thus an effective dose delivery to the patient. One potential candidate for an online beam monitor is the LHCb Vertex Locator (VELO). This detector, originally developed for the LHCb experiment, has been adapted to the specific conditions of the clinical environment in a proton therapy centre. The semicircular design and position of its sensitive silicon detector offers a non-invasive way to measure the beam intensity without interfering with the beam core. In this contribution, modifications for VELO are described. The detector is synchronized with the readout of a locally-constructed Faraday Cup and the 25.7 MHz RF frequency of the cyclotron at the Clatterbridge Cancer Centre (CCC). Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations investigate the integration of the detector in the treatment line and behaviour of the beam during delivery. The capability of VELO as a beam monitor will be assessed by measuring the beam current and by monitoring the beam profile along the beamline this summer.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPML024  
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MOPML025 Slow Extraction Optimization at the MedAustron Ion Therapy Center: Implementation of Front End Acceleration and RF Knock Out extraction, acceleration, synchrotron, kicker 453
 
  • A. De Franco, L. Adler, F. Farinon, N. Gambino, G. Guidoboni, G. Kowarik, M. Kronberger, C. Kurfürst, S. Myalski, S. Nowak, M.T.F. Pivi, C. Schmitzer, I. Strašík, P. Urschütz, A. Wastl
    EBG MedAustron, Wr. Neustadt, Austria
  • L.C. Penescu
    Abstract Landscapes, Montpellier, France
 
  Funding: This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and Innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 675265.
MedAustron is a synchrotron-based ion therapy center allowing tumour treatment with protons and other light ion species, in particular C6+. Commissioning of all fixed lines, two horizontal and one vertical, has been completed for protons and in parallel to the commissioning of a gantry and C6+, a facility upgrade study is progressing. The upgrade study encompasses the optimization of the slow extraction mechanism by employing the RF empty bucket channeling and RF Knock Out techniques. The former is a front end acceleration technique that suppress spill ripples, fundamental to safely operate the machine at the highest intensities. The latter is an alternative extraction technique which opens up interesting possibilities for fast beam energy and intensity modulations. In this work, we quantify spill smoothening effect achieved with the first and report the results of a feasibility study of the second using a Schottky monitor as a transverse kicker.
 
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MOPML028 Accelerator Machines and Experimental Activities in the ENEA Frascati Particle Accelerators and Medical Application Laboratory radiation, experiment, electron, linac 460
 
  • M. Vadrucci, A. Ampollini, G. Bazzano, F. Borgognoni, P. Nenzi, L. Picardi, C. Ronsivalle, V. Surrenti, E. Trinca
    ENEA C.R. Frascati, Frascati (Roma), Italy
 
  Funding: Regione Lazio - TOP IMPLART Project
In the ENEA Frascati research center the APAM (Particle Accelerators and Medical Application) laboratory is devoted to the development of particle accelerators for medical applications. Two main facilities are operational. The TOP-IMPLART proton accelerator is a pulsed fully linear machine aimed at active intensity modulated proton therapy with a final energy of 150 MeV. The machine offers two beam extraction points: one at 3-7 MeV, on a vertical line, and the other one at 35 MeV, the maximum energy currently available, with a pulse current up to 35 μA, on the horizontal line. The REX (Removable target Electron X-ray) source consists of an electron standing wave LINAC generating a beam in the energy range of 3 to 5 MeV with a pulsed current of 0.2 A. This source can generate Bremsstrahlung X-ray beams using suitable converters (Pb, W, Ta). This paper describes the experimental results of satellite activities performed in these facilities in the fields of biology, dosimetry, electronics, PIXE spectroscopy and preservation of cultural heritage manufacts.
 
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MOPML031 Highlights of Accelerator Activities in France on Behalf of the Accelerator Division of the French Physics Society linac, laser, operation, electron 470
 
  • J.-L. Revol
    ESRF, Grenoble, France
  • S. Chel
    CEA/IRFU, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • B. Cros
    CNRS LPGP Univ Paris Sud, Orsay, France
  • N. Delerue
    LAL, Orsay, France
  • E. Giguet
    ALSYOM, Versailles, France
  • V. Le Flanchec
    CEA/DAM, Bruyères-le-Châtel, France
  • L.S. Nadolski
    SOLEIL, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • L. Perrot
    IPN, Orsay, France
  • A. Savalle
    GANIL, Caen, France
  • T. Thuillier
    LPSC, Grenoble Cedex, France
 
  The French Physical Society is a non-profit organization working to advance and diffuse the knowledge of physics. Its Accelerators division contributes to the promotion of accelerator activities in France. This paper presents the missions and actions of the division, high-lighting those concerning young scientists. A brief presentation of the laboratories, institutes, and facilities that are the main actors in the field is given. Significant ongoing and planned projects in France are described, including medical applications. Main French contributions in inter-national projects are then listed. Finally, cultural and technical relationships between industry and laboratories are discussed.  
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MOPML039 Comparison of Two Types of Steerers Applied in Proton Therapy Gantry quadrupole, simulation, superconductivity, radiation 488
 
  • Z.F. Zhao, Q.S. Chen, S. Hu, X. Liu, B. Qin, W. Wei
    HUST, Wuhan, People's Republic of China
  • W. Chen
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology,, Hubei, People's Republic of China
 
  A proton therapy project HUST-PTF (HUST Proton Therapy Facility) based on a 250MeV isochronous superconducting cyclotron is under development in Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST). Based on the optics design of the gantry, the steering magnets need to be placed in a compact structure, as well as meet the magnetic field requirement with a maximum deflection angle of ±5mrad@250MeV. In the paper, two types of steerers (O-shape and H-shape) were introduced and discussed in detail. The magnetic fringe field interference effects between quadrupoles and steerers were studied by using OPERA/TOSCA code. The result based on the contrastive analysis will give us a valuable reference to choose suitable steerers for proton therapy beamline.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPML039  
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MOPML043 High Gradient Performance of an S-Band Backward Traveling Wave Accelerating Structure for Medical Hadron Therapy Accelerators linac, cavity, radiation, accelerating-gradient 491
 
  • A. Vnuchenko, C. Blanch Gutiérrez, D. Esperante Pereira
    IFIC, Valencia, Spain
  • S. Benedetti, N. Catalán Lasheras, A. Grudiev, B. Koubek, G. McMonagle, I. Syratchev, B.J. Woolley, W. Wuensch
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • A. Faus-Golfe
    LAL, Orsay, France
  • T.G. Lucas, M. Volpi
    The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • S. Pitman
    Cockcroft Institute, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom
 
  The high-gradient performance of an accelerating structure prototype for a medical proton linac is presented. The structure was designed and built using technology developed by the CLIC collaboration and the target application is the TULIP (Turning Linac for Proton therapy) proposal developed by the TERA foundation. The special feature of this design is to produce gradient of more than 50 MV /m in low-β accelerating structures (v/c=0.38). The structure was tested in an S-band test stand at CERN. During the tests, the structure reached over above 60 MV/m at 1.2 μs pulse length and breakdown rate of about 5x10-6 bpp. The results presented include ultimate performance, long term behaviour and measurements that can guide future optimization.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPML043  
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MOPML045 Measurement of Displacement Cross-Section for Structural Materials in High-Power Proton Accelerator Facility experiment, target, radiation, cryogenics 499
 
  • S.I. Meigo, S.H. Hasegawa, H.I. Hiroki, H. Hiroki, Y. Iwamoto, F.M. Maekawa
    JAEA/J-PARC, Tokai-Mura, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki-Ken, Japan
  • T. Ishida, S. Makimura, T. Nakamoto
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  • Y. Makoto
    J-PARC, KEK & JAEA, Ibaraki-ken, Japan
 
  As the increase of beam power of hadron accelerators, the damage to target material is essential. For estimation of damage such as target material used at the facility, displacement per atom (DPA), calculated by the particle flux multiplied displacement cross-section with cascade mode, is widely employed as an index of the damage. Although the DPA is employed as the standard, the experimental data of displacement cross-section are scarce for a proton in the energy region above 20 MeV. A recent study reports that the displacement cross section of tungsten has 8 times difference among the calculation models. Therefore, experimental data of the displacement cross-section is crucial. The displacement cross-section can be obtained by observing the change of resistivity of the sample cooled by GM cooler to sustain the damage. The sample is placed in the vacuum chamber placed at upstream of the beam dump for 3 GeV and 30 GeV synchrotrons in J-PARC, where the sample will be irradiated by the proton in the energy range between 0.4 and 30 GeV. In the vast energy range, the displacement cross-section can be obtained for the proton, which will help to improve the damage estimation of the target material.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPML045  
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MOPML051 First Performance Calculations for the Very High Energy Electron Radiation Therapy Experiment at PRAE radiation, electron, experiment, photon 516
 
  • A. Faus-Golfe
    LAL, Orsay, France
  • R. Delorme, Y. Prezado
    IMNC, Orsay, France
  • V. Favaudon, C. Fouillade, S. Heinrich, A. Mazal, A. Patriarca, P. Poortmans, P. Verrelle
    Institut Curie - Centre de Protonthérapie d'Orsay, Orsay, France
  • A. Hrybok
    National Taras Shevchenko University of Kyiv, Radiophysical Faculty, Kiev, Ukraine
 
  The Platform for Research and Applications with Electrons (PRAE) project aims at creating a multidisciplinary R&D platform at the Orsay campus, joining various scientific communities involved in radiobiology, subatomic physics, instrumentation, particle accelerators and clinical research around a high-performance electron accelerator with beam energies up to 70 MeV and later 140 MeV, in order to perform a series of unique measurements and challenging R&D. In this paper we will report the first optics design and performance evaluations of such a multidisciplinary machine, focusing on Very High Energy Electrons (VHEE) innovative Radiation Therapy (RT) applications in particular by allowing Grid and FLASH methodologies, which are likely to represent a major breakthrough in RT. Functional specifications include beam intensities to produce dose rates from 2 Gy/min to 100Gy/sec, beam sizes with diameters from 0.5 mm to 10 cm or more of homogeneous beams and monitoring devices with accuracy in the order of 1-2% for single or multiple beams and single or multiple fractions in biological and ppreclinical applications. High energies (>140 MeV) would be also needed for GRID therapy.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPML051  
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MOPML054 Production and Collection of He-3 and Other Valuable Isotopes using Mu*STAR simulation, controls, MMI, interface 527
 
  • R.P. Johnson, R.J. Abrams, M.A. Cummings, T.J. Roberts
    Muons, Inc, Illinois, USA
 
  We propose an example facility based on GEM*STAR, an accelerator-driven molten-salt-fueled graphite-moderated thermal-spectrum reactor that can operate with different fissile fuels and uses a LiF-BeF2 molten eutectic carrier salt. In the first example, they propose using the 6Li in the LiF carrier to produce more than 2 kg/y of tritium (decaying to 3He with 12.3 year half-life) using a 2.5 MWb superconducting proton linac to drive the subcritical 500 MWt reactor burning surplus plutonium. The collection of other valuable fission-product radioisotopes like 133Xe will also benefit from the high temperature and continuous removal and separation afforded by fractional distillation  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPML054  
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MOPML056 Evidence of the Electron-Screened Oppenheimer Philips Reactions 162Er(d, n)163Tm or 162Er(p,γ)163Tm in Deuterated Materials Subjected to a Low-Energy Photon Beam electron, neutron, experiment, target 533
 
  • T.L. Benyo, A. Chait, L.P. Forsley, M. Pines, V. Pines, B.M. Steinetz
    NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, USA
 
  NASA GRC has investigated electron-screening of deuterated metals using MV electron linear accelerators (LINACs). GRC found that repeatable sub-threshold nuclear reactions may have occurred resulting in nuclear products observed via witness-material neutron activation using high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma spectroscopy and liquid scintillator spectroscopy. The suspected path of creation may be the result of electron-screened Oppenheimer-Phillips reactions or Mirror Oppenheimer-Phillips reactions. Evidence of 162Er(d, n)163Tm or 162Er(p,γ)163Tm has been shown with the appearance of gamma peaks coinciding with 163Tm with a published ' life of 22 minutes from samples containing deuterated erbium exposed to a photon beam. Both of these reactions are a variation of the Oppenheimer-Phillips nuclear reaction. Evidence of the reactions have been detected by an HPGe gamma detection system and witnessed within gamma spectra collected from deuterated materials subjected to a nominally 1.95 MeV photon beam. This paper describes the theory behind the proposed reactions, the experiments conducted at GRC, and the experimental evidence of the suspected creation of the 163Tm isotope.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPML056  
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MOPML059 Precise Beam Delivery for Proton Therapy with Dynamic Energy Modulation target, radiation, MMI, controls 540
 
  • O. Actis, A. Mayor, D. Meer, D.C. Weber
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  • D.C. Weber
    University of Zurich, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland
 
  Gantry 2 at PSI is a Pencil Beam Scanning (PBS) cyclotron based proton therapy system. PBS proved to be an effective treatment method for static tumors but for mobile targets (e.g lung) organ motion interferes with beam delivery lowering the treatment quality. A method to mitigate motion effects is to re-scan the treatment volume multiple times. The downside of re-scanning is the increase of treatment time due to high number of energy switches and magnet initializations (ramping) between scans. Our current re-scanning implementation is performed with a decreasing energy sequence and takes about 6s/scan thanks to fast energy switching of 100ms. Ramping adds 8s more leading to a treatment time of >60s. We developed beam line settings for reverse energy sequence and removed the full ramping between scans. This dynamic beam delivery leads to non-negligible beam position errors of >1.5mm which we compensate by field specific corrections. Using a patient file we proved that our novel re-scanning concept doubles the treatment efficiency. Using in-house developed measurement equipment we obtained a precision of <0.5mm in position and <1mm in range which fulfills all clinical requirements.  
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MOPML061 Hadron Therapy Machine Simulations Using BDSIM simulation, hadron, hadrontherapy, lattice 546
 
  • W. Shields
    JAI, Egham, Surrey, United Kingdom
  • S.T. Boogert, L.J. Nevay
    Royal Holloway, University of London, Surrey, United Kingdom
  • J. Snuverink
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
 
  Minimising the background radiation dose in hadron therapy from particle losses and secondary emissions is of the highest importance for patient protection. To achieve this, tracking particles from source to the patient delivery region in a single simulation provides a quantitative description that distinguishes the background radiation from the treatment dose arriving at the gantry's isocentre. We demonstrate the ability to simulate beam transport, particle loss studies, and background radiation tracking in an example hadron therapy machine using BDSIM, a Geant4 based Monte Carlo simulation code for tracking high energy particles within a particle accelerator and its surrounding environment. Machine optics verification is also demonstrated through comparison to existing accelerator tracking codes.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPML061  
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MOPML062 Accelerator Neutron Source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy neutron, vacuum, experiment, tandem-accelerator 550
 
  • S.Yu. Taskaev, D.A. Kasatov, A.N. Makarov, Y.M. Ostreinov, I.M. Shchudlo, I.N. Sorokin
    BINP SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
  • T.A. Bykov
    Budker INP & NSU, Novosibirsk, Russia
  • Ya.A. Kolesnikov, A.M. Koshkarev, E.O. Sokolova
    NSU, Novosibirsk, Russia
 
  Funding: This study was carried out with a grant from the Russian Science Foundation (project No. 14-32-00006-P) with the support of the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics and Novosibirsk State University.
A source of epithermal neutrons based on a vacuum-insulated tandem accelerator and a lithium target is developed for the technique of boron neutron capture therapy. A stationary proton beam of 2 MeV with a current of up to 5 mA was obtained in the accelerator. Neutron generation was performed and the flux and neutron spectrum were experimentally measured. A Beam Shaping Assembly was developed and manufactured, which makes it possible to form a therapeutic beam of neutrons to the greatest extent satisfying the requirements of BNCT. It was established that neutron irradiation of tumor cells of human glioma U251 and human glioblastoma T98G, previously incubated in a medium with boron, led to a significant suppression of their viability. Irradiation of mice with grafted human glioblastoma tumor led to their complete cure. In order to increase the beam parameters, the facility was equipped with a wire scanner OWS-30 (D-Pace, Canada; under the license of TRIUMF), a non-contact current sensor NPTC (Bergos, France), a FLIR T650SC infrared camera, an Optris CT Laser 3ML SF pyrometer (Optris, GmbH, Germany), cooled diaphragms with thermistors, telescopic beam receivers with thermoresistors, a new bushing insulator. Two new sources of negative hydrogen ions with a high current are being prepared, one of them is surface-plasma, the other is voluminous. The investigations established the effect of space charge and spherical aberration of lens on the ion beam transport, the dependence of the heating of the diaphragms of the electrodes and the size of the proton beam on the current of the injected beam of negative hydrogen ions and the pressure of the residual gas in the transport channel. The report describes the modernization of the accelerator, discusses the results of research, declares plans.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPML062  
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MOPML063 In Situ Observations of Blistering of a Metal Irradiated with 2 MeV Protons neutron, radiation, target, experiment 553
 
  • S.Yu. Taskaev, D.A. Kasatov, A.N. Makarov, I.M. Shchudlo
    BINP SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
  • A. Badrutdinov, Y. Higashi, T. Miyazawa
    OIST, Onna-son, Okinawa, Japan
  • T.A. Bykov
    Budker INP & NSU, Novosibirsk, Russia
  • S.A. Gromilov
    Nikolaev IIC, Novosibirsk, Russia
  • Ya.A. Kolesnikov, A.M. Koshkarev, E.O. Sokolova
    NSU, Novosibirsk, Russia
  • H. Sugawara
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
 
  Funding: This study was carried out with a grant from the Russian Science Foundation (project No. 14-32-00006-P) with the support of the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics and Novosibirsk State University.
A vacuum-insulated tandem accelerator was used to observe in situ blistering during 2-MeV proton irradiation of metallic samples to a fluence of up to 6.7 1020 cm2. Samples consisting of copper of different purity, tantalum, and tantalum-copper compounds were placed on the proton beam path and forced to cool. The surface state of the samples was observed using a CCD camera with a remote microscope. Thermistors, a pyrometer, and an infrared camera were applied to measure the temperature of the samples during irradiation. After irradiation, the samples were analyzed on an X-ray diffractometer, laser and electron microscopes. The present study describes the experiment, presents the results obtained and notes their relevance and significance in the development of a lithium target for an accelerator-based neutron source, for use in boron neutron capture therapy of cancer.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPML063  
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MOPML069 Enhancing Hadron Therapy through OMA FEL, simulation, medical-accelerators, hadron 568
 
  • C.P. Welsch
    The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
  • C.P. Welsch
    Cockcroft Institute, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
 
  Funding: This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie SkłodowskaCurie grant agreement No 675265.
Continued research into the optimization of medical accelerators is urgently required to assure the best possible cancer care for patients and this is one of the central aims of the OMA project which received 4 M€ of funding from the European Commission. A consortium of universities, research and clinical facilities, as well as partners from industry carry out an interdisciplinary R&D program across three closely interlinked scientific work packages. These address the development of novel beam imaging and diagnostics systems, studies into treatment optimization including innovative schemes for beam delivery and enhanced biological and physical models in Monte Carlo codes, as well as R&D into clinical facility design and optimization to ensure optimum patient treatment along with maximum efficiency. Selected research highlights from across these work packages will be presented and the impact on hadron therapy facilities around the world discussed.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPML069  
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MOPML072 Timing Resolution for an Optical Fibre-Based Detector in a 74 MeV Proton Therapy Beam detector, TRIUMF, photon, timing 575
 
  • C.A. Penner
    UBC & TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • C. Duzenli
    UBC, Vancouver, B.C., Canada
  • C.M. Hoehr, C. Lindsay
    TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada
  • S. O'Keeffe
    University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland
 
  A Terbium activated Gadolinium Oxysulfide (Gd2O2S:Tb)-filled optical fibre sensor was developed and tested as a proton therapy beam dosimeter on a 74 MeV proton beam. Tests were carried out at the TRIUMF proton therapy centre, where a passively scattered beam is used for treatment. To create a clinically relevant spread-out Bragg peak, a modulator wheel with steps of varying thickness is employed. To determine the sensor's response in a 23 mm spread out Bragg peak, the sensor signal was sampled at depth intervals of 0.79 mm along the beam axis in a water phantom. The resulting data showed a periodic variation in the signal corresponding to the rotation of the modulator wheel and related to the depth in water of the detector. This timing resolution in the sensor response could find application in quality assurance for modulated proton beams.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPML072  
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TUXGBD2 Colliding Heavy Ions in the LHC luminosity, heavy-ion, experiment, operation 584
 
  • J.M. Jowett
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  The Large Hadron Collider at CERN not only collides protons but also heavier nuclei. So far Pb+Pb, Xe-Xe and p+Pb collisions, at multiple energies, have been provided for what was initially conceived as a distinct physics program on the collective behavior of QCD matter at extreme energy density and temperature. However unexpected phenomena observed in p+Pb and p+p collisions at equivalent energies have blurred the distinction. Intense, low-emittance, ion beams are provided by a dedicated source and injector chain setup. When Pb beams collide, new luminosity limits arise from photon-photon and photonuclear interactions but effective mitigations have allowed luminosities over 3 times design. Asymmetric p+Pb collisions introduce new features and beam-dynamical phenomena into operation of the LHC but have also achieved luminosity far beyond expectations. With experimental requirements for multiple changes in energy and data-taking configurations during very short heavy-ion runs, high operational efficiency and reliability are vital. This invited talk discusses performance, future prospects, and technical challenges for the LHC heavy ion program, including injector performance.  
slides icon Slides TUXGBD2 [5.322 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUXGBD2  
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TUXGBE1 Status and Prospects for the AWAKE Experiment electron, plasma, wakefield, experiment 595
 
  • M. Turner
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  The AWAKE Collaboration is pursuing a demonstration of proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration of electrons. The AWAKE experiment uses a §I{400}{GeV/c} proton bunch from the CERN SPS, with a rms bunch length of 6-§I{15}{cm}, to drive wakefields in a §I10{m} long rubidium plasma with an electron density of 1014-1015cm-3. Since the drive bunch length is much longer than the plasma wavelength (λpe<§I{3}{mm}) for these plasma densities, AWAKE performed experiments to prove that the long proton bunch self-modulates in the plasma (2017). The next step is to demonstrate acceleration of electrons in the wakefields driven by the self-modulated bunch (2018). We summarize the concept of the self-modulation measurements and describe the plans and challenges for the electron acceleration experiments.  
slides icon Slides TUXGBE1 [8.883 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUXGBE1  
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TUYGBD3 eRHIC Design Status electron, hadron, luminosity, storage-ring 628
 
  • V. Ptitsyn, G. Bassi, J. Beebe-Wang, J.S. Berg, M. Blaskiewicz, A. Blednykh, J.M. Brennan, S.J. Brooks, K.A. Brown, K.A. Drees, A.V. Fedotov, W. Fischer, D.M. Gassner, W. Guo, Y. Hao, A. Hershcovitch, H. Huang, W.A. Jackson, J. Kewisch, C. Liu, H. Lovelace III, Y. Luo, F. Méot, M.G. Minty, C. Montag, R.B. Palmer, B. Parker, S. Peggs, V.H. Ranjbar, G. Robert-Demolaize, S. Seletskiy, V.V. Smaluk, K.S. Smith, S. Tepikian, P. Thieberger, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, W.-T. Weng, F.J. Willeke, H. Witte, Q. Wu, W. Xu, A. Zaltsman, W. Zhang
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
  • E. Gianfelice-Wendt
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
 
  Funding: Work supported by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy.
The electron-ion collider eRHIC aims at a luminosity around 1034cm-2sec-1, using strong cooling of the hadron beam. Since the required cooling techniques are not yet readily available, an initial version with a peak luminosity of 3*1033cm-2sec-1 is being developed that can later be outfitted with strong hadron cooling. We will report on the current design status and the envisioned path towards 1034cm-2sec-1 luminosity.
 
slides icon Slides TUYGBD3 [11.795 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUYGBD3  
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TUPAF004 Status of the MedAustron Beam Commissioning with Protons and Carbon Ions MMI, extraction, dipole, synchrotron 665
 
  • C. Kurfürst, L. Adler, A. De Franco, F. Farinon, N. Gambino, G. Guidoboni, G. Kowarik, M. Kronberger, S. Myalski, S. Nowak, M.T.F. Pivi, C. Schmitzer, I. Strašík, P. Urschütz, A. Wastl
    EBG MedAustron, Wr. Neustadt, Austria
  • L.C. Penescu
    Abstract Landscapes, Montpellier, France
 
  MedAustron is a synchrotron-based Particle Therapy Accelerator located in Wiener Neustadt, Austria, which is delivering beams for medical treatment since end of 2016. The accelerator provides clinical proton beams in the energy range 62-252 MeV and is designed to provide carbon ions in the range 120-400 MeV/n to three ion therapy irradiation rooms IRs, including a room with a proton Gantry. Proton beams of up to 800 MeV will be provided to a fourth room dedicated to research. Presently, proton beams are delivered to the fixed horizontal beam lines of three rooms. Beam commissioning of the vertical beam line of the second IR is being completed and the beam line is in preparation for clinical treatment. Commissioning of the accelerator with carbon ions is advancing and first clinical beams have been sent to the IRs, while the preparation for the Gantry beam line is ongoing. A slow extraction 3rd order resonance method is used to extract particles from the synchrotron between 0.1-10 seconds to favor control of the delivered dose during clinical treatments. The main characteristics of the accelerator and results obtained during the latest commissioning activities are presented.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAF004  
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TUPAF005 Status of AC-Dipole Project at RHIC Injectors for Polarized Helions dipole, booster, resonance, simulation 669
 
  • K. Hock, H. Huang, F. Méot, P. Oddo, N. Tsoupas, J.E. Tuozzolo, K. Zeno
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
 
  Funding: Work supported by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy.
Polarized helions will be used in the eRHIC collider to collide with polarized electrons. To allow efficient transport of polarized helions in the Booster, to rigidities sufficiently high (B rho=10.8 T.m, |G gamma|=10.5) for minimizing the optical perturbations from the two partial helical dipoles in the AGS, an upgrade for overcoming depolarizing intrinsic resonances is needed. An AC-dipole is being designed to induce spin flips through intrinsic resonances. Booster AC-dipole operation will be established with protons while the polarized helion source is being completed. This paper reports the status of the project (which is now well advanced after two years of theoretical and design studies) and provides an overview of proof of principle experiments to take place after successful installation of the AC-dipole, during RHIC Run 19 with polarized proton beams.
 
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TUPAF016 Increase of IPHI Beam Power at CEA Saclay rfq, neutron, detector, target 694
 
  • F. Senée, F. Benedetti, E. Giner-Demange, A. Gomes, M. Oublaid
    CEA/DRF/IRFU, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • P. Ausset, M. Ben Abdillah, C. Joly
    IPN, Orsay, France
  • F. Belloni, B. Bolzon, N. Chauvin, M. Desmons, Y. Gauthier, C. Marchand, J. Marroncle, T. Papaevangelou, G. Perreu, O. Piquet, B. Pottin, Y. Sauce, J. Schwindling, L. Segui, O. Tuske, D. Uriot
    CEA/IRFU, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • F. Harrault, R. Touzery
    CEA/DSM/IRFU, France
 
  For the first time, in April 2016, the SILHI source produced a proton beam for IPHI RFQ. Due to several technical difficulties on the RFQ water cooling skid, a short RF power pulse (100 µs at the beginning until few hundred microseconds) is injected into the RFQ accelerates the high intensity proton beam up to 3 MeV. The repetition rate is tuned between 1 and 5 Hz. Under these conditions, the beam power after the RFQ is lower than 100 W. At the end of 2017, the 352 MHz RFQ conditioning has been completed (with the same duty cycle) and the proton beam has been accelerated. The increase of the beam power is expected to continue in 2018 in order to reach several kilowatts by the end of the year. In addition, two Ionization beam Profile Monitors (IPM) developed for ESS have been tested on the deviated beam line with a very low duty cycle. The IPHI facility should demonstrate the possibility to produce neutrons with a flexible compact accelerator in the framework of the SONATE project. This paper presents the status of the IPHI project in April 2018.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAF016  
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TUPAF017 Stability Analysis of the TOP-IMPLART 35 MeV Proton Beam DTL, linac, klystron, booster 697
 
  • P. Nenzi, A. Ampollini, G. Bazzano, L. Picardi, C. Ronsivalle, V. Surrenti, E. Trinca, M. Vadrucci
    ENEA C.R. Frascati, Frascati (Roma), Italy
 
  Funding: The TOP-IMPLART program is funded by Regione Lazio.
The TOP-IMPLART (Intensity Modulated Proton Linear Accelerator for RadioTherapy) is the demonstrator of a 150 MeV proton linear accelerator devoted to cancer treatment application under development at ENEA-Frascati. It is a full linear machine composed by a 425 MHz 7 MeV injector and a high frequency linac operating at 2997.92 MHz. The first accelerating section, installed and in operation, consists of 4 SCDTL structures and delivers a 35 MeV beam in 3 microseconds pulses at a maximum repetition frequency of 50 Hz. The principal advantage of a linear accelerator, in a therapeutic application, is the quick setting possibility (up to pulse-to-pulse, in principle) of the physical properties of the proton beam, offering larger flexibility (compared to traditional circular designs) and improved precision on dose delivery to the patient., The short and long range stability of the machine have been analyzed measuring on a pulse by pulse basis both the output beam characteristics and other machine parameters in order to identify those that mainly affect the beam stability. This work describes the methodology used in this study, the main results achieved and the future developments.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAF017  
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TUPAF018 Characterization of Automatic Frequency Control systems for S-band Proton LINAC "TOP-IMPLART" DTL, controls, linac, detector 701
 
  • G. Bazzano, P. Nenzi, L. Picardi, C. Ronsivalle, M. Vadrucci
    ENEA C.R. Frascati, Frascati (Roma), Italy
 
  The TOP-IMPLART (Intensity Modulated Proton Linear Accelerator for RadioTherapy) proton linear accelerator is under development at ENEA-Frascati. It is composed by a 7 MeV, 425 MHz injector followed by a sequence of 2997.92 MHz accelerating modules. Four 10 MW klystrons will be used to power all high frequency structures up to a beam energy of 150 MeV. The first section, consisting of 4 SCDTL modules (7 to 35 MeV), is operational at low repetition rate (up to 50 Hz). Whereas beam acceleration is effective even without closed loop control, to ensure high beam current stability the resonance frequency variation must be kept for each SDCTL module within few kHz. This is achieved implementing an automatic frequency control (AFC) loop that detects structure detuning caused by thermal drifts and produce an error signal fed to a tuning motor. A prototype of an AFC custom solution, derived from a medical electron linac, has been tested on TOP-IMPLART accelerator. This was originally designed for magnetron frequency tuning with much larger frequency span. Other AFC systems with different components have been evaluated in order to reach the high required resolution.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAF018  
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TUPAF021 Identification and Removal of SPS Aperture Limitations optics, vacuum, target, injection 709
 
  • V. Kain, R. Alemany-Fernández, H. Bartosik, S. Cettour Cave, K. Cornelis, P. Cruikshank, J.A. Ferreira Somoza, B. Goddard, C. Pasquino
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  The CERN SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) serves as LHC injector and provides beam for the North Area fixed target experiments. Since the 2016 run automated local aperture scans have been performed with the main focus on the vertical plane where limitations typically arise due to the flat vacuum chambers in most SPS elements. For LHC beams the aperture limitations with the present low integer tune optics also occur at locations with large dispersion. Aperture measurements in the horizontal plane using a variety of techniques were performed and showed surprising results, which could partially explain the unexpected losses of high intensity LHC beams at the SPS flat bottom. In this paper, reference measurements from 2016 are compared with the ones taken at the beginning of the run in 2017. Several aperture restrictions in the vertical plane could be found and cured, and a potential systematic restriction in the horizontal plane has been identified. The results of the measurements and the origin of the restrictions are presented in this paper, and the outlook for partial mitigation is discussed.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAF021  
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TUPAF022 Studies of a New Optics With Intermediate Transition Energy as Alternative for High Intensity LHC Beams in the CERN SPS optics, multipole, dipole, sextupole 713
 
  • M. Carlà, H. Bartosik, M.S. Beck, K.S.B. Li, M. Schenk
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • M. Schenk
    EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
 
  The LHC injector upgrade project calls for a twofold increase in intensity of the SPS proton beam. In this paper, we present studies with a new SPS optics called Q22, which has a transition energy in between the one of the operationally used Q20 and Q26 optics. This new optics provides a compromise between the stability of Q20, due to the low transition energy, and the reduced requirements in terms of RF voltage and power in Q26. A non-linear effective model of Q22 has been extrapolated from beam based measurements and used to complement the SPS non-linear optics model. Furthermore the studies of the TMCI threshold performed so far are discussed.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAF022  
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TUPAF025 Multi-turn Study in FLUKA for the Design of CERN-PS Internal Beam Dumps dumping, simulation, experiment, operation 724
 
  • J.A. Briz Monago, M. Calviani, F. Cerutti, J.J. Esala, S.S. Gilardoni, F.-X. Nuiry, G. Romagnoli, G. Sterbini, V. Vlachoudis
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  The CERN Proton-Synchrotron (PS) accelerator is currently equipped with two internal beam dumps in operation since the 1970's. An upgrade is required to be able to withstand the beams that will be produced after the end of the LIU (LHC Injector Upgrade) project. For the design of the new dumps, the interaction and transport of beam and all secondary particles generated has been simulated using FLUKA. The working principle of the internal beam dump in the PS ring is very peculiar with respect to the other dumps in the CERN accelerator complex. A moving dump intercepts the circulating beam during few milliseconds like a fast scraper. The moving dump shaving the beam, the multi-turn transport of beam particles in the PS accelerator and a time-dependent energy deposition in the dump were modeled. The methodology and the results obtained in our studies for the dump core and downstream equipment will be reported in this contribution.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAF025  
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TUPAF028 Energy Deposition Studies and Analysis of the Quench Behavior in the Case of Asynchronous Dumps During 6.5 TeV LHC Proton Beam Operation simulation, superconducting-magnet, quadrupole, kicker 736
 
  • M.I. Frankl, W. Bartmann, M. Bednarek, C. Bracco, A. Lechner, A.P. Verweij, C. Wiesner, D. Wollmann
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  The CERN LHC beam dumping system comprises a series of septa and fast-pulsed kicker magnets for extracting the stored proton beams to the external beam dumps. Different absorbers in the extraction region protect superconducting magnets and other machine elements in case of abnormal beam aborts, where bunches are swept across the machine aperture. During Run 2 of the LHC, controlled beam loss experiments were carried out at 6.5 TeV probing the particle leakage from protection devices under realistic operation conditions. This paper presents particle shower simulations analyzing the energy deposition in superconducting coils and assessing if the observed magnet quenches are compatible with the presently known quench limits.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAF028  
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TUPAF032 Beam Transfer Line Design to the SPS Beam Dump Facility target, experiment, extraction, quadrupole 751
 
  • Y. Dutheil, J. Bauche, M. Calviani, L.A. Dougherty, M.A. Fraser, B. Goddard, C. Heßler, J. Kurdej, E. Lopez Sola
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  Studies for the SPS Beam Dump Facility (BDF) are ongoing within the scope of the Physics Beyond Collider project. The BDF is a proposed fixed target facility to be installed in the SPS North Area, to accommodate the SHiP experiment (Search for Hidden Particles), which is most notably aiming at studying hidden sector particles. This experiment requires a high intensity slowly extracted 400 GeV proton beam with 4·1013 protons per 1 s spill to achieve 4·1019 protons on target per year. The extraction and transport scheme will make use of the first 600 m of the existing North Area extraction line. In this paper, we will present the design of the additional 600 m of transfer line towards BDF branching off from the existing line and discuss the detailed design of the BDF beam line, its components and optics. We present the latest results on the study and design of a new laminated Lambertson splitter magnet to provide fast switch between the current North Area experiments and the BDF. The latest specification of a dipole dilution system used to reduce the local peak power of the beam on the target is also presented.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAF032  
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TUPAF033 Beam Optics Studies for BDF and for Tests of a Prototype Target target, optics, extraction, emittance 754
 
  • C. Heßler, M. Calviani, Y. Dutheil, M.A. Fraser, B. Goddard, V. Kain, E. Lopez Sola, F.M. Velotti
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  Within the frame of the Physics Beyond Collider project a new fixed target facility at the SPS North Area, the so-called Beam Dump Facility (BDF), is under study. BDF requires a high intensity slowly extracted 400 GeV proton beam with 4·1013 protons per 1 s spill to achieve 4·1019 protons on target per year. This results in an exceptionally high average beam power of 355 kW on the target, which is a major challenge. To validate the target design, a test of a prototype target is planned for 2018 at an existing North Area beam line. A large part of this beam line is in common with the future BDF beam line with comparable beam characteristics and several measurement campaigns were performed in 2017 to study the optics of the line in preparation for the test. The intrinsic characteristics of the slow extraction process make the precise characterisation of the beam reaching the target particularly challenging. This paper presents beam and lattice characterisation methods and associated measurement results.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAF033  
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TUPAF038 Prototyping Activities for a New Design of CERN's Antiproton Production Target target, experiment, antiproton, operation 772
 
  • C. Torregrosa, M.E.J. Butcher, M. Calviani, J.P.C. Espadanal, R. Ferriere, L. Gentini, E. Grenier-Boley, L. Mircea Grec, A. Perillo-Marcone, R. Seidenbinder, N.S. Solieri, M.A. Timmins, E. Urrutia, V. Vlachoudis
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  Antiprotons are produced at CERN by impacting intense proton beams of 26 GeV/c onto a high-Z water-cooled target. The current design consists in an Ir core target in a graphite matrix and inserted in a Ti-6Al-4V assembly. A new target design has been foreseen for operation after 2021 aiming at improving the operation robustness and antiproton production yield, triggering several R&D activities during the last years. First, both numerical (use of hydrocodes) and experimental approaches were carried out to study the core material response under extreme dynamic loading when impacted by the primary proton beam. The lessons learnt from these studies have been then applied to further prototyping and testing under proton beam impact at the CERN-HiRadMat facility. A first scaled prototype consisting in Ta rods embedded in an expanded graphite matrix was irradiated in 2017, while in 2018, the PROTAD experiment will test different real-scale AD-Target prototypes, in which the old water-cooled assembly is replaced by a more compact air-cooled one, and different core geometry and material configurations are investigated. This contribution details these prototyping and testing activities.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAF038  
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TUPAF040 Beam Loss Measurements for Recurring Fast Loss Events During 2017 LHC Operation Possibly Caused by Macroparticles simulation, operation, dipole, insertion 780
 
  • A. Lechner, B. Auchmann, E. Bravin, A.A. Gorzawski, L. K. Grob, E.B. Holzer, B. Lindstrom, T. Medvedeva, D. Mirarchi, R. Schmidt, M. Valette, D. Wollmann
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  The availability of the LHC machine was adversely affected in 2017 by tens of beam aborts provoked by frequent loss events in one standard arc cell (16L2). In most of the cases, the dumps were triggered by concurrently developing fast beam instabilities leading to particle losses in the betatron cleaning insertion. Many of the events started with a distinct sub-millisecond loss peak comparable to regular dust particle events, which have been observed along all the LHC since the start-up. In contrast to regular dust events, persistent losses developed in cell 16L2 after the initial peaks which can possibly be explained by a phase transition of macroparticles to the gas phase. In this paper, we summarize the observed loss characteristics such as spatial loss pattern and time profiles measured by Beam Loss Monitors (ionization chambers). Based on the measurements, we estimate the energy deposition in macroparticles and reconstruct proton loss rates as well as the gas densities after the phase transition. Differences between regular dust events and events in 16L2 are highlighted and the ability to induce magnet quenches is discussed.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAF040  
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TUPAF043 Testing the Double-Crystal Setup for Physics Beyond Colliders Experiments in the UA9-SPS Experiment experiment, detector, collimation, target 790
 
  • S. Montesano
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  Funding: on behalf of the UA9 Collaboration
The UA9 experiment is installed in the CERN SPS to study how coherent interaction in crystalline materials can be used to steer particles beams. Recently, new experiments requiring complex beam manipulations by means of crystals have been proposed in the framework of the Physics Beyond Colliders study group at CERN. In particular, it was proposed to use a first crystal to direct protons from the LHC beam halo on a target placed in the beam pipe and to use a second crystal to deflect the particles produced in the target (double-crystal setup), allowing to measure their polarization. The layout of the UA9 experiment in the CERN SPS has been modified to study the feasibility of the proposed scenario and its compatibility with the delicate environment of a superconducting collider. A first set of measurements was performed in 2017 proving that the protons deflected by the first crystal can be intercepted and successfully deflected by a second crystal. A further upgrade of the experiment in 2018 will allow measuring more precisely the combined efficiency of the two crystals and the beam-induced background.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAF043  
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TUPAF045 Studies for Future Fixed-Target Experiments at the LHC in the Framework of the CERN Physics Beyond Colliders Study target, experiment, collider, luminosity 798
 
  • S. Redaelli, M. Ferro-Luzzi
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • C. Hadjidakis
    IN2P3-CNRS, Orsay, France
 
  A study on prospects for Physics Beyond Colliders at CERN was launched in September 2016 to assess the capabilities of the existing accelerators complex. Among several other working groups, this initiative triggered the creation of a working group with the scope of studying a few specific proposals to perform fixed-target physics experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). This includes for example physics experiments with solid or gaseous internal targets, polarized gas targets, and experiments using bent-crystals for halo splitting from beam core for internal targets. The focus of the working group's activities is on the technical feasibility and on implications to the LHC ring. In this paper, the current status of the studies is presented and future plans are discussed.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAF045  
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TUPAF046 Conceptual Design of a Collimation System for the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron collimation, optics, injection, simulation 802
 
  • M. Patecki, A. Mereghetti, D. Mirarchi, S. Redaelli
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is the last accelerator in the LHC Injectors Chain. Its performance is constantly being improved in frame of the LHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU) Project in order to prepare it for the future HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) operation. One of the LIU goals is to nearly double the intensity extracted from the SPS, up to 2.32×1011 p/bunch. In recent years, nearly 10% of losses are observed for nominal intensity and LHC-type beams; they grow to about 20% for the intensity approaching the HL-LHC target. Beam losses imply activation and aging of the SPS hardware; the possibility to add a collimation system is being considered to mitigate this problem. In this paper we present studies of a collimation system design for the SPS. The concept is based on a primary horizontal collimator located in an available position with high enough dispersion, and a secondary collimator to intercept the particles leaking out from the primary collimator. Performance of the proposed collimation system is evaluated by means of numerical simulations.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAF046  
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TUPAF047 Systematic Studies of Transverse Emittance Measurements Along the CERN PS Booster Cycle emittance, scattering, brightness, betatron 806
 
  • A. Santamaría García, S.C.P. Albright, H. Bartosik, J.A. Briz Monago, G.P. Di Giovanni, V. Forte, B. Mikulec, F. Roncarolo, V. Vlachoudis
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  The CERN Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) will need to deliver 2 times the current brightness to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) after the LHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU) to meet the High-Luminosity-LHC beam requirements. Beam intensity and transverse emittance are the key parameters to increase brightness, the latter being more difficult to manipulate. It is, therefore, crucial to monitor not only the emittance evolution between the different injectors but also along each acceleration cycle. To this end, detailed emittance measurements were carried out for the four rings of the PSB at various times in the cycle with different beam types. A thorough analysis of systematic error sources was conducted including multiple Coulomb scattering happening during profile measurements with wire scanners, where experimental and analytical treatments of the emittance blow-up were compared to FLUKA simulations. In order to properly account for the dispersive contribution, the full momentum spread profile was considered using a deconvolution method. We conclude with an assessment of this first comprehensive emittance evolution measurement along the PSB cycle.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAF047  
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TUPAF048 LIU Space Charge Studies for the LHC Pre-Accelerators space-charge, injection, resonance, simulation 810
 
  • F. Schmidt, H. Bartosik
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  In 2011 a working group has been started to study performance limitations due to Space Charge (SC) in the four LHC pre-accelerators, LEIR, PSB, PS & SPS, in view of the LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU) project. To this end external and in-house simulation tools have been benchmarked for the LIU study cases with the long-term goal of providing a full sequence of tested CERN Space Charge tools. It became clear that SC studies must be combined with trustworthy models of the machines, including linear and non-linear errors. In particular an effective s-dependent non-linear model is required. Recent studies indicate that also the low frequency ripple spectrum due to conventional power supplies might play an important role for the beam dynamics in presence of space charge in the pre-injectors.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAF048  
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TUPAF049 Analysis of Loss Signatures of Unidentified Falling Objects in the LHC operation, beam-losses, vacuum, electron 814
 
  • L. K. Grob, M. Dziadosz, E.B. Holzer, A. Lechner, B. Lindstrom, R. Schmidt, D. Wollmann, C. Zamantzas
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  Particulates in the LHC beam pipes can interact with the proton beams and cause significant beam losses. The "UFOs" (unidentified falling objects) hypothesis describes a particle falling into the beam, creating particle showers, being ionized and repelled. Though the signals of the beam loss monitors support this, many aspects remain unknown. Neither the source of the dust nor the release mechanism from the beam pipe are understood. The same holds for the forces involved in the interaction and the observed UFO rate reduction over the years. These open questions are approached from different angles. Firstly, a new data analysis tool was established featuring advanced raw data selection and statistical analysis. Results of this analysis will be presented. Secondly, dust samples were extracted from LHC components and analyzed to gain insight into the size distribution and material composition of the contamination. The performed observations and analysis lead to a better modelling of the UFO events and helped to understand the physics involved. The validated UFO models will be crucial in view of the high luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) and the Future Circular Collider (FCC).  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAF049  
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TUPAF053 Optimization of Diffuser (Pre-Scatterer) Configurations for Slow Extraction Loss Reduction at Electrostatic Septa septum, scattering, extraction, simulation 830
 
  • B. Goddard, B. Balhan, J.C.C.M. Borburgh, M.A. Fraser, L.O. Jorat, V. Kain, C. Lolliot, L.S. Stoel, P. Van Trappen, F.M. Velotti
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • D. Barna
    Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Budapest, Hungary
  • V.P. Nagaslaev
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
 
  Uncontrolled beam loss at the electrostatic septum is a performance limit for several existing or planned high power hadron accelerators delivering slow-extracted spills to fixed targets. A passive diffuser, or pre-scatterer, in a suitable configuration has been shown to reduce such beamloss significantly, with the actual gain factor depending on the parameters and details of the extraction process and hardware. In this paper, the optimization of diffuser configurations is investigated for a range of beam energies and extraction conditions, and the sensitivity to the available parameters explored via simulation results. The advantages and limitations of the diffuser are discussed and conclusions drawn concerning the specific case studies of the 8 GeV Fermilab debuncher ring and 400 GeV CERN SPS.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAF053  
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TUPAF054 Slow Extraction Efficiency Measurements at the CERN SPS extraction, operation, septum, simulation 834
 
  • M.A. Fraser, K. Cornelis, L.S. Esposito, B. Goddard, V. Kain, F. Roncarolo, L.S. Stoel, F.M. Velotti
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  The high efficiency of most slow extraction systems makes quantifying the exact amount of beam lost in the process extremely challenging. This is compounded by the lack of time structure in the extracted beam, as is typically required by the high-energy physics experiments, and the difficulty in accurately calibrating D.C. intensity monitors in the extraction line at count rates of ~ 1013 Hz. As a result, it is common for the extraction inefficiency to be measured by calibrating the beam loss signal induced by the slow extraction process itself. In this paper, measurements of the extraction efficiency performed at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron for the third-integer resonant slow extraction of 400 GeV protons over recent years will be presented and compared to expectation from simulation. The technique employed will be discussed along with its limitations and an outlook towards a future online extraction efficiency monitoring system will be given.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAF054  
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TUPAF056 The CERN-ELENA Electron Cooler Magnetic System solenoid, electron, alignment, gun 842
 
  • G. Tranquille, L.V. Jørgensen
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • D. Luckin, R.J. Warner
    Tesla Engineering Limited, West-Sussex, United Kingdom
 
  Phase space compression of the antiproton beam in ELENA will be performed by a new electron cooler the performance of which is greatly influenced by the properties of the electron beam. Careful design of the electron gun electrodes, the efficient recuperation of the electrons in the collector and the quality of the guiding magnetic field ensure an optimal performance of the cooler. The ELENA cooler is a compact device incorporating an adiabatic expansion to reduce the electron beam temperature as well as electrostatic bending plates for efficient collection of the electron beam. The transverse components of the longitudinal field in the cooling section must be kept small (Bt/Bl ≤ 5x10-4) to ensure a minimal perturbation to the electron beam transverse temperature. The longitudinal field itself needs to be as low as possible such that the distortion to the closed orbit of the circulating ion beam due to the short 90° toroids is kept as small as possible. We present the solutions chosen to design and construct a magnetic system within the above constraints as well as the setup used to measure and optimise the magnetic field components.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAF056  
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TUPAF066 Transverse Dynamics and Software Integration of the ESS Low Energy Beam Transport solenoid, simulation, MMI, ion-source 882
 
  • N. Milas, K.S. Louisy, D.C. Plostinar
    ESS, Lund, Sweden
 
  The first part of the ESS linac, also called front-end, comprising the Ion Source and the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) section, will be installed and commissioned in 2018. The LEBT is used to focus and correct the proton beam trajectory and clean the head and tail of the proton pulse from the flat top before entering the RFQ. During the ion source and LEBT commissioning a full beam characterization at the RFQ entrance interface is planned. It is thus important to have an application in the control room able to display quantities measured by the diagnostic devices and also to quickly run a simulation including not only centre of mass dynamics but also envelope. This paper presents the efforts in modelling the LEBT elements, as accurately as possible, and implementing the dynamics calculation and integration with diagnostics tools. The final result is a Java FX GUI based on the OpenXAL library.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAF066  
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TUPAF074 Preliminary Modelling of Radiation Levels at the Fermilab PIP-II Linac linac, GUI, booster, radiation 898
 
  • L. Lari, C.M. Baffes, S.J. Dixon, N.V. Mokhov, I.L. Rakhno, I.S. Tropin
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  • F. Cerutti, L.S. Esposito, L. Lari
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  PIP-II is the Fermilab's flagship project for providing powerful, high-intensity proton beams to the laboratory's experiments. The heart of PIP-II is an 800-MeV superconducting linac accelerator. It will be located in a new tunnel with new service buildings and connected to the present Booster through a new transfer line. To support the design of civil engineering and mechanical integration, this paper provides preliminary estimation of radiation level in the gallery at an operational beam loss limit of 0.1 W/m, by means of Monte Carlo calculations with FLUKA and MARS15 codes.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAF074  
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TUPAF075 Design Status of the LBNF/DUNE Beamline target, shielding, site, status 902
 
  • V. Papadimitriou, J.E. Anderson, R. Andrews, J.J. Angelo, V.T. Bocean, C.F. Crowley, A. Deshpande, N. Eddy, K. E. Gollwitzer, S. Hays, P. Hurh, J. Hylen, J.A. Johnstone, P.H. Kasper, T.R. Kobilarcik, G.E. Krafczyk, N.V. Mokhov, D. Pushka, S.D. Reitzner, P. Schlabach, V.I. Sidorov, M. Slabaugh, S. Tariq, L.R. Valerio, K. Vaziri, G. Velev, G.L. Vogel, K.E. Williams, R.M. Zwaska
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  • C.J. Densham
    STFC/RAL, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon, United Kingdom
 
  Funding: DOE, contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11359
The Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) will utilize a beamline located at Fermilab to provide and aim a wide band beam of neutrinos of sufficient intensity and appropriate energy toward DUNE detectors, placed 4850 feet underground at SURF in South Dakota, about 1,300 km away. The primary proton beam (60-120 GeV) will be extracted from the MI-10 section of Fermilab's Main Injector. Neutrinos are produced after the protons hit a four-interaction length solid target and produce mesons which are subsequently focused by a set of three magnetic horns into a 194 m long helium filled decay pipe where they decay into muons and neutrinos. The parameters of the facility were determined taking into account the physics goals, spatial and radiological constraints, extensive simulations and the experience gained by operating the NuMI facility at Fermilab. The Beamline facility is designed for initial operation at a proton-beam power of 1.2 MW, with the capability to support an upgrade to about 2.4 MW. LBNF/DUNE obtained CD-1 approval in November 2015 and CD-3a approval in September 2016. We discuss here the Beamline design status and the associated challenges.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAF075  
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TUPAK001 Progress of the Modulated 325 MHz Ladder RFQ rfq, linac, quadrupole, operation 952
 
  • M. Schuett, U. Ratzinger, M. Syha
    IAP, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
 
  Funding: BMBF 05P15RFRBA
Based on the positive results of the unmodulated 325 MHz Ladder-RFQ prototype from 2013 to 2016, we developed and designed a modulated 3.3 m Ladder-RFQ*. The unmodulated Ladder-RFQ features a very constant voltage along the axis. It accepted 3 times the operating power of which is needed in operation**. That level corresponds to a Kilpatrick factor of 3.1 with a pulse length of 200 µs. The 325 MHz RFQ is designed to accelerate protons from 95 keV to 3.0 MeV according to the design parameters of the proton linac within the FAIR project. This particular high frequency creates difficulties for a 4-ROD type RFQ, which triggered the development of a Ladder RFQ with its high symmetry. The results of the unmodulated prototype have shown, that the Ladder-RFQ is a suitable candidate for that frequency. The duty cycle is suitable up to 5%. The basic design and tendering of the RFQ has been successfully completed in 2016. Manufacturing will be completed in May 2018. We will show the latest results of manufacturing, beam dynamics simulations for the matching between LEBT and RFQ.
*Journal of Physics: Conf. Series 874 (2017) 012048
**Proceedings of LINAC2016, East Lansing, TUPLR053
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAK001  
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TUPAK002 Advanced Approach for Beam Matching along the Multi-Cavity SC CW Linac at GSI cavity, linac, heavy-ion, emittance 955
 
  • S. Yaramyshev, W.A. Barth, M. Heilmann
    GSI, Darmstadt, Germany
  • K. Aulenbacher
    IKP, Mainz, Germany
  • K. Aulenbacher, W.A. Barth, V. Gettmann, T. Kürzeder, M. Miski-Oglu
    HIM, Mainz, Germany
  • M. Basten, M. Busch, H. Podlech, M. Schwarz
    IAP, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
 
  A multi-stage program for the development of a heavy ion superconducting (sc) continuous wave (cw) linac is in progress at HIM (Mainz, Germany) and GSI (Darmstadt, Germany) under support of IAP (Frankfurt, Germany). In 2017 the first section of the CW-Linac has been successfully commissioned at GSI. Beam acceleration at the CW-Linac is foreseen to be performed by up to twelve multi-gap CH cavities. The linac should provide the beam for physics experiments, smoothly varying the output particle energy from 3.5 to 7.3 MeV/u, simultaneously keeping high beam quality. Due to a wide variation of the input- and output -beam energy for each cavity, a longitudinal beam matching to every cavity is of high importance. An advanced algorithm for an optimization of matched beam parameters under variable rf-voltage and rf-phase of each cavity has been developed. The description of the method and the obtained results are presented in the paper.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAK002  
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TUPAK005 Upgrade Plan of J-PARC MR - Toward 1.3 MW Beam Power operation, experiment, injection, cavity 966
 
  • T. Koseki
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
 
  The Main Ring Synchrotron (MR), a 30-GeV slow cycling proton synchrotron, delivers intense proton beam to a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment, T2K, by fast extraction and to an experimental facility, which is called hadron hall by slow extraction. The achieved beam intensities for routine operations are 470 kW ( 2.4 x 1014 ppp) for the fast extraction and 44 kW ( 5.1 x 1013 ppp) for the slow extraction. In order to increase the beam intensity, a plan to replace the magnet power supplies are now in progress for operation with a higher repetition rate. After the replacement, the cycle time will be shortened about a half and increase beam intensities two times larger for the fast extraction. In addition, a further upgrade plan for the fast extraction is mainly reinforcement of rf power supplies. The goal of the upgrade plan is reaching 1.3 MW beam power for the neutrino experiment.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAK005  
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TUPAK007 Simulation of Surface Muon Beamline, Ultra-Slow Muon Production and Extraction for the J-PARC g-2/EDM Experiment simulation, target, experiment, laser 970
 
  • M. Otani, N. Kawamura, T. Mibe, T. Yamazaki
    KEK, Tsukuba, Japan
  • K. Ishida
    RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Japan
  • G. Marshall
    TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada
 
  The E34 experiment aims to measure muon anomalous magnetic moment with a precision of 0.1 ppm to cast light on beyond standard model in elementary particle physics. The experiment utilizes a brand new muon beam line in J-PARC (H line), which is designed to have large acceptance to supply an intense muon beam. The surface muons are injected into a silica aerogel target to generate bound state of muon and electron (muonium). Then the muoniums are ionized by lasers and ultra slow (30 meV) muons (USM) are generated. The USM's are extracted by electro-static lens and injected to a muon linac. In this poster, simulation for optics of the surface muon beamline, muonium production and extraction by the electro-static lens, and the estimation of the USM's intensity are presented.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAK007  
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TUPAK011 Present Status and Future Upgrades of the J-PARC Ring RF Systems cavity, power-supply, operation, controls 984
 
  • M. Yoshii, M. Furusawa, K. Hara, K. Hasegawa, C. Ohmori, Y. Sugiyama
    KEK, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan
  • M. Nomura, T. Shimada, F. Tamura, M. Yamamoto
    JAEA/J-PARC, Tokai-mura, Japan
 
  J-PARC is the multipurpose research institutes. 10 years have passed since the user operation started. We have been considering the upgrades for the future and the target beam powers for 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) and 30GeV Main ring (MR) are 1.5MW and 1.3MW. To achieve a 1.5MW of RCS output beam power, increasing the number of Linac proton particles is necessary. For accelerating such higher beam current, the rf systems in the RCS need to upgrade an accelerating voltage and to take account of heavier beam loading. In case of the MR, increasing the number of proton is not appropriate from the viewpoint of space charge effects. We chose to shorten the MR cycle time. The required RF voltages become almost double. All nine systems have been replaced with the higher accelerating gradient RF systems using a newly developed magnetic alloy material. At present, the proton beam of 470kW is being delivered with a cycle time of 2.48s. Beam powers of MR will plan to aim first at 750KW after replacing the magnet power supplies. But, to realize a 1.3MW beam power, upgrading the RF power sources will be necessary. We present the ring RF system status and their upgrades for the future.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAK011  
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TUPAK013 Geant4 Simulation of Radiation Effect on the Deflector of Extraction System in HUST SCC250 septum, neutron, radiation, simulation 990
 
  • S. Hu, K. Fan, L.X.F. Li, Z.Y. Mei, Z.J. Zeng, L.G. Zhang
    HUST, Wuhan, People's Republic of China
 
  China has payed extensive attention to the development of proton therapy in recent years. When design a compact, high energy superconducting cyclotron for proton therapy, radiation effect induced by beam losses is a crucial consideration. Since the proton beam is extracted out of HUST SCC250 by electrostatic deflectors, the fierce interaction between proton beam and the deflector septum is the main cause of beam losses, which will bring about radiation effect leading to activation and coil quench. This paper presents simulation results of radiation effect by utilizing Geant4 Monte Carlo code. The energy depositions of proton beam in various septum materials are compared. Meanwhile, the yields, the ener-gy and angular distributions of secondary particles are investigated. Those simulation results based on radiation effect will provide us with valuable implications for the design of this superconducting cyclotron.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAK013  
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TUPAK017 Abandoned Proton Beam Separation Design at MOMENT target, separation-scheme, simulation, secondary-beams 1001
 
  • C. Meng, H.T. Jing, Y.P. Song, J.Y. Tang, H. Wang
    IHEP, Beijing, People's Republic of China
 
  Funding: The National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grants 11575217
MOMENT (MuOn-decay MEdium baseline NeuTrino beam facility) is an accelerator-based neutrino beam facility using neutrino from muon decays. The proton driver is a continuous-wave proton linac of 1.5 GeV and 10 mA, which means an extremely high beam power of 15 MW. After bombarding the target, the abandoned proton beam power is very high and should be separate from target station carefully. Because of the energy is not very high and the layout of following transport line isn't linear, we should design special separation line for high momentum proton beam. In this paper the design of separation scheme at MOMENT will be proposed and discussed.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAK017  
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TUPAK018 Study on the Collimation Method for a Future Proton-Proton Collider collimation, quadrupole, insertion, superconducting-magnet 1004
 
  • J.Q. Yang, Y. Bao, J.Y. Tang, J.Y. Tang, Y. Zou
    IHEP, Beijing, People's Republic of China
 
  As the second phase of CEPC-SPPC project, SPPC (Super Proton-Proton Collider) is to explore new physics beyond the standard model in the energy frontier with a center-of-mass energy of 75 TeV. In order to handle extremely-high stored energy in beam, the collimation system of extremely high efficiency is required for safe operation. SPPC has been studying a collimation method which arranges both the transverse and momentum collimations in one long straight section. In this way, the downstream momentum collimation section can clean those particles related to the single diffractive effect in the transverse collimation section thus eliminate beam losses in the arc section. In addition, one more collimation stage is obtained with use of special superconduct-ing quadrupoles in the transverse collimation section. Multiple particle simulations have proven the effectiveness of the methods. This paper presents the study results on the collimation scheme.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAK018  
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TUPAL001 Solvement of the Asynchronization Between the BPMs and Corrector Power Supplies During Orbit Correction in RCS of CSNS power-supply, MMI, software, neutron 1008
 
  • M.T. Li
    CSNS, Guangdong Province, People's Republic of China
  • Y.W. An, M.Y. Huang
    IHEP, Beijing, People's Republic of China
 
  This paper proposes a new possible method to re-synchronize the BPM COD data and Corrector Supplies' data during orbit correction in RCS AC-mode beam commis-sioning of CSNS. This method is promising to improve the effect of the obit correction.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAL001  
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TUPAL003 Measurement of the Injection Beam Parameters by the Multi-Wire Scanner for CSNS injection, MMI, linac, neutron 1014
 
  • M.Y. Huang, H.C. Liu, S. Wang, Zh.H. Xu, P. Zhu
    IHEP, Beijing, People's Republic of China
  • X.H. Lu
    CSNS, Guangdong Province, People's Republic of China
 
  In order to inject the H beam to the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) with high precision and high transport efficiency, the injection beam parameters need to be measured and then corrected while its eccentric position or direction angle is too large. In this paper, firstly, a method to measure the injection beam parameters by using two of the four multi-wire scanners (MWSs) is presented. The injection commissioning results confirmed that this method works well. Secondly, a method to measure the signals of injection beam and circular beam by the INMWS02 is presented and the method work well during the beam commissioning.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAL003  
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TUPAL005 Study on the Fixed Point Injection during the Beam Commissioning for CSNS injection, MMI, timing, neutron 1017
 
  • M.Y. Huang, H.C. Liu, S. Wang, S.Y. Xu
    IHEP, Beijing, People's Republic of China
 
  In order to inject the H beam into the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) of China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) accurately, different injection methods were used in different periods of beam commissioning for CSNS. In the early stage of beam commissioning, since the precise relative position of the injection beam and circular beam was unknown and the injection beam power was relatively small, the fixed point injection method was used. In this paper, the fixed point injection method is studied in detail and the beam commissioning results are given and discussed. In addition, a method to adjust the timing of the injection pulse power is presented and confirmed by the beam commissioning.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAL005  
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TUPAL010 Research on an Accelerator-Based BNCT Facility neutron, target, rfq, DTL 1024
 
  • L. Lu, T. He, W. Ma, L.B. Shi, L.P. Sun, C.C. Xing, X.B. Xu, L. Yang
    IMP/CAS, Lanzhou, People's Republic of China
 
  Seven people have been diagnosed with cancer per minute in China, and cancer has been the leading cause of death with about one fourth of all deaths in China. As effective means and ways for cancer therapy, Boron Neutron Cancer Therapy (BNCT) has drawn greater attention. Accelerator based neutron source is a compact neutron source, and technologies of accelerating a high current beam has matured. We proposed an accelerator based BNCT (AB-BNCT), which can accelerate a 10 mA proton beam up to 7 MeV and target on a shelled-Beryllium. The dynamics of accelerators and neutron calculations will be reported in this paper.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAL010  
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TUPAL015 Progress in the Realization and Commissioning of the Exotic Beam Facility SPES at INFN-LNL rfq, cyclotron, target, acceleration 1035
 
  • G. Bisoffi, A. Andrighetto, P. Antonini, L. Bellan, D. Benini, J. Bermudez, D. Bortolato, M. Calderolla, M. Comunian, S. Corradetti, A. Facco, E. Fagotti, P. Favaron, A. Galatà, F. Galtarossa, M.G. Giacchini, F. Gramegna, A. Lombardi, M. Maggiore, M. Manzolaro, D. Marcato, T. Marchi, P. Mastinu, P. Modanese, M.F. Moisio, A. Monetti, M. Montis, A. Palmieri, S. Pavinato, D. Pedretti, A. Pisent, M. Poggi, G.P. Prete, C. R. Roncolato, M. Rossignoli, L. Sarchiapone, D. Scarpa, D. Zafiropoulos, L. de Ruvo
    INFN/LNL, Legnaro (PD), Italy
  • V. Andreev
    ITEP, Moscow, Russia
  • M.A. Bellato
    INFN- Sez. di Padova, Padova, Italy
  • A.J. Mendez
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA
 
  SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) is an ISOL type facility for production and post-acceleration of exotic nuclei for forefront research in nuclear physics. Radioactive (RA) species (A=80/160) will be produced by fissions induced by a proton beam impinging on an UCx target: the proton beam will be delivered by a com-mercial cyclotron with a 40 MeV maximum energy and a 0.25 mA maximum current. The RA species, extracted from the Target-Ion-Source system as a 1+ beam , will be cooled in a RFQ (radiofrequency quadrupole) beam cool-er (RFQ-BC) and purified from the isobars contaminants through a High Resolution Mass Separator (HRMS). Post-acceleration will be performed via an ECR-based charge breeder, delivering the obtained q+ RA beam to a being built CW RFQ and to the being upgraded superconducting (sc) linac ALPI (up to 10 MeV/A for a mass-to-charge ratio A/q=7).  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAL015  
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TUPAL020 Recent Status of J-PARC Rapid Cycling Synchrotron operation, injection, target, emittance 1045
 
  • K. Yamamoto, P.K. Saha
    JAEA/J-PARC, Tokai-Mura, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki-Ken, Japan
 
  The 3 GeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) provides more than 300 kW beam to the Material and Life Science Facility (MLF) and the Main Ring (MR). In such high intensity hadron accelerator, the lost protons that are a fraction of the beam less than 0.1 % cause many problems. Those particles bring about a serious radioactivation and a malfunction of the accelerator components. Therefore, we carried out the beam study to achieve high power beam operation. Moreover, we also maintain the accelerator components to keep a steady operation. We report present status of the J-PARC RCS.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAL020  
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TUPAL021 Evaluation of Activated Nuclides Due to Secondary Particles Produced in Stripper Foil in J-PARC RCS experiment, radiation, neutron, target 1048
 
  • M. Yoshimoto, S. Kato, M. Kinsho, K. Okabe, P.K. Saha, K. Yamamoto
    JAEA/J-PARC, Tokai-Mura, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki-Ken, Japan
 
  Multi-turn charge-exchange beam injection is key technique to achieve the high intensity proton beam accelerators. In the J-PARC RCS, 400MeV H beams from the LINAC are converted to H+ beam with the stripper foils, and then injected into the ring. The stripper foil is irradiated by not only the injecting H beams but also the circulating H+ beams. The high energy and high power beam irradiation into the foil induces the nuclear reactions, and generated secondary neutrons and protons. These secondary particles causes high residual does around the stripper foil. Now, to identify species of secondary particles and to identify energies and emission angles, activation analysis method using the sample pieces is considered. In this presentation, we report the result of the evaluation of this activation analysis with PHITS codes.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAL021  
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TUPAL022 Low-Reflection RF Window for ACS Cavity in J-PARC Linac cavity, Windows, linac, impedance 1051
 
  • J. Tamura, Y. Kondo, T. Morishita
    JAEA/J-PARC, Tokai-mura, Japan
  • H. Ao
    FRIB, East Lansing, USA
  • F. Naito, M. Otani
    KEK, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan
  • Y. Nemoto
    Nippon Advanced Technology Co., Ltd., Tokai, Japan
 
  In the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) linac, the Annular-ring Coupled Structure (ACS) cavities have been stably operating. To maintain this operation availability, we manufactured three backups of the pillbox-type RF windows for the ACS cavities in fiscal year 2015 and 2017. It is desirable to minimize the RF reflection of the RF window to prevent standing waves from exciting between the cavity and the RF window, and not to significantly change the optimized coupling factor between the cavity and the waveguide. To realize the minimization, the relative permittivities of the ceramic disks of the RF windows were evaluated by measuring the resonant frequencies of the pillbox cavity containing the ceramic disk. On the basis of the evaluated relative permittivities, the pillbox-part lengths of the RF windows were determined. The measured Voltage Standing Wave Ratios (VSWRs) of the manufactured RF windows are just about 1.08 and these are applicable for the practical use.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAL022  
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TUPAL025 Preliminary Test of the Beam Transport System for Li-8 Production Target Ion Source target, beam-transport, ion-source, neutron 1054
 
  • H.-J. Kwon, Y.-S. Cho, J.J. Dang, D.I. Kim, H.S. Kim, S. Lee, Y.G. Song, S.P. Yun
    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Gyeongbuk, Republic of Korea
 
  Funding: This work has been supported by through KOMAC (Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) operation fund of KAERI by MSIT (Ministry of Science and ICT)
A prototype target ion source was developed in order to produce a radioactive beam such as Li-8 as a part of the goals to establish a platform for secondary particle production at KOMAC (Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex). A beam transport system from the 100-MeV linac to prototype target ion source was designed and constructed. It consists of 8 quadrupole magnets, 2 bending magnets and beam diagnostic devices such as AC current transformers, beam position monitors, beam profile monitors and beam loss monitors. Details on the beam transport system and test results are presented.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAL025  
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TUPAL027 Design of Multi-MW Rapid Cycling Synchrotron for Accelerator Driven Transmutation System lattice, extraction, acceleration, synchrotron 1057
 
  • Y. Fuwa
    Kyoto ICR, Uji, Kyoto, Japan
  • N. Amemiya
    Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
  • Y. Ishi, Y. Kuriyama, T. Uesugi
    Kyoto University, Research Reactor Institute, Osaka, Japan
 
  For the practical application of Accelerator Driven System (ADS) that reduces the harmfulness of radioactive waste by transmutation, we are studying the development of a compact accelerator using a synchrotron as an accelerator capable of supplying a stable proton beam to a nuclear reactor. In this plan, we aim to realize down-sizing and high reliability by adopting an alternating high temperature superconducting magnet and a high repetition synchrotron applying resonant beam extraction. In this presentation we report the basic design of the optical system and beam acceleration sequence of this synchrotron.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAL027  
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TUPAL029 Harmonictron acceleration, cavity, operation, synchrotron 1063
 
  • Y. Mori
    Kyoto University, Research Reactor Institute, Osaka, Japan
  • H. Arima, N. Ikeda, Y. Yonemura
    Kyushu University, Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Fukuoka, Japan
  • Y. Waga
    Kyushu University, Hakozaki, Japan
 
  The possibility of high intensity hadron/lepton accelerator based on a vertical scaling FFAG with harmonic number jump acceleration, named "Harmonictron", has been proposed. The presentation gives a design example of the Harmonictron for accelerating protons from 50 MeV to 500 MeV for generation intense secondary particles such as muon, neutron etc.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAL029  
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TUPAL030 Improvement of RF Capture with Multi-Turn H Injection in KURRI FFAG Synchrotron injection, acceleration, scattering, closed-orbit 1066
 
  • T. Uesugi, Y. Fuwa, Y. Ishi, Y. Kuriyama, Y. Mori, H. Okita
    Kyoto University, Research Reactor Institute, Osaka, Japan
 
  In the KURRI FFAG synchrotron, charge-exchanging multi-turn injection is adopted with a stripping foil located on the closed orbit of injection energy. No injection bump orbit system is used and the beam escapes from the foil according to the closed-orbit shift by acceleration. The particles hit the foil many times and the emittance grows up during the injection. In this paper, the capture efficiencies are studied with different rf process, including adiabatic capture.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAL030  
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TUPAL031 Errors Study of a Double-Pass Recirculating Superconducting Proton Linac linac, cavity, emittance, quadrupole 1069
 
  • Y. Tao, K. Hwang, J. Qiang
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
 
  The concept of recirculating superconducting proton linac was recently proposed. Beam dynamics simulations were carried out in a double-pass recirculating proton linac using a single bunch. Although all the beam line elements should be installed following the designed values, in reality, there exist machine imperfections that will cause beam off-centering and even particle losses. In this paper, we report on the study of the static and dynamic errors from RF cavities and magnetic focusing elements in the double-pass recirculating proton linac.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAL031  
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TUPAL032 A Variable Field Phase-Shifter for Recirculating Proton Linacs linac, cavity, dipole, superconducting-cavity 1072
 
  • Y. Tao, J. Qiang
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
 
  The recirculating superconducting proton linac that has a potential to substantially save accelerator cost was re-cently proposed. It consists of three sections to accelerate the continues-wave (CW) beam to multiple GeVs. In the first section, the beam passes the linac two times. In the second and third sections, the beam goes through the linac four and six times. A phase-shifter is needed to meet the synchronous acceleration condition for multi-pass accel-eration using the same RF cavity due to the phase slip-page of the proton beam. Here we present the design of a variable field rectangular bend phase-shifter in which the beam goes to a different path in each pass inside the mag-net to meet the synchronous condition.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAL032  
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TUPAL033 Time-of-Flight, Beam-Energy Measurement of the LANSCE 805-MHz Linac linac, pick-up, controls, DTL 1075
 
  • Y.K. Batygin, F.E. Shelley, H.A. Watkins
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
 
  Funding: Work supported by the United States Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Agency, under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.
Control of the beam-energy ramp along the length of a proton linear accelerator is required to keep the accelerator tuned according to design. Historically, the values of the field amplitudes and phases of the side-coupled, 805-MHz LANSCE linac modules are maintained using a well-known delta-t tuning procedure*. Time-of-flight measurements of the proton beam energy are now also being used to confirm and improve the overall control of the energy ramp along the linac. The time-of-flight method uses measurements of the difference in RF phases measured as the beam passes installed delta-t pickup loops. A newly developed chassis to control the 3D position of the beam centroid is used. Details of the procedure and results of measurements are presented.
* K.R.Crandall, "The Delta-T Tuneup Procedure for the LAMPF 805-MHz Linac", LANL Report LA-6374-MS, June 1976.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAL033  
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TUPAL034 Effect of 805-MHz Linac RF Stability on Beam Losses in LANSCE High-Energy Beamlines beam-losses, linac, neutron, operation 1078
 
  • Y.K. Batygin
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
 
  Funding: Work supported by the United States Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Agency, under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.
Operation of an accelerator facility critically depends on stability of the field amplitudes and phases of the accelerating cavities. The LANSCE linear accelerator consists of a 201.25-MHz, drift-tube linac and an 805-MHz, side-coupled-cavity linac (SCL). Beam losses in the high-energy beamlines of the 800-MeV facility were measured versus variation of the amplitudes and phases of the 805-MHz, SCL, RF cavities. A recent study* confirms that to achieve low losses, the stability of the amplitudes and phases should be kept within 0.1% and 0.1o, respectively. This agrees with a previous study of beam losses in the 201.25-MHz linac. Details of the measurements and results are presented.
*L.J.Rybarcyk, R.C.McCrady, Proceeding of LINAC2016, East Lansing, MI, USA, MOPLR072, p.301.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAL034  
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TUPAL035 3D Beam Dynamics Modeling of MEBT for the New LANSCE RFQ Injector emittance, rfq, quadrupole, simulation 1081
 
  • S.S. Kurennoy
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
 
  The new RFQ-based proton injector at LANSCE requires a specialized medium-energy beam transfer (MEBT) after the RFQ at 750 keV due to a following long (~3 m) existing common transfer line that also serves for transporting negative-ion beams to the DTL entrance. The horizontal space for MEBT elements is limited because two beam lines merge at 18-degree angle. The MEBT design developed with envelope codes includes two compact quarter-wave RF bunchers and four short quadrupoles with steerers, all within the length of about 1 m. The beam size in the MEBT is large, comparable to the beam-pipe aperture, hence non-linear 3D field effects at large radii become important. Using CST Studio codes, we calculate buncher RF fields and quadrupole magnetic fields and use them to perform particle-in-cell beam dynamics modeling of MEBT with realistic beam distributions from the RFQ. Our results indicate a significant emittance growth not predicted by standard beam dynamics codes. Its origin was traced mainly to the quadrupole edge fields. Quadrupole design modifications are proposed to improve the MEBT performance.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAL035  
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TUPAL042 On Possibility of Reflective Triode Uses for Thermonuclear Neutron Generation in Budker-Post Trap with Pulsed Magnetic Field plasma, neutron, electron, focusing 1100
 
  • V.I. Rashchikov, A.N. Didenko, A.A. Isaev, K.I. Kozlovskiy, V.L. Shatokhin, A.E. Shikanov, E.D. Vovchenko
    MEPhI, Moscow, Russia
 
  Scheme for thermonuclear neutron generation in compact Budker-Post trap with barrel-shaped pulsed magnetic field produced by two symmetrically located thin coils with diameter not exceed 0.05 m is proposed. During neutron generation in the trap simultaneously forms plasma which include hydrogen nuclides with density up to 1013 m-3 and two pulsed counter hydrogen nuclides flows accelerated in the diodes. Diodes consist of transparent anode with the form of sphere sector symmetrically covered by the same form grounded cathode. Diodes located symmetrically in front of each other, coaxially to magnetic trap. Computer simulation shows possibility to generate up to 1010 neutrons per pulse for deuterium-tritium compound in the diode system with transverse dimension ~0.1 m, amplitude and accelerating pulse duration 5.105 V and 100 nsec. The value of magnetic induction in the center of the trap should be approximately equal to 20 T.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAL042  
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TUPAL043 Simulations of the Electron Column in IOTA electron, plasma, space-charge, simulation 1103
 
  • B.T. Freemire
    Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois, USA
  • S. Chattopadhyay
    Northern Illinois Univerity, DeKalb, Illinois, USA
  • M. Chung
    UNIST, Ulsan, Republic of Korea
  • C.S. Park
    Korea University Sejong Campus, Sejong, Republic of Korea
  • G. Penn
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  • V.D. Shiltsev, G. Stancari
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
 
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of High Energy Physics, under Contract Nos. DE-AC02-07CH11359 and DE-AC02-05CH1123 and General Accelerator Research and Development Program
Future high current proton accelerators will need to minimize beam loss due to space-charge in order to achieve safe operation while achieving the desired physics goals. One method of space-charge compensation to be tested at the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) at Fermilab is the Electron Column. The concept for this device is to allow a circulating beam to ionize a small region of relatively high pressure residual gas, while using electric and magnetic fields to confine and shape the resulting plasma electrons. If the profile of the electrons is matched to the beam profile transversely and longitudinally, the electrons should counteract the space-charge force of the proton beam. Simulations of the IOTA proton beam circulating through the Electron Column have been performed, with the evolution of the electron plasma and its effect on the beam studied.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAL043  
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TUPAL047 Strain Measurement in the Recent SNS Mercury Target with Gas Injection target, injection, radiation, neutron 1117
 
  • Y. Liu, W. Blokland, C.D. Long, S.N. Murray, B.W. Riemer, R.L. Sangrey, M. W. Wendel, D.E. Winder
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA
 
  Funding: ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for the U.S. DOE.
High-radiation-tolerant fiber-optic strain sensors were recently developed to measure the transient proton-beam-induced strain profiles on the mercury target vessel at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). Here we report the strain measurement results and radiation-resistance performance on the latest SNS mercury target vessel equipped with helium gas injection. The results have demonstrated the efficacy of gas injection to reduce the cyclic stress on the target module.
 
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TUPAL049 SNS Proton Power Upgrade Status linac, scattering, cavity, injection 1120
 
  • M.A. Plum, G. A. Bloom, M.S. Champion, J. Galambos, M.P. Howell, S.-H. Kim, J. Moss, B.W. Riemer, K.S. White
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA
  • R.B. Saethre, R. W. Steffey
    ORNL RAD, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA
 
  Funding: ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for the U.S. DOE. This research was supported by the DOE Office of Science, Basic Energy Science, Scientific User Facilities.
The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Proton Power Upgrade (PPU) project aims to double the proton accelerator beam power from 1.4 to 2.8 MW. Over the past year PPU has completed the reviews necessary for Critical Decision-1 approval. The baseline design choices are being refined, and a cost-effective approach has been identified. The beam energy will be increased by 30% and the beam current capability improved by ~50%. The sub-system improvements and anticipated schedule will be discussed.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAL049  
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TUPAL055 Progress with Carbon Stripping Foils at ISIS operation, synchrotron, vacuum, injection 1136
 
  • B. Jones, H.V. Cavanagh
    STFC/RAL/ISIS, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon, United Kingdom
 
  The ISIS Facility at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory produces intense neutron and muon beams for condensed matter research. The facility's 50Hz rapid cycling synchrotron accelerates protons from 70 to 800MeV to deliver a mean beam power of 0.2MW to two target stations. Since 2016, ISIS has routinely used commercially produced carbon based foils for beam stripping during charge-exchange injection. Recent experience and developments to increase useful foil lifetime are presented including in-house high temperature annealing of foils prior to use. The installation and performance of a new foil imaging system are described and, finally, the procedure to change the stripping foil is described. Issues with the current arrangements and options for redesign are discussed.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAL055  
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TUPAL059 Commissioning of Shanghai Advance Proton Therapy extraction, MMI, dipole, injection 1151
 
  • M.Z. Zhang, D.M. Li, K. Wang, Q.L. Zhang, Z.T. Zhao
    SINAP, Shanghai, People's Republic of China
  • X.C. Xie
    Shanghai APACTRON Particle Equipment Company Limited, Shanghai, People's Republic of China
 
  Shanghai advance proton therapy (SAPT) is a dedicate facility for cancer treatment. The commissioning of the accelerator started at the end of April 2017, and the proton beam has been already transported to the treatment room. This paper shows the commissioning results of synchrotron and transport line.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAL059  
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TUPAL067 Accelerators Validating Antimatter Physics antiproton, experiment, electron, FEL 1167
 
  • C.P. Welsch
    The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
  • C.P. Welsch
    Cockcroft Institute, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
 
  Funding: This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 721559.
The Extra Low Energy Antiproton ring (ELENA) will be a critical upgrade to the unique Antiproton Decelerator facility at CERN and is currently being commissioned. ELENA will significantly enhance the achievable beam quality and enable new experiments. To fully exploit the discovery potential of this facility, advances are urgently required in numerical tools that can adequately model beam transport, life time and interaction, beam diagnostics tools and detectors to fully characterize the beam's properties, as well as in novel experiments that exploit the enhanced beam quality that ELENA will provide. These three areas form the scientific work packages of the new pan-European research and training initiative AVA (Accelerators Validating Antimatter physics). The project has received around 4M€ of funding and brings together universities, research centers and industry to train 15 Fellows through research in this area. This contribution presents the research results across AVA's three scientific work packages.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAL067  
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TUPAL072 Dispersive Electron Cooling for JLEIC electron, emittance, scattering, coupling 1178
 
  • H. Zhang, Y.S. Derbenev, Y. Zhang
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
 
  Funding: Authored by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC under U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177 and DE-AC02-06CH11357.
JLEIC is the electron ion collider under design at Jefferson Lab, which will provide a luminosity up to 1034 cm-2s−1. To reach the high luminosity, short ion and electron bunches with high charge density colliding in high frequency are proposed in JLEIC design. The high charge density of the ion beam leads to strong intrabeam scattering effect, which enlarges the ion beam emittance and ruins the luminosity if not mitigated. Magnetized electron cooling is implemented to overcome the intrabeam scattering effect and to reduce or maintain the ion beam emittance. In this paper, we discuss the redistribution of the cooling effects in the longitudinal and the transverse directions by introducing the dispersion of the ion beam in the cooling section. When the charge density of the cooling electron beam varies, the dispersion of the ion beam leads to an increase of the transverse cooling rate and a reduction of the longitudinal cooling rate, while the total decrement of the Courant-Snyder invariant of the ion beam increases. Both theoretical analysis and numerical calculation are presented.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAL072  
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TUPAL073 Conceptual Design of a Drift Tube LINAC for Proton Therapy DTL, emittance, linac, rfq 1182
 
  • P.F. Ma, X. Guan, R. Tang, X.W. Wang, Q.Z. Xing, X.D. Yu, S.X. Zheng
    TUB, Beijing, People's Republic of China
  • Y.H. Pu, J. Qiao, C.P. Wang, X.C. Xie, F. Yang
    Shanghai APACTRON Particle Equipment Company Limited, Shanghai, People's Republic of China
 
  Funding: National Key Research and Development Program of China (grant number 2016YFC0105408)
The conceptual design of an Alvarez-type Drift Tube Linac for one proton therapy facility is described in this paper. The design optimization of the Drift Tube Linac is carried out in the principle of adopting domestic mature technologies and cost control. The error study of the Drift Tube Linac is also given in this paper.
 
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TUZGBF4 The South African Isotope Facility target, cyclotron, isotope-production, radiation 1240
 
  • J.L. Conradie, L.S. Anthony, F. Azaiez, S. Baard, R.A. Bark, A.H. Barnard, P. Beukes, J.I. Broodryk, J.C. Cornell, J.G. De Villiers, H. Du Plessis, W. Duckitt, D.T. Fourie, P.G. Gardiner, M.E. Hogan, I.H. Kohler, J.J. Lawrie, C. Lussi, N.R. Mantengu, R.H. McAlister, J. Mira, K.V. Mjali, H.W. Mostert, C. Naidoo, F. Nemulodi, M. Sakildien, V.F. Spannenberg, G.F. Steyn, N. Stodart, R.W. Thomae, M.J. Van Niekerk, P.A. van Schalkwyk
    iThemba LABS, Somerset West, South Africa
 
  iThemba LABS has developed a strategy to respond to the need to expand the research agenda of the facility, as well as to seize the opportunity to exploit the growing global demand for radioisotopes. This strategy will depend on the existing accelerator and isotope production infrastructure, as well as the acquisition of a cyclotron capable of accelerating protons to 70 MeV at beam currents in excess of 700 microampere. This development will be approached in two phases: Phase 1 will include the migration of the existing radioisotope production from the separated-sector cyclotron (SSC) to a new 70 MeV cyclotron. This rearrangement will increase the isotope production capability and also free up the SSC for research. In phase 2, beams of artificial isotopes will be produced at energies up to 5 MeV/nucleon to allow iThemba LABS to expand its research capabilities to new frontiers. The various different aspects of the proposed project will be discussed.  
slides icon Slides TUZGBF4 [23.494 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUZGBF4  
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TUPML020 Beamline Design of EMuS - the First Experimental Muon Source in China solenoid, target, experiment, polarization 1574
 
  • Y. Bao, Y.K. Chen, Z.L. Hou, Y.P. Song, J.Y. Tang, N. Vassilopoulos, Y. Yuan, G. Zhao, L. Zhou
    IHEP, Beijing, People's Republic of China
  • H.T. Jing
    IHEP CSNS, Dongguan, People's Republic of China
 
  Funding: This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grants 11575217 and 11527811. Yu Bao thanks Hundred Talents Program of Chinese Academy of Science.
We report the beamline design of the Experimental Muon Source (EMuS) project in China. Based on the 1.6 GeV/100 kW proton accelerator at the Chinese Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS), EMuS will extract one bunch from every 10 double-bunch proton pulses to hit a stand-alone target sitting in a superconducting solenoid, and the secondary muons/pions are guided to the experimental area. The beamline is designed to provide both a surface muon beam and a decay muon beam, so that various experiments such as muSR applications and particle/nuclear physics experiments can be conducted. In this work we present the conceptual design and simulation of the beamlines, and discuss the future aspects of the project.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML020  
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TUPML022 Assessment of Transverse Instabilities in Proton Driven Hollow Plasma Wakefield Acceleration plasma, electron, wakefield, focusing 1581
 
  • Y. M. Li, G.X. Xia, Y. Zhao
    UMAN, Manchester, United Kingdom
  • S.J. Gessner
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  Hollow plasma has been introduced into the proton-driven plasma wakefield accelerators to overcome the issue of beam quality degradation caused by the nonlinear transverse wakefields varying in radius and time in uniform plasma. It has been demonstrated in simulations that the electrons can be accelerated to energy frontier with well-preserved beam quality in a long hollow plasma channel. However, this scheme imposes tight requirements on the beam-channel alignment. Otherwise asymmetric transverse wakefields along the axis are induced, which could distort the driving bunch and deteriorate the witness beam quality. In this paper, by means of the 2D cartesian particle-in-cell simulations, we examine the potentially detrimental effects induced by the driving beam-channel offset and initial driver tilt, and then propose and assess the solutions to these driver inaccuracy issues.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML022  
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TUPML023 Amplitude Enhancement of the Self-Modulated Plasma Wakefields plasma, wakefield, focusing, ECR 1585
 
  • Y. M. Li, G.X. Xia, Y. Zhao
    UMAN, Manchester, United Kingdom
  • K.V. Lotov, A. Sosedkin
    Budker INP & NSU, Novosibirsk, Russia
 
  Seeded Self-modulation (SSM) has been demonstrated to transform a long proton bunch into many equidistant micro-bunches (e.g., the AWAKE case), which then resonantly excite strong wakefields. However, the wakefields in a uniform plasma suffer from a quick amplitude drop after reaching the peak. This is caused by a significant decrease of the wake phase velocity during self-modulation. A large number of protons slip out of focusing and decelerating regions and get lost, and thus cannot contribute to the wakefield growth. Previously suggested solutions incorporate a sharp or a linear plasma longitudinal density increase which can compensate the backward phase shift and therefore enhance the wakefields. In this paper, we propose a new plasma density profile, which can further boost the wakefield amplitude by 30%. More importantly, almost 24% of protons initially located along one plasma period survive in a micro-bunch after modulation. The underlying physics is discussed.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML023  
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TUPML049 Comparison of Fourier Signal and Error Analysis Techniques for Identifying the Self-Modulation Frequency of a Proton Bunch plasma, wakefield, electron, experiment 1651
 
  • S.J. Gessner
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  The AWAKE experiment uses an ultra-high energy proton beam to create large amplitude wakefields for accelerating electrons in plasma. The proton beam is much longer than the plasma wavelength, and must be formed into small, sub- wavelength sized beamlets before it can effectively drive the wake. These beamlets are referred to as micro-bunches and are formed by the plasma self-modulation instability. An im- portant aspect of AWAKE is to measure the depth, frequency, and stability of the modulation, as this provides critical in- formation for establishing the presence of a high-amplitude wakefield driven by a self-modulation proton bunch. This paper discusses Fourier Analysis techniques for measuring the modulation frequency and compares error estimation techniques that work for both small and large datasets.
On behalf of the AWAKE Collaboration.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML049  
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TUPML068 The European Spallation Source Neutrino Super Beam Design Study detector, linac, target, neutron 1702
 
  • M. Dracos
    IPHC, Strasbourg Cedex 2, France
 
  Funding: This project is now supported by the COST Action CA15139/EuroNuNet and EU/H2020 innovation programme ESSnuSB under grant agreement No 777419.
ESSnuSB proposes to use the proton linac of the European Spallation Source (ESS) currently in construction in Lund (Sweden) to produce a very intense neutrino super beam, in parallel with the spallation neutron production. The ESS linac is expected to be operational by 2023 delivering 5 MW average power, 2 GeV proton beam, with 2.86 ms long pulses at a rate of 14 Hz. The primary proton beam-line completing the linac will consist of an accumulator ring to compress the beam pulses to 1.3 µs and a switchyard to distribute the protons onto the target station. The secondary beam-line producing neutrinos will consist of a four-horn/target station, a decay tunnel and a beam dump. A megaton scale water Cherenkov detector will be located at a baseline of about 500 km in one of the existing mines in Sweden and it will measure the neutrino oscillations. ESSnuSB was recently granted by the European H2020-INFRADEV program to start beginning of 2018 a 4-year design study on the feasibility of such facility. This paper presents the objectives, the steps and the organization of the ESSnuSB DS.
 
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TUPML071 Experimental Performance of the Chopper for the ESS Linac electron, high-voltage, linac, experiment 1709
 
  • G. Torrisi, L. Allegra, A.C. Caruso, G. Castro, L. Celona, G. Gallo, S. Gammino, O. Leonardi, A. Longhitano, D. Mascali, L. Neri, S. Passarello, G. Sorbello
    INFN/LNS, Catania, Italy
 
  At the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (INFN-LNS) the beam commissioning of the high intensity Proton Source for the European Spallation Source (PS-ESS) was completed in November 2017. The ESS requires a high intensity proton beam (74 mA pulsed at 14 Hz of repetition rate), with fast Beam pulse rise/fall time (< 20 µs). In order to meet the project requirement, an electrostatic chopping system has been used in the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT). The design of the control system was done also to be the main element of the fast beam abort system and taking into account the radiation issue in the accelerator tunnel. This paper describes the performances of the chopper. The experimentally-achieved rise/fall times of the beam pulses measured by using an AC Current Transformer (ACCT) at the end of the LEBT collimator, are presented. An experimental investigation of the effects of different amounts and types of gas injected into the LEBT (for the sake of space charge compensation) has been carried out with respect to the beam and chopper parameters.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML071  
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TUPML073 Ion Source and Low Energy Beam Transport Line Final Commissioning Step and Transfer from INFN to ESS MMI, ion-source, vacuum, controls 1712
 
  • L. Celona, A. Amato, G. Calabrese, A.C. Caruso, G. Castro, F. Chines, S. Gammino, O. Leonardi, A. Longhitano, G. Manno, S. Marletta, D. Mascali, A. Maugeri, M. Mazzaglia, A. Miraglia, L. Neri, S. Passarello, A. Seminara, D. Siliato, A. Spartà, G. Torrisi
    INFN/LNS, Catania, Italy
 
  At the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (INFN-LNS), the beam commissioning of the high intensity Proton Source for the European Spallation Source (PS-ESS) was completed in November 2017. All requirements have been satisfied and certified by the European Spallation Source (ESS). In the last step of the commissioning a complete characterization of the source has been carried out and some results are hereinafter reported. The shipment of the source was done in December 2017, followed by the installation in January while the beam commissioning is foreseen during summer 2018. The paper describes the final commissioning steps at INFN-LNS, the procedure adopted for a safe transfer of the equipment, the transfer of knowledge needed for the operation and the maintenance.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPML073  
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TUPML075 Development of Target/ion Source for Li-8 Beam at KOMAC* target, ion-source, operation, vacuum 1718
 
  • J.J. Dang, Y.-S. Cho, H.S. Kim, H.-J. Kwon, P. Lee, S. Lee, Y.G. Song
    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Gyeongbuk, Republic of Korea
 
  Funding: This work has been supported through KOMAC operation fund of KAERI by MSIT and the NRF of Korea grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (No. NRF-2017M2A2A6A02071070).
A target/ion source (TIS) for Li-8 isotope beam has been developed at Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC). The TIS was designed based on various numerical studies such as Monte Carlo simulation for Li-8 yield estimation, an ionization efficiency calculation of a surface ionization ion source and thermal analysis by a power balance model. Then, it was fabricated that a prototype of the TIS which consists of a beryllium oxide (BeO) target, a graphite target container, a tantalum target heater and a rhenium surface ion source. Also, the target heater and the surface ion source were heated to designed operation temperatures. In addition, it has been designed and constructed that an online test facility including Li-8 beam optics and diagnostics.
 
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TUPML076 Installation, Commissioning and Characterization of EBIS-SC as a Short Pulsed Proton Source at KOMAC extraction, electron, MMI, neutron 1721
 
  • S. Lee, Y.-S. Cho, H.S. Kim, H.-J. Kwon
    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Gyeongbuk, Republic of Korea
 
  Funding: This work has been supported through KOMAC operation fund of KAERI by MSIT (Ministry of Science and ICT)
Neutron source is applicable to various fields in basic/applied science and industries. There are several neutron sources in the world such LENS, SNS, J-PARC, ISIS and ESS either for short or long pulsed neutron. At Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC), to provide wide ranges of research opportunities to beam user, a 100 MeV proton linac based pulsed neutron source is planned for both long and short pulses of neutron source. Currently, the 100 MeV proton linac is operational with a 2 ms long pulsed proton injector, i.e. a microwave ion source. We will upgrade our injector by combining the already existing microwave ion source with a EBIS-SC (Superconducting Electron Beam Ion Source from Dreebit GmbH) for short pulses (< 1 us) of proton. This planned injector will work one at the time and provide long/short pulses of accelerated proton hitting a target to emit correspondingly long/short neutron pulses. Main modification on the proton injector is the EBIS-SC, so in this paper we report the installation, and commission of the EBIS-SC test bench at KOMAC. And the characterization of the EBIS-SC is described in detail.
 
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TUPML077 Development of Physical Processes in Geant4 for Simulation of ISOL Target-Ion-Source System target, simulation, ISOL, ion-source 1724
 
  • P. Lee, Y.-S. Cho, J.J. Dang, H.S. Kim, H.-J. Kwon, S. Lee, Y.G. Song, S.P. Yun
    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Gyeongbuk, Republic of Korea
 
  Funding: This work has been supported through KOMAC operation fund of KAERI and the NRF of Korea grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (No. NRF-2017M2A2A6A02071070).
Geant4 physical processes for simulating diffusion and effusion of radioactive ions in matter have been developed for optimizing ISOL target-ion-source (TIS) system. The developed processes simulate motions of radioactive ions with sub-eV kinetic energy in the TIS geometry. The processes consist of diffusion, effusion, and radioactive decay modules, and they are designed to work seamlessly with other implemented physics lists, extending capability of the Geant4 toolkit to more complicated applications in the field of nuclear physics. The diffusion probability is analytically calculated by using the well-known Fick's formula. The effusive flow of neutral atoms is interpreted in terms of kinetic molecular theory of gases, where the interaction between atoms and the wall of a target container is described by employing Lorentz-Lambert model. By the help of newly implemented processes, it is able to simulate the release of radioactive ions from the irradiation of a proton beam on the TIS system with different geometrical parameters in a single environment. Here, we present the status of the development and plans for further improvements.
 
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WEPAF001 A Diagnostic Test Bench for the LIGHT Accelerator emittance, MMI, rfq, DTL 1808
 
  • A. Jeff, A. Benot-Morell, M. Caldara, P. Nadig
    A.D.A.M. SA, Meyrin, Switzerland
 
  The LIGHT accelerator is the first compact Linac that will deliver proton beams up to 230 MeV for cancer treatment. The accelerator is only 24m long and is being built to be modular and capable of changing proton beam energy and intensity pulse-to-pulse at up to 200Hz. The LIGHT prototype is currently being commissioned by AVO / ADAM at CERN, while the first full installation is foreseen in 2019. Here we present the design and implementation of a moveable diagnostic test bench which is used to measure a full set of beam properties at each commissioning step. Parameters measured include beam current, pulse length, energy, position, transverse profile and emittance. The compact instruments, the electronics and the controls that equip the test bench are the same as those who will be permanently installed along the accelerator after the commissioning. The first results obtained with the test bench for beams up to 16 MeV are shown here. We demonstrate that the chosen instrumentation achieves a very high sensitivity, dynamic range, reliability and immunity to EM noise. Procedures for on-line calibration of the instruments are also discussed.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPAF001  
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WEPAF025 Fast Intensity Monitor Based on Channeltron Electron Multiplier electron, electronics, high-voltage, detector 1873
 
  • G.M.A. Calvi, V. Lante, L. Lanzavecchia, G. Magro, A. Parravicini, E. Rojatti, C. Viviani
    CNAO Foundation, Milan, Italy
 
  The paper concerns the Fast Intensity Monitor (FIM) designed for the CNAO (Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica), the Italian facility of Oncological Hadrontherapy. The FIM detector has been designed with the purpose of having a continuous and non-destructive measurement of the beam intensity in the High Energy Beam Transfer (HEBT) line. The passage of the beam through a thin aluminum foil produces secondary electrons whose yield depends on beam species (protons or carbon ions), intensity and energy. Secondary electrons are focused on the Channeltron Electron Multiplier (CEM) input, multiplied and sensed over a precision resistor. In order to minimize the perturbation to the beam, the foil is grounded and the read out electronics is floating. This makes electronics design harder but it is a key point to make FIM use possible continuously even during patients treatment. Measurements performed with the FIM are discussed and checked against reference detectors.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPAF025  
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WEPAF070 Commissioning of Beam Instrumentation at the CERN AWAKE Facility After Integration of the Electron Beam Line electron, plasma, laser, experiment 1993
 
  • I. Gorgisyan, C. Bracco, S. Burger, S. Döbert, S.J. Gessner, E. Gschwendtner, L.K. Jensen, S. Jensen, S. Mazzoni, D. Medina, K. Pepitone, L. Søby, F.M. Velotti, M. Wendt
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • M. Cascella, S. Jolly, F. Keeble, M. Wing
    UCL, London, United Kingdom
  • V.A. Verzilov
    TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada
 
  The Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment (AWAKE) is a project at CERN aiming to accelerate an electron bunch in a plasma wakefield driven by a proton bunch*. The plasma is induced in a 10 m long Rubidium vapour cell using a pulsed Ti:Sapphire laser, with the wakefield formed by a proton bunch from the CERN SPS. A 16 MeV electron bunch is simultaneously injected into the plasma cell to be accelerated by the wakefield to energies in GeV range over this short distance. After successful runs with the proton and laser beams, the electron beam line was installed and commissioned at the end of 2017 to produce and inject a suitable electron bunch into the plasma cell. To achieve the goals of the experiment, it is important to have reliable beam instrumentation measuring the various parameters of the proton, electron and laser beams such as transverse position, transverse profile as well as temporal synchronization. This contribution presents the status of the beam instrumentation in AWAKE, including the new instruments incorporated into the system for measurements with the electron beam line, and reports on the performance achieved during the AWAKE runs in 2017.
* Gschwendtner E., et al. "AWAKE, the Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Experiment at CERN", NIM A 829 (2016)76-82
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPAF070  
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WEPAF077 Performance Evaluation of Linac4 During the Reliability Run linac, operation, MMI, controls 2016
 
  • O. Rey Orozko, A. Apollonio, S.S. Erhard, G. Guidoboni, B. Mikulec, J.A. Uythoven
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  Linac4 will replace Linac2 as the first element in the CERN proton injector chain from 2020 onwards, following the second LHC long shutdown (LS2). With more than three times higher energy and number of compo-nents than Linac2, beam availability is one of the main challenges of Linac4. Intended as a smooth transition from commissioning to operation, a Linac4 Reliability Run was started in July 2017 and is foreseen to last until mid-May 2018. The goal is to achieve the target availability of 95 %. This implies consolidated routine operation and identification of recurring problems. This paper introduces the schedule and operational aspects of the Linac4 Reliability Run, including the developed tools and methods for availability tracking. The paper also summarizes the lessons learned during the first period of the Linac4 Reliability Run with respect to fault tracking and provides an in-depth analysis of the failure modes and observed availability.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPAF077  
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WEPAF078 Machine Learning Applied at the LHC for Beam Loss Pattern Classification beam-losses, collimation, injection, flattop 2020
 
  • G. Valentino
    University of Malta, Information and Communication Technology, Msida, Malta
  • B. Salvachua
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  Beam losses at the LHC are constantly monitored because they can heavily impact the performance of the machine. One of the highest risks is to quench the LHC superconducting magnets in the presence of losses leading to a long machine downtime in order to recover cryogenic conditions. Smaller losses are more likely to occur and have an impact on the machine performance, reducing the luminosity production or reducing the lifetime of accelerator systems due to radiation effects, such as magnets. Understanding the characteristics of the beam loss, such as the beam and the plane, is crucial in order to correct them. Regularly during the year, dedicated loss map measurements are performed in order to validate the beam halo cleaning of the collimation system. These loss maps have the particular advantage that they are performed in well controlled conditions and can therefore be used by a machine learning algorithm to classify the type of losses during the LHC machine cycle. This study shows the result of the beam loss classification and its retrospective application to beam loss data from the 2017 run.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPAF078  
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WEPAF082 A Systematic Analysis of the Prompt Dose Distribution at the Large Hadron Collider operation, radiation, luminosity, experiment 2036
 
  • O. Stein, K. Bilko, M. Brugger, S. Danzeca, D. Di Francesca, R. Garcia Alia, Y. Kadi, G. Li Vecchi, C. Martinella
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  During the operation of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) the continuous particle losses create a mixed particle radiation field in the LHC tunnel and the adjacent caverns. Exposed electronics and accelerator components show dose dependent accelerated aging effects. In order to achieve an optimal lifetime associated to radiation damage, the position of the equipment is chosen in dependency of the amplitude of the radiation fields. Based on the continuous analysis of the data from more than 3900 ionisation chamber beam loss monitors the evolution of the radiation levels is monitored during the accelerator operation. Normalising the radiation fields with either the integrated luminosity or the integrated intensities allows extrapolating the radiation levels of future accelerator operation. In this paper, the general radiation levels in the arcs and the insertion regions at the LHC and their evolution will be presented. The changes in the prompt dose distribution along the LHC between the operation in 2016 and 2017 will be discussed. The impact of different accelerator settings on the local dose distribution will be addressed as well.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPAF082  
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WEPAF084 Commissioning the ELENA Beam Diagnostics Systems at CERN electron, diagnostics, MMI, antiproton 2043
 
  • G. Tranquille, S. Burger, M. Gąsior, P. Grandemange, T.E. Levens, O. Marqversen, L. Søby
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  The Extra Low ENergy Antiproton ring (ELENA) at CERN entered the commissioning phase in November 2016 using H ions and antiprotons to setup the machine at the different energy plateaus. The low intensities and energy of the ELENA beam generate very weak signals making beam diagnostics very challenging. With a circulating beam current of less than 1 µA and an energy where the beam annihilates in less than a few microns of matter, special care was taken during the design phase to ensure an optimal performance of these measurement devices once installed on the ring and transfer lines. A year on we present the performance of the various devices that have been deployed to measure the beam parameters from the extraction point of the Antiproton Decelerator (AD), through the ELENA ring and in the experimental lines.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPAF084  
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WEPAF085 Upgrade of the CERN SPS Beam Position Measurement System electron, electronics, pick-up, FPGA 2047
 
  • M. Wendt, M. Barros Marin, A. Boccardi, T.B. Bogey, V. Kain, C. Moran Guizan, A. Topaloudis
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • I. Degl'Innocenti
    Università di Pisa, Pisa, Italy
 
  The CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is a fast cycling hadron accelerator delivering protons with momenta of up to 450 GeV/c for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), fixed target experiments and other users such as the AWAKE plasma acceleration experiment, and also used to accelerate heavy ions. This paper presents the upgrade initiative for the SPS beam position measurement system in the frame of the CERN LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU) project. The new SPS beam position read-out electronics will be based on logarithmic amplifiers, using signals provided by the 216 existing beam position monitors, the majority of which are based on split-plane 'shoebox' technology. It will need to cover a dynamic range sufficient to manage the wide range of SPS beam intensities and bunch formatting schemes to provide turn-by-turn and averaged beam orbits along the SPS acceleration cycles. In order to avoid long coaxial cables, the front-end electronics including the digitisation, will be located inside the accelerator tunnel, with optical transmission to surface processing electronics. This represents an additional challenge in terms of radiation tolerance of electronics components and materials.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPAF085  
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WEPAG005 Synchrotron Radiation Beam Diagnostics for the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator controls, electron, optics, synchrotron 2073
 
  • N. Kuklev, Y.K. Kim
    University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
  • A.L. Romanov
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
 
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation under Award PHY-1535639. Fermi Research Alliance, LLC operates Fermilab under Contract DE-AC02-07CH11359 with the US Department of Energy.
The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) is a research electron and proton storage ring currently being commissioned at Fermilab's Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility. An extensive beam physics research program is planned, including tests of novel techniques for improving beam intensity, stability, and emittance. A key part of IOTA beam diagnostics suite are synchrotron light beam monitors, mounted onto each dipole. In this paper, we present the hardware and software design of this system. Mechanical layout and actuator control electronics are described. High throughput image acquisition and analysis architecture is outlined, and its preliminary performance is explored. Integration of the system within accelerator control network and possible user applications, such as camera auto-focusing, are discussed.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPAG005  
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WEPAL018 A Non-destructive 2D Profile Monitor Using a Gas Sheet experiment, electron, linac, target 2190
 
  • N. Ogiwara, Y. Namekawa
    J-PARC, KEK & JAEA, Ibaraki-ken, Japan
  • M. Fukuda, K. Hatanaka, T. Shima, K. Takahisa
    RCNP, Osaka, Japan
  • Y. Hikichi, J. Kamiya, M. Kinsho
    JAEA/J-PARC, Tokai-mura, Japan
  • Y. Hori
    KEK, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan
 
  We are developing a non-destructive and fast-response beam profile monitor using a dense gas sheet target. To make a gas sheet, we use the beaming effect, which is well known in vacuum science and technology. The emitted molecules through a long rectangular channel, which has a very small ratio of the gap to the width, are forced to concentrate on a plane. The gas sheet with a thickness of 1.5 mm and the density of 2×10-4 Pa was easily generated by the combination of the deep slit and the thin slit. Here, the gas sheet was produced by the deep slit, and the shape of the sheet was improved by the thin slit. The usefulness of this monitor was shown by the following experiments: 1) For the electron beam of 30 keV with a diameter greater than 0.35 mm, the position and the two-dimensional profiles were well measured using the gas sheet. 2) Then the profiles of the 10 and 400 MeV proton beam with a current of several microamperes were well measured, too. 3) Recently, the profiles of the 400 MeV H ion beams in J-PARC linac were measured.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPAL018  
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WEPAL031 RF Interlock Implementation Using Digital LLRF System for 100 MeV Proton Linac at KOMAC pick-up, cavity, LLRF, controls 2233
 
  • H.S. Jeong, Y.-S. Cho, H.S. Kim, J.H. Kim, S.G. Kim, H.-J. Kwon, Y.G. Song
    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Gyeongbuk, Republic of Korea
 
  Funding: This work has been supported through KOMAC (Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) operation fund of KAERI by MSIT (Ministry of Science and ICT)
KOMAC (Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) already has operated 100 MeV proton linear accelerator with high availability since 2013. This accelerator is composed of Ion source, LEBT, RFQ and DTL systems to transport proton particles to the target. Total 9 klystrons with 1.6 MWpeak are used to provide controlled RF power to the accelerator cavities with 350 MHz of operating frequency. These klystrons are driven by LLRF systems that the LLRF systems should control the RF and protect the amplifiers and cavities from the abnormal RF. In this article, the RF interlock using cavity pickup signal introduced. When the cavity pickup amplitude breaks away from the adjustable upper or lower limit window, the digital LLRF system interrupts the LLRF output. These implementations were conducted by upgrading the FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) logics of the existing digital LLRF system.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPAL031  
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WEPAL051 Mirascope Residual-Gas Luminescent Beam Profile Monitors electron, controls, diagnostics, operation 2291
 
  • V.G. Dudnikov, R.J. Abrams, M.A. Cummings
    Muons, Inc, Illinois, USA
 
  Muons, Inc. proposes to develop a Residual-Gas Beam Profile Monitor for Transfer Lines with pulse-to-pulse precision of better than 0.1 mm in position and size that will operate over a wide range of proton beam intensities including those needed for multi-MW beams of future facilities. Traditional solid-based beam intercepting instrumentation produces unallowable levels of radiation at high powers. Our alternative approach is to use a low mass residual-gas profile monitor, where ionization electrons are collected along extended magnetic field lines and the gas composi-tion and pressure in the beam pipe are locally controlled to minimize unwanted radiation and to improve resolu-tion. Beam Induced Fluorescence profile monitor with micrascope light collection is proposed.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPAL051  
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WEPAL065 Development of a Gas Sheet Beam Profile Monitor for IOTA simulation, detector, space-charge, plasma 2326
 
  • S. Szustkowski, B.T. Freemire
    Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois, USA
  • S. Chattopadhyay
    Northern Illinois Univerity, DeKalb, Illinois, USA
  • D.J. Crawford
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
 
  Funding: US Department of Energy, Office of High Energy Physics, General Accelerator Research and Development (GARD) Program
A nitrogen gas sheet will measure the two dimensional transverse profile of the 2.5 MeV proton beam in IOTA. The beam lifetime is limited by the interaction with the gas, thus a minimally invasive instrument is required. To produce a gas sheet with the desired density and thickness, various nozzle types are being investigated, including rectangular capillary tubes for gas injection and skimmers for final shaping of the gas. It is essential to meet vacuum requirements in the interaction chamber while maintaining the precise thickness and density of the gas, without significantly affecting the beam lifetime. The current design of a gas sheet beam profile monitor and present status will be discussed.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPAL065  
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WEPAL067 Number of Turn Measurements on the HIPA Cyclotrons at PSI cyclotron, pick-up, operation, LabView 2334
 
  • P.-A. Duperrex, A. Facchetti
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
 
  The number of turns is an important parameter for the tuning of a cyclotron; it is even more important for high intensity machines such as the 1.4 MW High Intensity Proton Accelerator (HIPA) facility. Up to recently, the number of turns had to be measured using radial probes, which cannot be performed during user operation but only during beam development shifts. For user shifts, the estimate of the number of turns was based on the acceleration voltage measurements, with the inherent limited precision of RF measurements. A new scheme based on the time of flight (ToF) measurements has been deployed on the two cyclotrons of HIPA. It is based on the cross-correlation of fast sampled data from pickups located at the entrance and at the exit of the cyclotrons. For the first cyclotron, called Injector 2 (accelerating the beam from 870 keV to 72MeV), the beam had to be externally modulated whereas, for the Ring Cyclotron (72 MeV to 590 MeV), no external modulation was necessary. This paper will present the details of both implementations, their limitations and the quality of the results that can be obtained with the ToF techniques.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPAL067  
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WEPAL068 Improving Machine and Target Protection in the SINQ Beam Line at PSI-HIPA target, quadrupole, diagnostics, operation 2337
 
  • D. Reggiani, P.-A. Duperrex, R. Dölling, D.C. Kiselev, J. Welte, M. Wohlmuther
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
 
  With a nominal beam power of nearly 1.4 MW, the PSI High Intensity Proton Accelerator (HIPA) facility is currently at the forefront of the high intensity frontier of particle accelerators. A key issue of this facility is to ensure safe operation of the SINQ spallation source. In particular, too large beam current density and/or inaccurate beam steering can seriously compromise the integrity of the spallation target. Recently, a campaign has been launched in order to improve the fast detection of improper beam delivery and therefore the reliability of the system. New beam diagnostics elements such as an absolute intensity monitor, a beam ellipticity monitor and additional loss monitors have been installed during the 2017 shutdown. In 2018 a new SINQ target will be installed featuring a system of thermocouples which will keep track of the beam position. Moreover, an additional monitor is currently under study which should reliably detect small beam fractions accidentally bypassing the muon production target TE and which are intrinsically dangerous for the SINQ spallation target. This contribution reviews the all efforts to increase the efficiency of the SINQ protection system.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPAL068  
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WEPAL073 Enhanced Bunch Monitoring by Interferometric Electro-Optic Methods pick-up, laser, polarization, optics 2353
 
  • S.M. Gibson, A. Arteche, A. Bosco
    Royal Holloway, University of London, Surrey, United Kingdom
  • S.E. Bashforth, A. Bosco, S.M. Gibson
    JAI, Egham, Surrey, United Kingdom
  • M. Krupa, T. Lefèvre
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  Funding: We acknowledge funding by UK STFC grant ST/N001583/1, JAI at Royal Holloway University of London and CERN
A prototype Electro-Optic Beam Position Monitor has been installed for tests* in the CERN SPS to develop the concept for high-bandwidth (6-12GHz) monitoring of crabbed-bunch rotation and intra-bunch instabilities at the High Luminosity LHC**. The technique relies on the ultrafast response of birefringent MgO:LiNO3 crystals to optically measure the intra-bunch transverse displacement of a passing relativistic bunch. This paper reports on recent developments, including a new interferometric electro-optic pick-up that was installed in the CERN SPS in September 2017; in first beam tests with nominal bunch charge, a corresponding interferometric signal has been observed. The interferometric arrangement has the advantages of being sensitive to the strongest polarisation coefficient of the crystal, and the phase offset of the interferometer is controllable by frequency scanning of the laser, which enables rapid optimisation of the working point. Novel concepts and bench tests for enhancements to the pick-up design are reviewed, together with prospects for sensitivity during the first crab-cavity beam tests at the CERN SPS in 2018.
* A. Arteche et al "First beam tests at the CERN SPS of an electro-optic beam position monitor for the HL-LHC" TUPCF23, IBIC 2017.
** HL-LHC TDR v0.1 doi.org/10.23731/CYRM-2017-004
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPAL073  
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WEPAL075 Time-Resolved Transverse Beam Profile Measurements with a Rest Gas Ionisation Profile Monitor Based on Hybrid Pixel Detectors electron, detector, background, site 2361
 
  • S. Levasseur, S.M. Gibson
    Royal Holloway, University of London, Surrey, United Kingdom
  • W. Bertsche, H. Sandberg
    UMAN, Manchester, United Kingdom
  • D. Bodart, A. Huschauer, G. Schneider, J.W. Storey, R. Veness
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • M. Sapinski
    GSI, Darmstadt, Germany
  • K. Satou
    J-PARC, KEK & JAEA, Ibaraki-ken, Japan
 
  A novel rest gas ionisation profile monitor which aims to provide continuous, bunch-by-bunch and turn-by-turn measurement of the transverse beam profile has recently been in- stalled in the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) as part of the LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU) project. The instrument consists of an electric drift field to transport ionisation electrons produced by beam-gas interaction onto a measurement plane, and a magnetic field to maintain the transverse position of the ionisation electrons. The electron detector located at the measurement plane is based on four in-vacuum hybrid pixel detectors. The detectors record the position, time and energy of single ionisation electrons with unprecedented precision compared to traditional MCP based techniques. Continuous transverse beam profile measurements for LHC-type beams in the PS will be presented, demonstrating the unique capabilities of the instrument to provide new insights into beam dynamics throughout the acceleration cycle.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPAL075  
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WEPMF012 Power Requirement and Preliminary Coupler Design for the eRHIC Crab Cavity System cavity, operation, electron, SRF 2394
 
  • S. Verdú-Andrés, I. Ben-Zvi, D. Holmes, Q. Wu
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
  • I. Ben-Zvi
    Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, USA
 
  Funding: Work supported by Brookhaven Science Associates LLC under contract no. DE-SC0012704 with the U.S. Department of Energy.
Crab cavities are deflecting cavities operated in such a way that the bunch center is in synchronism with the zero-crossing kick voltage. In that case, beam loading is zero for an on-axis beam. The crab cavity system of the future electron-ion collider eRHIC will manipulate 275 GeV proton beams. At high energies, the beam offset can be as large as 2 mm (including mechanical and electrical offset tolerances). The beam loading resulting from such offset can greatly incur in large power requirements to the RF amplifier. The choice of external Q for the Fundamental Power Coupler (FPC) is critical to limit the power requirement to practical values. The loaded Q of the eRHIC crab cavities is mainly governed by the external Q of the FPC, so the external Q will also define the cavity bandwidth and thus the tuning requirements to counteract frequency transients from external perturbations. This paper discusses the choice of external Q for the FPC of the eRHIC crab cavities and introduces the design of a preliminary FPC antenna concept that would provide the appropriate external Q.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPMF012  
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WEPMF034 Development of Superconducting RF Double Spoke Cavity at IHEP cavity, coupling, target, electron 2432
 
  • Z.Q. Zhou, H.F.S. Feisi, W.M. Pan
    IHEP, Beijing, People's Republic of China
 
  Funding: State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No.2014CB845500)
The China Initiative Accelerator Driven System (CiADS) has been approved to transmute long-lived radi-oisotopes in used nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products. IHEP is developing a 325MHz double spoke cavity at β0 of 0.5 for the CiADS linac. The cavity shape was optimized to minimize Ep/Ea while keeping Bp/Ep reasonably low, while the multipacting was analyzed. Meanwhile, mechanical design was applied to check stress, Lorentz force detuning and microphonic effects, and to minimize pressure sensitivity. A new RF coupling scheme was proposed to avoid electrons hitting directly on ceramic window. The detailed design for the cavity is addressed in this paper.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPMF034  
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WEPMF071 Dynamic Testing and Characterization of Advanced Materials in a New Experiment at CERN HiRadMat Facility experiment, target, damping, site 2534
 
  • A. Bertarelli, C. Accettura, E. Berthomé, L. Bianchi, F. Carra, C. Fichera, M.I. Frankl, G. Gobbi, P. Grosclaude, M. Guinchard, A. Lechner, M. Pasquali, S. Redaelli, E. Rigutto, O. Sacristan De Frutos
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • Ph. Bolz, P. Simon
    GSI, Darmstadt, Germany
  • T.R. Furness
    University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, United Kingdom
  • J. Guardia Valenzuela
    Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain
  • P. Mollicone, M. Portelli
    UoM, Msida, Malta
 
  Funding: This work has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation programme under Grant Agreement No 730871.
An innovative and comprehensive experiment (named "Multimat") was successfully carried out at CERN HiRadMat facility on 18 different materials relevant for Collimators and Beam Intercepting Devices. Material samples, tested under high intensity proton pulses of 440 GeV/c, exceeding the energy density expected in HL-LHC, ranged from very light carbon foams to tungsten heavy alloys, including novel composites as graphite/carbides and metal/diamond without and with thin-film coatings. Experimental data were acquired relying on extensive integrated instrumentation (strain gauges, temperature sensors, radiation-hard camera) and on laser Doppler vibrometer. This allows investigating relatively unexplored and fundamental phenomena as dynamic strength, internal energy dispersion, nonlinearities due to inelasticity and inhomogeneity, strength and delamination of coatings and surfaces. By benchmarking sophisticated numerical simulations against these results, it is possible to establish or update material constitutive models, which are of paramount importance for the design of devices exposed to interaction with particle beams in high energy accelerators such as the HL-LHC or FCC-hh.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPMF071  
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WEPMF084 Design, Prototyping Activities and Beam Irradiation Test for the New nTOF Neutron Spallation Target target, interface, neutron, radiation 2582
 
  • R. Esposito, M. Bergeret, J. Busom, M.E.J. Butcher, M. Calviani, R. Cimmino, T. Coiffet, J.P.C. Espadanal, L. Gentini, R. Illan Fiastre, V. Maire, F. Ogallar Ruiz, A. Perillo-Marcone, S. Sgobba, M.A. Timmins, C. Torregrosa, E. Urrutia, V. Vlachoudis
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • R. Logé
    EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
 
  A third-generation neutron spallation target for the neutron time-of-flight facility at CERN (nTOF) is currently undergoing the design and prototyping stage. The new design aims at improving reliability, increasing beam intensity on target and avoiding issues encountered in the current generation target, in particular the contamination of the cooling system water with radioactive spallation products coming from washing out lead. After a preliminary design and an initial prototyping stage*, a baseline solution has been defined consisting in a pure lead target core contained in a Ti-6Al-4V cladding and embedded in a massive Pb block. A backup solution has also been defined, consisting in a Ta-cladded W core embedded in a Pb block. Both solutions are currently undergoing the detailed design stage. This contribution details the prototyping activity, the robustness studies for accidental scenarios and the design of a beam irradiation test on prototypes of the target core.
R. Esposito et al., "Design of the new CERN nTOF neutron spallation target: R&D and prototyping activities," in Proc. of IPAC'17, Copenhagen, May 2017.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPMF084  
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WEPMF086 Eradication of Mercury Ignitron from the 400 kA Magnetic Horn Pulse Generator for CERN Antiproton Decelerator antiproton, target, operation, kicker 2586
 
  • V. Namora, M. Calviani, L. Ducimetière, P. Faure, L.E. Fernandez, G. Gräwer, V. Senaj
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  The CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD) produces low-energy antiprotons for studies of antimatter. A 26 GeV proton beam impacts the AD production target which produces secondary particles including antiprotons. A magnetic Horn (AD-Horn) in the AD target area is used to focus the diverging antiproton beam and increase the antiproton yield enormously. The horn is pulsed with a current of 400 kA, generated by capacitor discharge type generators equipped with ignitrons. These mercury-filled devices present a serious danger of environmental pollution in case of accident and safety constraints. An alternative has been developed using solid-state switches and diodes. Similar technology was already implemented at CERN for ignitron eradication in the SPS Horizontal beam dump in the early 2000s. A project was launched to design and set up a full-scale test-bench, to install and test a dedicated solid-state solution. Following the positive results obtained from the test-bench, the replacement of ignitrons by solid-state devices in the operational AD-Horn facility is currently under preparation. This paper describes the test-bench design and results obtained for this very high current pulser.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPMF086  
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WEPMF087 LHC Injectors Upgrade Project: Outlook of the Modifications to the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) Vacuum System and Impact on the Operation of the Carbon-Coated Vacuum Chambers vacuum, impedance, experiment, extraction 2589
 
  • C. Pasquino, G. Bregliozzi, P. Chiggiato, P. Cruikshank, A. Farricker, A. Harrison, J. Perez Espinos, J.A.F. Somoza, M. Taborelli, C. Vollinger
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  Aiming at doubling the beam intensity and reducing the beam emittance, significant modifications of the LHC and its injector chain will take place during Long Shutdown 2 (LS2), starting from 2019. The LIU project (LHC Injector Upgrade), in the specific, touches Linac4, the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB), the Proton Synchrotron (PS), the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) as well as the heavy ion chain. During LS2, important changes will take place mainly in the Long Straight Sections of the SPS to host a newly conceived dumping system, upgraded RF cavities and upgraded extraction channels. Additionally, the vacuum chambers of the main bending and focusing magnets as well as vacuum drifts will be coated with amorphous carbon in order to reduce the dynamic pressure effects induced by multipacting. The modifications to the different vacuum sectors will be described in details as well as the impact on operation of amorphous carbon coated sectors that have been already deposited.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPMF087  
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WEPMG001 Engineering Design and Prototyping of the New LIU PS Internal Beam Dumps simulation, vacuum, interface, operation 2600
 
  • G. Romagnoli, J.A. Briz Monago, M.E.J. Butcher, M. Calviani, D.G. Cotte, Y. C. Coutron, J.J. Esala, E. Grenier-Boley, J. Hansen, A. Huschauer, A. Masi, F.-X. Nuiry, D. Steyart, V. Vlachoudis
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  For the LHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU) at CERN, the two Proton Synchrotron (PS) internal dumps are redesigned and upgraded for the new high intensity/brightness beams. The dumps are installed as active elements in the lattice in straight sections between the main bending magnets. The dumps are moved into the beam when requested by operation and shave the circulating beam turn by turn stopping the beam after about 6 ms. The shaving induces a very localized beam energy deposition on the dump surface in a thickness of tens of microns. A completely new approach has been developed with FLUKA to simulate beam shaving, coupled with ANSYS to define a new dump core design. This paper presents the design of the dump based on operational constraints such as cycling 200 000 times per year for 20 years, limited access for maintenance or reaching the beam trajectory in 150 ms. These constraints had a major impact on the technological choices. The new dump core is made of a low-density graphite block followed by a denser copper alloy (CuCr1Zr) one. Water circuits, bonded with Hot Isostatic Pressing, are cooling the core in ultra-high vacuum. The core is moved by a spring-based actuation mechanism.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPMG001  
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WEPML039 Design of the Two-Gap Superconducting Re-Buncher cavity, heavy-ion, linac, simulation 2779
 
  • M. Gusarova, W.A. Barth, S. Yaramyshev
    MEPhI, Moscow, Russia
  • W.A. Barth, S. Yaramyshev
    GSI, Darmstadt, Germany
  • W.A. Barth, M. Miski-Oglu
    HIM, Mainz, Germany
  • M. Basten, M. Busch
    IAP, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
  • M. Gusarova
    JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region, Russia
 
  A new design of a spoke cavity for low relative velocities of heavy ions has been elaborated. Simulation results for a 2-gap spoke cavity with a resonance frequency of 216.816 MHz and a relative velocity of 0.07с are presented.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPML039  
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WEPML041 Comparative Study of Low Beta Multi-Gap Superconducting Bunchers cavity, linac, heavy-ion, accelerating-gradient 2786
 
  • K.V. Taletskiy, W.A. Barth, M. Gusarova, S. Yaramyshev
    MEPhI, Moscow, Russia
  • W.A. Barth, S. Yaramyshev
    GSI, Darmstadt, Germany
  • W.A. Barth, M. Miski-Oglu
    HIM, Mainz, Germany
  • M. Basten, M. Busch
    IAP, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
  • M. Gusarova
    JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region, Russia
 
  The results of a comparative study of low beta multi-gap superconducting bunchers for 216.816 MHz and a relative velocity of 0.07с with dedicated limitations of the overall geometrical dimensions are presented. A comparison of electrodynamic, mechanical and thermal properties of 3-gap and 2-gap cavities is shown.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPML041  
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WEPML044 Design of HOM Couplers for Superconducting 400 MHz RF Cavities HOM, cavity, collider, simulation 2793
 
  • N.F. Petry, M. Busch, K. Kümpel, O. Meusel, H. Podlech
    IAP, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
 
  The Future Circular Collider (FCC) is one possible future successor of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The proton-proton collider center-of-mass collision energy is set to 100 TeV with a beam current of 0.5 A. To reach this goal a stable acceleration is critical and therefore higher order modes (HOM) need to be damped. To avoid a high power level in the HOM dampers, further described as couplers, the loaded Q-factor should be below 1000 for the cavity with mounted HOM couplers. Besides a low Q-factor the R/Q value should also be in the range of 1 Ω or below. Two different types of couplers are used to achieve a high damping. The two types are a narrowband Hook-type HOM coupler and a broadband Probe-type HOM coupler. The recent results of the design of the HOM couplers attached to a superconducting 400 MHz RF cavity will be presented.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-WEPML044  
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THYGBD2 Results of UFO Dynamics Studies with Beam in the LHC experiment, emittance, beam-losses, simulation 2914
 
  • B. Lindstrom, A. Apollonio, P. Bélanger, M. Dziadosz, A.A. Gorzawski, L. K. Grob, E.B. Holzer, A. Lechner, R. Schmidt, M. Valette, D. Valuch, D. Wollmann
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  Micrometer sized particles entering the LHC beam (the so-called Unidentified Falling Objects or UFOs) are a known cause of localized beam losses since the beginning of high intensity beam operation, however the origin of these particles is not fully known. Their effect limits LHC availability by causing premature dumps due to excessive beam losses and occasionally even magnet quenches. This could become an important limitation for future accelerators such as the High Luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) and the Future Circular Collider (FCC). The dynamics of these UFOs was investigated in two dedicated experiments. In the first experiment, it was shown that the transverse movements of these particles can be studied by observing bunch-by-bunch losses from bunches with different horizontal and vertical emittances. In the second experiment, UFO-like events around the 16L2 interconnect in the LHC, which has seen intense UFO activity in 2017, were studied with the above method. This paper summarizes the results of both experiments.  
slides icon Slides THYGBD2 [1.361 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THYGBD2  
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THYGBD3 Beam-beam Studies for Super Proton-Proton Collider luminosity, resonance, closed-orbit, collider 2918
 
  • L.J. Wang, J.Y. Tang
    IHEP, Beijing, People's Republic of China
  • K. Ohmi
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
 
  In China, a two-stage circular collider project, CEPC-SPPC has been proposed. The first stage, CEPC (Circular Electron Positron Collier, a so-called Higgs factory) is focused on the Higgs physics, and the second stage, SPPC (Super Proton-Proton Collider) will be an energy frontier collider and a discovery machine. Luminosity is a key factor for any particle-physics colliders. With the increasing bunch population, beam-beam interaction is increasingly become the limit factor of luminosity improvement. The finite crossing angle scheme is considered firstly. Meanwhile, long-range interaction is another significant source of luminosity degrade. In this report, firstly, we don't consider long-range interactions and study luminosity degrade with crossing angle and without crossing angle for horizontal crossing and horizontal-vertical crossing. Secondly we discuss luminosity decay with long-range interactions for horizontal crossing and horizontal-vertical crossing. Thirdly, we talk about emittance growth and luminosity degradation using resonance analysis for different scenarios. Finally the resulting beam-beam limit will be concluded for SPPC.  
slides icon Slides THYGBD3 [1.379 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THYGBD3  
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THYGBD4 Landau Damping by Electron Lenses electron, octupole, collider, betatron 2921
 
  • A.V. Burov, Y.I. Alexahin, V.D. Shiltsev, A. Valishev
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
 
  Modern and future particle accelerators employ increasingly higher intensity and brighter beams of charged particles and become operationally limited by coherent beam instabilities. Usual methods to control the instabilities, such as octupole magnets, beam feedback dampers and use of chromatic effects, become less effective and insufficient. We show that, in contrast, Lorentz forces of a low-energy, magnetically stabilized electron beam, or "electron lens", easily introduces transverse nonlinear focusing sufficient for Landau damping of transverse beam instabilities in accelerators. It is also important to note that, unlike other nonlinear elements, the electron lens provides the frequency spread mainly at the beam core, thus allowing much higher frequency spread without lifetime degradation. For the parameters of the Future Circular Collider, a single conventional electron lens a few meters long would provide stabilization superior to tens of thousands of superconducting octupole magnets.  
slides icon Slides THYGBD4 [4.506 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THYGBD4  
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THPAF015 Beam Tracking Studies of Electron Cooling in ELENA electron, antiproton, simulation, emittance 2975
 
  • B. Veglia, J.R. Hunt, J. Resta-López, V. Rodin, C.P. Welsch
    Cockcroft Institute, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • J.R. Hunt, J. Resta-López, V. Rodin, C.P. Welsch
    The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
 
  Funding: This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 721559.
The Extra Low ENergy Antiproton storage ring (ELENA), which is currently being commissioned at CERN, will further decelerate antiprotons extracted from the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) from 5.3 MeV to energies as low as 100 keV. It will provide high quality beams for the antimatter experiments located within the AD hall. At such low energies, it is important to correctly evaluate the long term beam stability. To provide a consistent explanation of the different physical phenomena affecting the beam, tracking simulations have been performed and the results will be presented in this contribution. These include electron cooling and various scattering effects under realistic conditions. The effects of several imperfections in the electron cooling process will also be discussed. In addition, analytical approximations of the temporal variation of emittance under these conditions will be presented, and compared with numerical simulation results.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAF015  
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THPAF016 3D Tracking Methods in a GEANT4 Environment Through Electrostatic Beamlines simulation, quadrupole, experiment, antiproton 2979
 
  • J.R. Hunt, J. Resta-López, V. Rodin, B. Veglia, C.P. Welsch
    The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
  • J.R. Hunt, J. Resta-López, V. Rodin, B. Veglia, C.P. Welsch
    Cockcroft Institute, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
 
  Funding: Work supported by the EU under Grant Agreement 721559 and the STFC Cockcroft Institute core Grant No. ST/G008248/1.
Due to the relatively infrequent use of electrostatic beamline elements compared with their magnetic counterparts, there are few particle tracking codes which allow for the straightforward implementation of such beamlines. In this contribution, we present 3D tracking methods for beamlines containing electrostatic elements utilising a modified version of the Geant4 based tracking code 'G4beamline'. In 2020 transfer lines will begin transporting extremely low energy (100 keV) antiproton beams from the Extra Low Energy Antiproton (ELENA) ring to the antimatter experiments at CERN. Electrostatic bending and focusing elements have been chosen for the beamlines due to their mass independence and focusing efficiency in the low energy regime. These beamlines form the basis of our model which is benchmarked against simplified tracking simulations. Realistic beam distributions obtained via tracking around ELENA in the presence of collective effects and electron cooling will be propagated along the optimised 3D transfer model to achieve the best beam quality possible for the experiments.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAF016  
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THPAF042 Improvement of the Longitudinal Beam Transfer from PS to SPS at CERN cavity, acceleration, emittance, controls 3060
 
  • A. Lasheen, H. Damerau, J. Repond, M. Schwarz, E.N. Shaposhnikova
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  The beam transfer from the Proton Synchrotron (PS) to the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN is a critical process for the production of beams for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A bunch-to-bucket transfer is performed with the main drawback that the rf frequency in the SPS (200 MHz) is five times higher than the one in the PS (40 MHz). The PS bunches are therefore shortened non-adiabatically before extraction by applying a fast rf voltage increase (bunch rotation) to fit them into the short rf buckets in the SPS. However, particles with large amplitude of synchrotron oscillations in the PS longitudinal phase space are not properly captured in the SPS. They contribute to losses at the injection plateau and at the start of acceleration in the SPS. In this contribution, we present measurements and simulations performed to identify the source of the uncaptured particles. The tails of the particle distribution were characterized by applying longitudinal shaving during acceleration. Furthermore, the rotated bunch distribution was improved by linearizing the rf voltage using a higher-harmonic rf cavity.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAF042  
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THPAF053 Lower-Harmonic RF System in the CERN SPS emittance, impedance, simulation, cavity 3087
 
  • J. Repond, H. Damerau, A. Lasheen, E.N. Shaposhnikova
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  Significant beam losses increasing with intensity are observed at capture and along the SPS flat bottom for the LHC-type proton beam. The intensity should be doubled for HL-LHC and high losses may be a major performance limitation. Bunches extracted from the PS, the SPS injector, are produced in a 40 MHz RF system applying a bunch rotation at the end of the cycle and therefore cannot be perfectly matched to the 200 MHz SPS RF bucket. The possibility of using a lower harmonic additional RF capture system in the SPS was already proposed after the LEP era in preparation for transfer of the LHC beam but the bunch rotation was the preferred solution, since the induced voltage in the SPS 200 MHz RF system would be too large to ensure stability in a low harmonic system without mitigation measures. However, the use of the upgraded one-turn feedback and the 200 MHz RF system as a Landau cavity could help to improve stability. The feasibility of this scenario to reduce capture losses in the SPS is analysed and presented in this paper. The choice of an optimum RF frequency and voltage is also discussed. The transfer to the main 200 MHz is simulated using a realistic bunch distribution.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAF053  
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THPAF065 Semi-Empirical Hamiltonian Model for Elliptical Cavities cavity, linac, simulation, linear-dynamics 3127
 
  • E. Laface, J. F. Esteban Müller
    ESS, Lund, Sweden
 
  We propose to use the sum of TM0m0 modes to treat a radio-frequency superconducting elliptical cavity as a pill-box cavity with variable radius. The amplitudes of the different modes are obtained interpolating the field-map of the cavity with the model. Once the field is calculated, the Hamiltonian of the cavity is constructed and used to evaluate the transfer matrices associated to each step of the field-map. The multi-particle non-linear dynamics can also be evaluated using the Lie Transform of the Hamiltonian. The results are benchmarked against the ESS Linac Simulator contained in the OpenXAL suite.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAF065  
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THPAF078 Expected Performance of the Stochastic Cooling and RF System in the Collector Ring bunching, antiproton, emittance, simulation 3165
 
  • O.E. Gorda, C. Dimopoulou, A. Dolinskyy
    GSI, Darmstadt, Germany
  • T. Katayama
    Nihon University, Narashino, Chiba, Japan
 
  The Collector Ring is designed for stochastic cooling of antiprotons or radioactive ions at FAIR. Simulations of the cooling process in combination with the required RF beam manipulations have been done taking into account the improved and recently fixed ion-optics. The measured RF properties of the first of series debuncher system have been considered to evaluate the performance of the bunch rotation, de-bunching and re-bunching process within the planned CR operation cycle. The expected beam parameters and matching at extraction to the HESR storage ring are discussed in this paper. The latest hardware developments of the stochastic cooling system components are also presented.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAF078  
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THPAK006 Design Status of the Beam Switchyard for ESSnuSB target, linac, emittance, quadrupole 3215
 
  • E. Bouquerel
    IPHC, Strasbourg Cedex 2, France
 
  Funding: This project is now supported by the COST Action CA15139/EuroNuNet and EU/H2020 innovation programme ESSnuSB under grant agreement No 777419.
The ESSnuSB project, recently granted by the EU H2020 framework programme for a 4-year design study, proposes to use the proton linac (2 GeV, 5 MW) of the European Spallation Source (ESS) currently in construction in Lund (Sweden) to deliver a neutrino super beam. One of the work packages of this design study is dedicated to the primary proton beam-line completing the linac. It will mainly consist of an accumulator ring to compress the 2.86 ms long beam pulse to 1.32 µs and of a switchyard to distribute the protons onto a 4-target station. Dipoles, steerers, quadrupoles, collimators and several diagnostics will compose the switchyard to ensure the protons to hit the target with desired characteristics. This paper presents the objectives of this work package and the design status of this switchyard system.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK006  
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THPAK019 Beam Dynamics of the First Beams for IFMIF-EVEDA RFQ Commissioning rfq, extraction, emittance, solenoid 3246
 
  • L. Bellan, C. Baltador, M. Comunian, E. Fagotti, F. Grespan, A. Pisent
    INFN/LNL, Legnaro (PD), Italy
  • T. Akagi
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  • B. Bolzon, N. Chauvin
    CEA/DSM/IRFU, France
  • H. Dzitko
    F4E, Germany
  • K. Kondo, M. Sugimoto
    QST, Aomori, Japan
  • I. Podadera
    CIEMAT, Madrid, Spain
  • F. Scantamburlo
    IFMIF/EVEDA, Rokkasho, Japan
 
  The installation of the IFMIF-EVEDA RFQ, MEBT, LEBT, source and beam dump was completed in September 2017. The beam dynamics of the first beams for the IFMIF-EVEDA RFQ commissioning is presented. Moreover, a proposal for the CW RFQ steady state commissioning is shown, with a focus on the beam dynamics challenges of the beam transport after the RFQ.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK019  
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THPAK028 Beam Dynamics Simulations in the Dubna SC202 Superconducting Cyclotron for Hadron Therapy extraction, cyclotron, simulation, cavity 3270
 
  • O. Karamyshev, G.A. Karamysheva, D.V. Popov, G. Shirkov, S.G. Shirkov
    JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region, Russia
  • V. Malinin
    JINR/DLNP, Dubna, Moscow region, Russia
 
  In 2015 the joint project JINR (Dubna, Russia) - ASIPP (Hefei, China) on design and construction of supercon-ducting proton cyclotron SC202 was started. Two cyclo-trons are planned to be manufactured in China, according to the Collaboration Agreement between JINR and ASIPP. The first cyclotron will be used for proton therapy in Hefei and the second one will replace the Phasotron in the research and treatment program on proton therapy in Dubna. New schema of extraction system and results of beam acceleration and extraction simulations for Dubna cyclotron are presented.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK028  
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THPAK034 Practical Betatron Tune Behavior During Acceleration in Scaling FFAG Rings at KURNS booster, acceleration, betatron, extraction 3287
 
  • Y. Ishi, Y. Fuwa, Y. Kuriyama, Y. Mori, H. Okita, T. Uesugi
    Kyoto University, Research Reactor Institute, Osaka, Japan
  • J.-B. Lagrange
    Imperial College of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, London, United Kingdom
 
  In scaling FFAG* accelerators, ideally, betatron tunes are fixed for each closed orbit concerned with the certain beam energy. Therefore, they should not vary during the acceleration. However, it is not the case since practical implementations of the magnetic field can not provide perfect scaling conditions. There are two types of radial scaling FFAG ring at Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute: one has no return yokes so called 'yoke free type' adopted by MAIN RING which has a large tune variations causing non negligible beam losses; the other has return yokes and filed clamps adopted by BOOSTER RING which has smaller tune variations compared with MAIN RING. We report the tune measurements and calculations based on 3-d magnetic field calculations about these two types of ring and discuss the scaling conditions in FFAG accelerators.
FFAG* : FFAG stands for fixed filed alternating gradient. It describes one the focusing scheme in the circular accelerator.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK034  
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THPAK035 Numerical Tools for Modeling Nonlinear Integrable Optics in IOTA with Intense Space Charge Using the Code IMPACT-Z space-charge, optics, lattice, simulation 3290
 
  • C.E. Mitchell, J. Qiang
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
 
  Funding: This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics.
The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) is a novel storage ring under commissioning at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory designed to investigate the dynamics of beams with large transverse tune spread in the presence of strongly nonlinear integrable optics. Several new numerical tools have been implemented in the code IMPACT-Z to allow for high-fidelity modeling of the IOTA ring during Phase II operation with intense proton beams. A primary goal is to ensure symplectic treatment of both single-particle and collective dynamics. We describe these tools and demonstrate their application to modeling nonlinear integrable dynamics with space charge in IOTA.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK035  
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THPAK047 Comparison of Profile Measurements and TRANSPORT Beam Envelope Predictions Along the 80-m LANSCE pRad Beamline linac, emittance, diagnostics, simulation 3323
 
  • P.K. Roy, C. Pillai, C.E. Taylor
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
 
  Funding: *Work supported by the United States Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Agency, under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.
The Proton Radiography (pRad) experimental facility beam transport line is over 80 meters in length starting from the end of the LANSCE linear accelerator. The 800-MeV beam is transported through a beam line containing many bending and focusing elements before it reaches the pRad beam optics system where the beam spot size requirement is nominally 2 mm (RMS). Here we discuss the efforts to reconcile the beam transport inconsistencies (sizes) seen between comparisons of the beam sizes obtained using the LANL version of the beam envelope code TRANSPORT with those measured along the beam line. The transverse input beam parameters for the code were extracted from a fit to several wire-scanner measurements located in the downstream portion of the LINAC. The longitudinal input beam parameters were extrapolated from lower-energy information. Recently, new measurements were made of the beam line element locations and compared with legacy drawings. Beam envelope measurements made at various locations throughout the beam line using wire scanners and gated imaging systems were compared to the calculated results. The predicted beam envelopes and measured data agree within expected errors.
*Los Alamos National Laboratory (LA-UR-17-30876)
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK047  
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THPAK050 MuSim, a User-Friendly Interface for Multiple Simulation Codes simulation, interface, real-time, controls 3330
 
  • T.J. Roberts
    Muons, Inc, Illinois, USA
 
  MuSim is a new and innovative graphical framework that permits the user to construct, explore, optimize, analyze, and evaluate nuclear, accelerator, and other particle-based systems efficiently and effectively. It is designed for both students and experienced scientists to use in dealing with the many modeling tools and their different description languages and data formats. Graphical interfaces are used throughout, making it easy to construct the system graphically, display the system with particle tracks, analyze results, and use on-screen controls to vary parameters and observe their effects in (near) real time. Such exploration is essential to give users insight into how systems behave, and is valuable to both new users and experienced system designers. The use of URL-based component libraries will encourage collabor-ation among geographically diverse teams. This project will facilitate access to advanced modeling and simulation tools for inexperienced users and provide workflow management for them and advanced users.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK050  
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THPAK075 Simulation of Particle Interactions in a High Intensity Radio-Frequency Quadrupole for Molecular Hydrogen Ions rfq, simulation, electron, acceleration 3405
 
  • M.J. Easton, H.P. Li, Y.R. Lu, Z. Wang
    PKU, Beijing, People's Republic of China
  • J. Qiang
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
 
  High-intensity deuteron accelerators run the risk of deuteron-deuteron interactions leading to activation. For this reason, in the commissioning phase, a molecular hydrogen ion (H2+) beam is often used as a model for the deuteron beam without the radiation risk. However, composite ions are susceptible to particle interactions that do not affect single ions, such as stripping of electrons and charge exchange. Such interactions affect the beam dynamics results, and may lead to production of secondary particles, which in high-intensity beams may cause damage to the accelerator and reduce the quality of the beam. In order to understand these effects, we have modified the IMPACT-T particle tracking code to include particle interactions during the tracking simulation through a high-intensity continuous-wave (CW) radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ). This code is also designed to be easily extensible to other interactions, such as collisions or break-up of heavier ions. Preliminary results and possibilities for future development will be discussed.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK075  
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THPAK079 New Algorithms in Zgoubi dipole, polarization, simulation, factory 3418
 
  • D.T. Abell
    RadiaSoft LLC, Boulder, Colorado, USA
  • F. Méot
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
 
  Funding: This work was supported in part by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under Award No. DE-SC0017181.
The particle tracking code Zgoubi*,** is used for a broad array of accelerator design studies, including FFAGs*** and EICs****,*****. In this paper, we describe recent work aimed at improving Zgoubi's speed and flexibility. In particular, we describe a new implementation of the Zgoubi tracking algorithm that requires significantly less memory and arithmetic. And we describe a new algorithm that performs symplectic tracking through field maps. In addition, we describe the current efforts to parallelize Zgoubi.
*https://sourceforge.net/projects/zgoubi/
**F. Méot, FERMILAB-TM-2010, 1997
***F. Lemuet et al., NIM-A, 547:638, 2005
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*****F. Lin et al., IPAC17, WEPIK114, 2017
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK079  
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THPAK083 An s-Based Symplectic Spectral Space Charge Algorithm space-charge, optics, simulation, plasma 3425
 
  • N.M. Cook, D.T. Abell, D.L. Bruhwiler, J.P. Edelen, C.C. Hall, S.D. Webb
    RadiaSoft LLC, Boulder, Colorado, USA
 
  Funding: This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics under Award Number DE-SC001340.
Traditional finite-difference particle-in-cell methods for modeling self-consistent space charge introduce non-Hamiltonian effects that make long-term tracking in storage rings unreliable. Foremost of these is so-called grid heating. Particularly for studies where the Hamiltonian invariants are critical for understanding the beam dynamics, such as nonlinear integrable optics, these spurious effects make interpreting simulation results difficult. To remedy this, we present a symplectic spectral space charge algorithm that is free of non-Hamiltonian numerical effects and, therefore, suitable for long-term tracking studies. We present initial results demonstrating the implementation of the algorithm, using a spectral representation of the fields and macro particles to preserve Hamiltonian structures. We then discuss applications to the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA), currently under construction at Fermilab.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK083  
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THPAK091 Design of the New Proton Synchrotron Booster Absorber Scraper (PSBAS) in the Framework of the Large Hadron Collider Injection Upgrade (LIU) Project impedance, vacuum, simulation, booster 3444
 
  • L. Teofili, M. Migliorati
    Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
  • J.A. Briz Monago, M. Calviani, N. Chritin, J.J. Esala, S.S. Gilardoni, I. Lamas Garcia, J. Maestre, T. Polzin, T.L. Rijoff
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • T.L. Rijoff
    TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany
 
  The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Injector Upgrade (LIU)Project at CERN calls for increasing beam intensity for the LHC accelerator chain. Some machine components will not survive the new beam characteristics and need to be rebuilt for the new challenging scenario. This is particularly true for beam intercepting devices (BIDs) such as dumps, collimators, and absorber/scrapers, which are directly exposed to beam impacts. In this context, this work summarizes conceptual design studies on the new Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) Absorber/Scraper (PSBAS), a device aimed at cleaning the beam halo at the very early stage of the PSB acceleration. This paper outlines the steps performed to fulfil the component design requirements. It discusses thermo-mechanical effects as a consequence of the beam-matter collisions, simulated with the FLUKA Monte Carlo code and ANSYS finite element software; and the impedance minimization study performed to prevent beam instabilities and to reduce RF-heating on the device.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK091  
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THPAK093 A Multi-Physics Approach to Simulate the RF Heating 3D Power Map Induced by the Proton Beam in a Beam Intercepting Device impedance, HOM, simulation, injection 3452
 
  • L. Teofili, M. Migliorati
    Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
  • D. Carbajo Perez, F. Giordano, I. Lamas Garcia, G. Mazzacano
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  The project High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL- LHC) calls for a streaking beam intensity and brightness in the LHC machine. In such a scenario, beam-environment electromagnetic interactions are a crucial topic: they could lead to uneven power deposition in machine equipment. The resulting irregular temperature distribution would gener- ates local thermal gradients, this would create mechanical stresses which could lead to cracks and premature failure of accelerator devices. This work presents a method to study this phenomenon by means of coupled electro-thermo- mechanical simulations. Further, examples of applications on real HL-LHC devices is also discussed.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK093  
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THPAK097 Ion Optic Design of the Microprobe System at Sichuan University brightness, target, focusing, quadrupole 3460
 
  • Z. Li, Z. An, J.F. Han, G.Q. Zheng
    SCU, Chengdu, People's Republic of China
 
  Funding: Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375122, 11511140277)
At the end of 2016, the first beam was extracted from the 3.0 MV Tandetron accelerator system at Sichuan University, China. The accelerator is imported from the HVEE as a multi-purpose research platform. For one of the main applications, the system will be connected to a micro-beamline to achieve submicron resolution, so the accelerator is designed with energy stability as high as 0.01%. The measured brightness for 3 MeV proton beam is 5.06 pA/um2mrad2MeV and the energy stability is reached the goal of design. The ion optic design of the microprobe beam line will be presented in this paper.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK097  
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THPAK104 New Proton Driver Beamline Design for ARIEL* Project at TRIUMF** target, TRIUMF, cyclotron, optics 3473
 
  • Y.-N. Rao, R.A. Baartman, Y. Bylinskii, F.W. Jones
    TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada
 
  Funding: ∗ Capital funding from CFI (Canada Foundation for Innovation). ** Funded under a contribution agreement with NRC (National Research Council Canada).
The new radioisotope facility at TRIUMF, ARIEL, under construction, comprises two primary driver beams: 50 MeV electrons from the SC linac and 480 MeV protons from the main TRIUMF cyclotron. New 80 m long proton beam line will transport up to 100 microamps beam from existing cyclotron extraction port to an ISOL target station. H− cyclotron stripping foil extraction allows to feed this additional user simultaneously with 3 present different experimental programs. Distinctive features of the new beam line include: a) compensation of the cyclotron energy dispersion; b) low-loss (< 1 nA/m) beam transport after a collimator dedicated to remove the beam halo produced by large-angle scattering in the extraction foil; c) broad range of beam size variability at the production target by applying beam rastering at 400 Hz; d) sharing the same tunnel with electron beam line that requires unique beam loss protect system. Details of beam optics design as well as beam instrumentation are discussed in the paper.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK104  
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THPAK105 Construction Progress of Two Superconducting Cyclotrons for Proton Therapy and Proton Irradiation at CIAE cyclotron, cavity, extraction, controls 3477
 
  • T.J. Zhang, S. An, H.R. Cai, L.C. Cao, X.L. Cao, T. Cui, X.L. Fu, T. Ge, P.F. Gong, F.P. Guan, L.L. Guan, S.G. Hou, B. Ji, X.L. Jia, M. Li, X.L. Li, Y.Q. Li, J. Lin, J.Y. Liu, X.T. Lu, Y.L. Lv, C. Wang, F. Wang, F. Wang, L. Wang, J.Y. Wei, S.M. Wei, J.S. Xing, G. Yang, J.J. Yang, M. Yin, Z.G. Yin, D.S. Zhang, S.P. Zhang, X. Zhen
    CIAE, Beijing, People's Republic of China
  • K. Fong
    TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada
 
  Funding: Supported partly by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11375273 and 11475269) and by the Ministry of Science and Technology under Grant 2016YFC0105300.
There are very strong demand for mid-energy of proton machine recent years due to the surging cancer patients and fast progress of the space science in China. For the applications of proton therapy and proton irradiation, the energy range of proton beam usually is from 200 MeV to 250 MeV, or even higher for astronavigation. Based on the R&D starting from 2009, two construction projects of 230 MeV and 250 MeV superconducting cyclotron, which have been implemented recently at China Institute of Atomic Energy(CIAE). That was started in Jan 2015 for the 230 MeV machine, for the program of proton therapy and space science launched by China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC), and in Jan 2016 for the 250 MeV machine, for the program of proton therapy launched by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (MOST). In this paper, the designs for the two SC cyclotrons and their key components, including the main magnet, SC coils, RF system, internal ion source and central region, extraction system, etc, and the construction progress of the machines will be presented.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK105  
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THPAK121 Accelerator Optimization through LIV. DAT plasma, radiation, experiment, wakefield 3526
 
  • C.P. Welsch
    The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
  • C.P. Welsch
    Cockcroft Institute, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
 
  Funding: LIV. DAT is supported by the STFC under contract ST/P006752/1.
The Liverpool Big Data Science (LIV. DAT) Center for Doctoral Training (CDT) is a hub for training students in managing, analysing and interpreting large, complex datasets and high rates of data flow. LIV. DAT offers a unique training approach addressing some of the biggest challenges in data intensive science to tackle a growing skills gap. It currently provides training to a cohort of almost 20 PhD students. Their research projects address R&D challenges in astronomy, nuclear, particle and accelerator physics. This contributions presents initial research results from modeling studies of the physics and biology of proton beam therapy using a Monte Carlo approach, as well as plasma-beam interaction in the cases of AWAKE and EuPRAXIA.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK121  
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THPAL071 Preliminary Emittance Measurement of Laser Driven Proton Beam Employing a Quadruple Triplet Magnet emittance, laser, experiment, quadrupole 3818
 
  • Wu,M.J. Wu, Y.X. Geng, Q. Liao, C. Lin, H.Y. Lu, Y.R. Lu, W.J. Ma, Y.R. Shou, X. Xu, X.Q. Yan, Y.Y. Zhao, J.G. Zhu, K. Zhu
    PKU, Beijing, People's Republic of China
 
  The Compact Laser Plasma Accelerator (CLAPA) has been built recently at Peking University, which composed of a 200TW laser acceleration platform and a beam line system. Proton with energy spread of <1%, up to 10 pC charge and different energies below 10 MeV have been produced and transported to the irradiation platform. Emittance is a critical parameter for beam transportation. The preliminary emittance measurement has been per-formed for CLAPA's proton beams using the quadrupole scan technique (QST). In the experiment, the focal spot size of the proton beam was changed by scanning the current of a quadrupole triplet magnet. The result shows that the normalized emittance is smaller than 0.01 mm·mrad for 5 MeV laser driven protons, which is on the same level of the previously reported work.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAL071  
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THPAL113 The Design of 1 MeV Proton LINAC Operating in CW cavity, linac, simulation, resonance 3905
 
  • N.V. Avreline
    TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada
 
  Experimental results and computer simulations of electrodynamic and thermodynamic characteristics are presented for an accelerating structure that is excited in the TM010 mode and that has the accelerating channel of URAN-1M located in the diametric plane. The idea of using this structure in the particle accelerator URAN-1M, located at the Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, with the goal of increasing the average beam current is explored.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAL113  
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THPAL117 Development of a Proton-to-Neutron Converter for Radioisotope Production at ISAC-TRIUMF target, neutron, ISAC, TRIUMF 3917
 
  • L. Egoriti, P.G. Bricault, T. Day Goodacre, A. Gottberg
    TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada
  • M. Delonca, R.M. Dos Santos Augusto, J.P. Ramos, S. Rothe, T. Stora
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • M. Dierckx, D. Houngbo, L. Popescu
    SCK•CEN, Mol, Belgium
  • R.M. Dos Santos Augusto
    LMU, München, Germany
 
  At ISAC-TRIUMF, a 500 MeV proton beam is impinged upon thick targets to induce nuclear reactions to pro-duce reaction products that are delivered as a Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) to experiments. Uranium carbide is among the most commonly used target materials which produces a vast radionuclide inventory coming from both spallation and fission- events. This can also represent a major limitation for the successful delivery of certain RIBs to experiments since, for a given mass, many isobar-ic isotopes are to be filtered by the dipole mass separator. These contaminants can exceed the yield of the isotope of interest by orders of magnitude, often causing a significant reduction in the sensitivity of experiments or even making them impossible. The design of a 50 kW proton-to-neutron (p2n) converter-target is ongoing to enhance the production of neutron-rich nuclei while significantly reducing the rate of neutron-deficient contaminants. The converter is made out of a bulk tungsten block which converts proton beams into neutrons through spallation. The neutrons, in turn, induce pure fission in an upstream UCx target. The present target design and the service infrastructure needed for its operation will be discussed in this paper.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAL117  
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THPML024 Monoenergetic Beam Generated by Laser Accelerator at Peking University laser, quadrupole, experiment, acceleration 4702
 
  • K. Zhu, J.E. Chen, Y.X. Geng, C. Li, D.Y. Li, Q. Liao, C. Lin, H.Y. Lu, W.J. Ma, Y.R. Shou, Wu,M.J. Wu, X.H. Xu, X.Q. Yan, J.Q. Yu, Y.Y. Zhao, J.G. Zhu
    PKU, Beijing, People's Republic of China
 
  An ultrahigh-intensity laser incident on a target sets up a very strong electrostatic field exceeding 100 GV/m, it will few orders magnitude shrink down the traditional radio frequency accelerators. Whereas, to build a real accelerator for routine operation, many scientific and technical challenges for laser acceleration need to overcome before they could be applied to these applications. Recently A laser accelerator− Compact Laser Plasma Accelerator (CLAPA) is being built with a beam line to deliver proton beam with the energy of 1~15MeV, energy spread of ¡À1% and 107-8 protons per pulse. The very high current proton beam is accelerated in laser ultrathin-foil interaction and transported by a beam line consisting of the electric quadruple and analyzing magnets. It makes sure the good beam qualities such as energy spread, charge, repeatability and availability of different energy, which means that for the first laser acceleration becomes a real laser accelerator. With the development of high-rep rate PW laser technology, we can now envision a compact beam therapeutic machine of cancer treatment in the near future soon.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML024  
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THPML044 Operation of a Cryogenic Current Comparator with Nanoampere Resolution for Continuous Beam Intensity Measurements in the Antiproton Decelerator at CERN cryogenics, operation, antiproton, injection 4741
 
  • M.F. Fernandes, D. Alves, T. Koettig, A. Lees, J. Tan
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • M.F. Fernandes, C.P. Welsch
    The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
  • M. Schwickert, T. Stöhlker
    GSI, Darmstadt, Germany
  • T. Stöhlker
    IOQ, Jena, Germany
  • C.P. Welsch
    Cockcroft Institute, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
 
  Funding: This project has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme, under grant agreement number 289485.
Low-intensity charged particle beams are particularly challenging for non-perturbative beam diagnostics due to the small amplitude of induced electromagnetic fields. The Antiproton Decelerator (AD) and Extra Low ENergy Antiproton (ELENA) rings at CERN decelerate beams containing 107 antiprotons. An absolute intensity measurement of the circulating beam is essential to monitor the operational efficiency and to provide important calibration data for the antimatter experiments. This paper reviews the design of an operational Cryogenic Current Comparator (CCC) based on Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) for current and intensity monitoring in the AD. Such a system has been operational throughout 2017, relying on a stand-alone cryogenic infrastructure based on a pulse-tube cryocooler. System performance is presented and correlated with different working environments, confirming a resolution in the nanoampere range.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML044  
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THPML098 Design of Beam Profile Monitor Used at the Xi'an Proton Application Facility (XiPAF) detector, radiation, experiment, synchrotron 4892
 
  • D. Wang, Z.M. Wang
    State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Radiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Shannxi, People's Republic of China
  • W. Chen
    NINT, Xi'an, People's Republic of China
  • P.F. Ma, Y.G. Yang
    TUB, Beijing, People's Republic of China
  • W. Wang
    Tsinghua University, Beijing, People's Republic of China
 
  A pixel ionization chamber for beam profile monitor (BPrM) is designed and manufactured by a new technology .The detector will be installed on the beam line just upstream of the target device of XiPAF. It has many advantages such as high resolution, high radiation hardness and it can work as a real-time monitor to show the distribution of the delivered relative dose. The physics design and construction of the detector are described in this paper, and its performances are tested offline.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML098  
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THPML118 The AWAKE Electron Spectrometer electron, plasma, background, radiation 4947
 
  • F. Keeble, M. Cascella, J. A. Chappell, L.C. Deacon, S. Jolly, M. Wing
    UCL, London, United Kingdom
  • I. Gorgisyan, S. Mazzoni
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • P.L. Penna, M. Quattri
    ESO, Garching bei Muenchen, Germany
 
  The AWAKE experiment at CERN aims to use a proton driven plasma wakefield to accelerate electrons from 10–20 MeV up to GeV energies in a 10 m plasma cell. We present the design of the magnetic spectrometer which will measure the electron energy distribution. Results from the calibration of the spectrometer's scintillator and optical system are presented, along with a study of the backgrounds generated by the 400 GeV SPS proton beam.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML118  
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THPML119 A Time-of-Flight Based Energy Measurement System for the LIGHT Medical Accelerator MMI, rfq, cavity, linac 4951
 
  • F. Galizzi
    University of Bergamo, Bergamo, Italy
  • M. Caldara, F. Galizzi, A. Jeff
    A.D.A.M. SA, Meyrin, Switzerland
 
  The LIGHT proton therapy facility is the first compact Linac that will deliver proton beams up to 230 MeV for cancer treatment. The proton beam is pulsed; pulses repetition rate can reach 200 Hz. LIGHT prototype is currently being commissioned by AVO/ADAM at CERN, while the first full installation is foreseen in 2019. Beam energy translates directly to range penetration in the body, so it is of the utmost importance to monitor it accurately especially for Linacs, since each beam pulse is directly transported to the patient. We present the implementation of a non-interceptive beam energy measurement system based on the Time-of-Flight technique. Unlike state of the art ToF systems this one has been designed to measure autonomously the mean energy of the beam with medical resolution (0.03 %) by processing as little as 1 us of data providing the result within 1 to 2 ms over an energy range from 5 to 230 MeV. The first results for beams up to 7.5 MeV are shown.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML119  
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