Keyword: TRIUMF
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MOXGB2 ARIEL at TRIUMF: Science and Technology ISAC, target, linac, cyclotron 6

• J.A. Bagger, F. Ames, Y. Bylinskii, A. Gottberg, O.K. Kester, S.R. Koscielniak, R.E. Laxdal, M. Marchetto, P. Schaffer
• M. Hayashi

The Advanced Rare Isotope Laboratory (ARIEL) is TRIUMF's flagship project to create isotopes for science, medicine and business. ARIEL will triple TRIUMF's rare isotope beam capability, enabling more and new experiments in materials science, nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics, and fundamental symmetries, as well as the development of new isotopes for the life sciences. Beams from ARIEL's new 35 MeV, 100kW electron linear accelerator and from TRIUMF's original 500 MeV cyclotron will enable breakthrough experiments with the laboratory's suite of world-class experiments at the Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC) facility. This invited talk will present an overview of TRIUMF, the ARIEL project, and the exciting science they enable.
Slides MOXGB2 [65.009 MB]
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOXGB2
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MOPML072 Timing Resolution for an Optical Fibre-Based Detector in a 74 MeV Proton Therapy Beam proton, detector, photon, timing 575

• C.A. Penner
UBC & TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
• C. Duzenli
• C.M. Hoehr, C. Lindsay
• S. O'Keeffe
University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland

A Terbium activated Gadolinium Oxysulfide (Gd2O2S:Tb)-filled optical fibre sensor was developed and tested as a proton therapy beam dosimeter on a 74 MeV proton beam. Tests were carried out at the TRIUMF proton therapy centre, where a passively scattered beam is used for treatment. To create a clinically relevant spread-out Bragg peak, a modulator wheel with steps of varying thickness is employed. To determine the sensor's response in a 23 mm spread out Bragg peak, the sensor signal was sampled at depth intervals of 0.79 mm along the beam axis in a water phantom. The resulting data showed a periodic variation in the signal corresponding to the rotation of the modulator wheel and related to the depth in water of the detector. This timing resolution in the sensor response could find application in quality assurance for modulated proton beams.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-MOPML072
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TUPAL061 Target and Ion Source Development for Better Beams in the ARIEL Era ion-source, target, ISOL, optics 1155

• C. Babcock, T. Day Goodacre, A. Gottberg
• A. Gottberg

Any ISOL facility pushing the boundaries of nuclear physics must be able to provide cutting-edge ion beams to its users - beams of isotopes far from stability, with few contaminants, that may be difficult to extract from an ISOL target. The development of these pure, exotic beams must be supported by continuing research and development on targets and ion sources. In the ARIEL era, new target/ion source geometries and operational modes will provide new opportunities which can only be exploited with time for development. To prioritize this, TRIUMF proposes to build a dedicated test stand for target and ion source research which will model the critical features of the new ARIEL target stations. This stand will provide a testing ground for methods of increasing efficiency and selectivity, such as investigations of new surface ion source [1,2] and FEBIAD ion source [3] designs. In addition, this will provide a development environment for new beams, either from new target materials, or through techniques such as extracting molecular beams. In order to maximize the gain from these investigations in on-line operation, the ion optical properties of the final beam will be investigated concurrently.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAL061
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TUPAL062 Recent Developments for Cyclotron Extraction Foils at TRIUMF electron, extraction, cyclotron, simulation 1159

• Y. Bylinskii, R.A. Baartman, P.E. Dirksen, Y.-N. Rao, V.A. Verzilov

Funding: Funded under a contribution agreement with NRC (National Research Council Canada).
The TRIUMF 500 MeV H− cyclotron employs stripping foils to extract multiple beams for different experimental programs. The upgrades in foil material and foil holders lead to significant improvements in beam quality and foil life time, as well as reduction of Be-7 contamination originated in the foils. Thus, an accumulated beam charge extracted with a single foil increased from ~60 mA·hours to more than 500 mA·hours. A key role that lead to these advances was an understanding of the foil heating mechanism, major contribution to which is paid by the power deposition from electrons stripped by the foil. To further diminish this effect, we recently introduced a foil tilt from the vertical orientation that allows stripped electrons fast escape from the foil, well before losing their original momentum through the heat deposition. Other improvements were related to operational issues. Introduction of a "combo" foil consisting of wide portion and thin wire allowed both high and low intensity beam extraction without foils sacrifice. Deploying a wedge foil for extraction at 100 MeV helped reduction of beam intensity instabilities caused by beam vertical size and position fluctuations.

DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPAL062
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TUPMK011 Single Ring Permanent Magnet Lens solenoid, permanent-magnet, emittance, optics 1513

• K. Jayamanna, R.A. Baartman, Y. Bylinskii, T. Planche
• M. Corwin
• R.N. Simpson

Funding: TRIUMF receives its funding from the National Research Council of Canada.
A permanent magnet lens has been designed to be a non-powered alternative to solenoids for low energy beam transport. The lens consists of a single ring of 12 sectors, each sector with poles directed inward. This forms an axial field that reverses sign at the midpoint, somewhat like two opposing short solenoids. It is similar to the Iwashita lens* but consists of only one ring, not two. A prototype lens optimized to decrease the magnetic material required while also reducing aberration, has been built and tested for a 25 keV H-minus beam. Emittance figures measured downstream of the lens are compared with theory.
* Y. Iwashita, "Axial Magnetic Field Lens with Permanent Magnet", Proc. PAC 1993, p.3154.

DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-TUPMK011
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THPAK104 New Proton Driver Beamline Design for ARIEL* Project at TRIUMF** target, proton, cyclotron, optics 3473

• Y.-N. Rao, R.A. Baartman, Y. Bylinskii, F.W. Jones

Funding: ∗ Capital funding from CFI (Canada Foundation for Innovation). ** Funded under a contribution agreement with NRC (National Research Council Canada).
The new radioisotope facility at TRIUMF, ARIEL, under construction, comprises two primary driver beams: 50 MeV electrons from the SC linac and 480 MeV protons from the main TRIUMF cyclotron. New 80 m long proton beam line will transport up to 100 microamps beam from existing cyclotron extraction port to an ISOL target station. H− cyclotron stripping foil extraction allows to feed this additional user simultaneously with 3 present different experimental programs. Distinctive features of the new beam line include: a) compensation of the cyclotron energy dispersion; b) low-loss (< 1 nA/m) beam transport after a collimator dedicated to remove the beam halo produced by large-angle scattering in the extraction foil; c) broad range of beam size variability at the production target by applying beam rastering at 400 Hz; d) sharing the same tunnel with electron beam line that requires unique beam loss protect system. Details of beam optics design as well as beam instrumentation are discussed in the paper.

DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK104
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THPAK106 400 MHz Frequency/phase Detector and Counter detector, controls, LLRF, FPGA 3481

• X.L. Fu, B. Ji, Z.G. Yin, T.J. Zhang
CIAE, Beijing, People's Republic of China
• G. Dennison
UBC & TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
• K. Fong, M.P. Laverty, Q. Zheng

To enhance the performance and precision of TRIUMF Low Level RF system, a frequency/phase detector and counter based on FPGA is developed. The frequency/phase detector and counter is designed as a daughter board of the low level RF control system, and is connected to the mother board with mixed signal connectors. It sends the frequency error data to the PC though VXI databus, and provides two analog phase errors outputs. In current design, one single unit supports four channel discriminations of RF frequencies/phases. Preliminary tests show that the reported phase detector has a bandwidth of 400MHz. A unique implementation of frequency discrimination was carefully carried out to ensure the resolution can reach as high as 1Hz. The phase-frequency detector has been successfully applied to the Accelerator Cryo Module (ACM) system and the requirement of the low level RF control system is satisfied. After a long-term running test, the stability and reliability of the phase-frequency detector are verified.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK106
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THPAK107 Space-Charge Hamiltonian with a Space Coordinate as Independent Variable plasma, space-charge, vacuum, synchrotron 3484

• T. Planche, P. M. Jung, S.D. Rädel

We present a version of the Low Lagrangian tailored to treat space-charge effects in particle accelerators: the Lagrangian is relativistic and uses a space coordinate as the independent variable. From this Lagrangian we obtain the corresponding Hamiltonian. From the Hamiltonian we obtain equations of motion for the 8 canonical variables, which can be plugged into a symplectic numerical integrator. We will finally discuss the possibility of numerically solving this problem using an explicit symplectic integrator.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK107
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THPAK108 Fourier Coefficients of Long-Range Beam-Beam Hamiltonian via Two-Dimensional Bessel functions resonance, lattice, optics, emittance 3486

• D. Kaltchev

The two-dimensional coefficients (resonance basis) in the Fourier expansion of the long-range beam-beam Hamiltonian have been expressed through the (less familiar) generalized modified Bessel functions of two arguments. We describe an efficient method to compute these coefficients based on the above representation. The method has been applied to HL-LHC lattices and benchmarked against MadX simulations of detuning.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK108
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THPAK109 Improved Simulation for Centre Region of TRIUMF 500 MeV Cyclotron with Space Charge space-charge, simulation, focusing, cyclotron 3489

• Y.-N. Rao, R.A. Baartman, T. Planche

Funding: TRIUMF receives federal funding via a contribution agreement through the National Research Council of Canada
The TRIUMF 500 MeV cyclotron delivered routinely a total current up to 200 µA protons for 15 years till 2001. Since 2002, developments towards 300 µA total extraction became compelling because of the ISAC expansion. To meet future requirements (for addition of a new beam-line), a total extraction of 310 − 450 µA shall be envisioned. With such an increase of beam current, the space charge effect becomes a major concern in the centre region, as it limits the maximum amount of beam current achievable out of the machine. Therefore, numerical simulation on beam orbits with the space charge force has has been initiated, starting from the injection gap. This study is focused on the beam bunches which are very long compared with transverse size (because TRIUMF extraction is by stripping of H-minus and separated turns are not required). In order to achieve an improved understanding of the space charge effect, we worked to validate the simulations performed without and with the space charge force, using realistic centre region geometry. Our goal is to work out the space charge limits and their dependence upon the bunchers, rf voltage, and matching. In this paper we present our recent progress in this study.

DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK109
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THPAK110 Correction of νrz=1 Resonance in TRIUMF Cyclotron resonance, coupling, cyclotron, simulation 3492

• Y.-N. Rao, R.A. Baartman, T. Planche

Funding: TRIUMF receives federal funding via a contribution agreement through the National Research Council of Canada
The second order linear coupling resonance nur-nuz=1 is driven by an asymmetry in the median plane of the cyclotron due to presence of the first harmonic in Br component. In TRIUMF cyclotron, this resonance is encountered at about 166 MeV and 291 MeV, where nur=1.2 and nuz=0.2. When the beam is off-centered radially to pass through this resonance, the radial oscillation gets converted into vertical oscillation, which can cause beam loss to occur, though these loss modes do not reduce the machine transmission under normal operation. In this paper, we present the results of simulations and measurements that we have performed to correct this resonance by using the existing harmonic coils.

DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK110
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THPAK111 Envelope Calculations on the Ion Beam Injection and Extraction of CANREB EBIS electron, simulation, injection, extraction 3496

• M.H. Pereira-Wilson
• R.A. Baartman, S. Saminathan

An electron beam ion source (EBIS) is being developed as a charge state breeder for the production of highly charged ions in the CANREB (CANadian Rare isotope facility with Electron Beam ion source) project at TRIUMF. The multiple tunable electrodes of the EBIS, coupled with the necessity of directing both an electron beam and an ion beam of varying charge, impose a challenging task for the optimization of the beam optics. With this in mind, beam envelope simulations have been performed to determine the acceptance of the EBIS and the emittance of the extracted ion beam. The electric field of the different EBIS electrodes were modelled using finite element analysis software and the envelope simulations were executed using beam envelope code TRANSOPTR. Preliminary results show envelope calculation as a viable candidate for tuning the injection and extraction optics of the EBIS.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK111
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THPAK112 Toward an End-to-End Model for ISAC-I Accelerators ISAC, rfq, linac, simulation 3500

• O. Shelbaya, O.K. Kester

Diurnal-like transmission variations in the ISAC-I warm accelerator system necessitates periodic retuning by operators. While beam loss points are well known, re-tuning nevertheless results in additional downtime and reduced count rates at experiments. This has motivated the development of an end-to-end simulation of the ISAC-I linear accelerator (linac) system to understand and characterize the nature of transmission instabilities spanning several hours to days.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAK112
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THPAL062 The New 20 kA 80 V Power Supply for the 520 MeV H Cyclotron at TRIUMF controls, power-supply, software, electronics 3792

• S. Carrozza, L. Bondesan, A. Morato, M.P. Pretelli, G.T. Taddia
OCEM, Valsamoggia, Italy
• M.C. Bastos, J.-P. Burnet, G. Hudson, Q. King, G. Le Godec, O. Michels
CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
• Y. Bylinskii, A.C.M. Leung, W. L. Louie, F. Mammarella, R.B. Nussbaumer, C. Valencia

The new 20 kA, 80 V power supply for the main magnet of the 520 MeV H Cyclotron at TRIUMF was awarded to OCEM. It has replaced the original system (commissioned in 1976) based on a series pass regulator. The final acceptance tests have demonstrated the com-pliance with the project specifications, especially for the high current stability required for the Cyclotron operation. The current stability is ±5 ppm, including current ripple, for a period of more than 8 hours of continuous operation. In addition, the magnetic field can be further stabilized us-ing feedback of a flux loop signal. OCEM designed the power supply to use the third gen-eration of Function Generator/Controller (FGC3) control electronics from CERN. This was chosen to obtain the high current stability required by TRIUMF. This collaboration was facilitated through a Knowledge Transfer agreement between CERN and OCEM. The power supply commis-sioning has been performed as a collaboration between OCEM, TRIUMF and CERN. This paper describes the topology of the power supply, the control electronics, the high-precision current measure-ment system and the associated software as well as the commissioning results carried out with the magnet.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAL062
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THPAL112 RF Matching Circuit for CANREB RFQ rfq, network, simulation, pick-up 3902

• T. Au, B. Barquest, J.J. Keir, V. Zvyagintsev

A RF matching circuit has been developed to provide two phase RF voltage of 1.2 kVpp at 3 MHz and 6 MHz for the CANREB RFQ structure with an equivalent capacitive load of 300 pF. The RF matching circuit utilizes pi-network with two phase transformer. Beyond RF drive the CANREB structure requires pulse DC bias with amplitude up to 500 V. Results of development and testing of RF matching circuit and filters are presented in this paper.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAL112
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THPAL114 The Analytical Model of the Helical Accelerating Structure of Linac with Helix Outside of the Vacuum Chamber vacuum, experiment, simulation, resonance 3908

• N.V. Avreline

An analytical model of the helical RF resonator for the single charged 250 keV nitrogen ion implanter operating in CW was developed. The analytical model allowed to determine the geometry of the accelerating structure and to construct CST Microwave Studio and ANSYS HFSS models based on this analytical model. Results obtained from the analytical model and simulations were within 5% of each other. The experimental investigation of the accelerating section confirmed that the models are correct. The accelerating section was tuned and verified for the right accelerating field distribution and operating frequency. Finally, the section was successfully tested in 2 kW CW RF power.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAL114
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THPAL115 The Design of 1.1 MW RF Dummy Load for the RF System of 520 MeV Cyclotron simulation, cyclotron, pick-up, controls 3911

• N.V. Avreline, Y. Bylinskii, B. Jakovljevic, Y. Ma, V. Zvyagintsev

The RF System of 520-MeV Cyclotron is operating at 23 MHz with 1 MW CW RF power. The RF dummy load is required to troubleshoot and tune the RF amplifier. The RF system is being constantly improved and the future goal is to increase cyclotron's beam current up to 400 μA, which requires increasing the RF amplifier's power. As a part of this goal, a new RF dummy load was designed.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAL115
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THPAL116 Development and Installation of the CANREB RFQ Buncher at TRIUMF rfq, bunching, operation, emittance 3914

• B. Barquest, F. Ames, T. Au, L. Graham, M.R. Pearson, V. Zvyagintsev
• J. Bale, J. Dilling, R. Kruecken, Y. Lan
UBC & TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
• G. Gwinner
• N. Janzen, R.A. Simpson
• R. Kanungo

Funding: TRIUMF receives federal funding via the National Research Council of Canada. CANREB is funded by the Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI), the Provinces NS, MB and TRIUMF.
Pure, intense rare isotope beams at a wide range of energies are crucial to the nuclear science programs at TRIUMF. The CANREB project will deliver a high resolution spectrometer (HRS) for beam purification, and a charge breeding system consisting of a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) beam cooler and buncher, an electron beam ion source (EBIS), and a Nier-type spectrometer to prepare the beam for post-acceleration. Bunching the beam prior to charge breeding will significantly enhance the efficiency of the EBIS. The RFQ buncher will accept continuous §I{60}{keV} rare isotope beams from the ARIEL or ISAC production targets and efficiently deliver low emittance bunched beams. A pulsed drift tube (PDT) will adjust the energy of the bunched beam for injection into the EBIS to match the acceptance of the post-accelerating RFQ. Ion optical simulations were carried out to inform the design of the RFQ buncher and PDT. Simulations indicate that delivery of up to 107~ions per bunch with high efficiency is possible. Experience with previous beam bunchers was also brought to bear in the design effort. Installation of the RFQ is under way, and tests with offline beam are expected to be performed in late 2018.

DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAL116
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THPAL117 Development of a Proton-to-Neutron Converter for Radioisotope Production at ISAC-TRIUMF target, proton, neutron, ISAC 3917

• L. Egoriti, P.G. Bricault, T. Day Goodacre, A. Gottberg
• M. Delonca, R.M. Dos Santos Augusto, J.P. Ramos, S. Rothe, T. Stora
CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
• M. Dierckx, D. Houngbo, L. Popescu
SCK•CEN, Mol, Belgium
• R.M. Dos Santos Augusto
LMU, München, Germany

At ISAC-TRIUMF, a 500 MeV proton beam is impinged upon thick targets to induce nuclear reactions to pro-duce reaction products that are delivered as a Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) to experiments. Uranium carbide is among the most commonly used target materials which produces a vast radionuclide inventory coming from both spallation and fission- events. This can also represent a major limitation for the successful delivery of certain RIBs to experiments since, for a given mass, many isobar-ic isotopes are to be filtered by the dipole mass separator. These contaminants can exceed the yield of the isotope of interest by orders of magnitude, often causing a significant reduction in the sensitivity of experiments or even making them impossible. The design of a 50 kW proton-to-neutron (p2n) converter-target is ongoing to enhance the production of neutron-rich nuclei while significantly reducing the rate of neutron-deficient contaminants. The converter is made out of a bulk tungsten block which converts proton beams into neutrons through spallation. The neutrons, in turn, induce pure fission in an upstream UCx target. The present target design and the service infrastructure needed for its operation will be discussed in this paper.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAL117
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THPAL120 Cryogenics Infrastructure at TRIUMF's Particle Accelerator Facilities cryogenics, ISAC, SRF, operation 3925

• A.N. Koveshnikov, Y. Bylinskii, G.W. Hodgson, D. Kishi, R.E. Laxdal, R.R. Nagimov, D. Yosifov

Funding: TRIUMF receives federal funding via a contribution agreement with the National Research Council of Canada.
Cryogenic infrastructure is an indispensable part of TRIUMF accelerator facilities. At the moment TRIUMF operates three helium cryogenic systems supporting operation of three major accelerator systems: 520 MeV proton cyclotron, superconductive radio-frequency (SRF) heavy ion linear accelerator at the Rare Isotope Beams (RIB) facility, and SRF electron linear accelerator (e-linac) at Advanced Rare IsotopE Laboratory (ARIEL). Applications of cryogenic thermal loads vary from cryogenic absorption pumping of the cyclotron vacuum tank to cryogenic cooling of superconducting (SC) RF cavities of production accelerators and support of research and development at SRF department. Wide range of production techniques for cryogenic refrigeration includes helium refrigerators based on both piston and turbine expansion coldboxes for both 4 K and 2 K temperature cryogenic loads. This paper presents the details of TRIUMF cryogenic systems as well as operational experience of various cryogenic installations.

DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAL120
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THPAL123 Fabrication and Test of β=0.3 325MHz Balloon Single Spoke Resonator cavity, multipactoring, niobium, linac 3934

• Z.Y. Yao, J.J. Keir, D. Kishi, D. Lang, R.E. Laxdal, H.L. Liu, Y. Ma, B. Matheson, B.S. Waraich, Q. Zheng, V. Zvyagintsev

A novel balloon variant of the single spoke resonator (SSR) has been designed, fabricated and tested at TRIUMF. The cavity is the β=0.3 325 MHz SSR1 prototype for the Rare Isotope Science Project (RISP) in Korea. The balloon variant is specifically designed to reduce the likelihood of multipacting barriers near the operating point. A systematic multipacting study led to a novel geometry, a spherical cavity with re-entrant irises plus a spoke. The balloon cavity provides competitive RF parameters and a robust mechanical structure. Cold tests demonstrated the principle of the balloon concept. The fabrication experience and the preliminary test results will be reported in this paper.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAL123
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THPMK090 First RF Test Results of Two-Cavities Accelerating Cryomodule for ARIEL eLinac at TRIUMF cavity, cryomodule, linac, pick-up 4512

• Y. Ma, Z.T. Ang, K. Fong, J.J. Keir, D. Kishi, D. Lang, R.E. Laxdal, R.R. Nagimov, B.S. Waraich, Z.Y. Yao, V. Zvyagintsev

The Advanced Rare Isotope Laboratory (ARIEL) pro-ject requires a 50 MeV, 10 mA continuous-wave (CW) electron linear accelerator (e-Linac) as a driver accelera-tor. Now the stage of the 30MeV portion of the e-Linac is under commissioning which includes an injector cry-omodule(ICM) and the 1st accelerator cryomodules (ACM1) with two cavities configuration. A single 290kW klystron is used to feed the two ACM1 cavities in vector sum closed-loop control. In this paper the initial commis-sioning results of the ACM1 RF system will be present.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMK090
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THPMK094 Thermal Design of a 100 kW Electron to Gamma Converter at TRIUMF electron, target, ISOL, experiment 4520

• B.G. Cade, L. Egoriti, A. Gottberg
• D.R. Priessl

The electron target station (AETE) of the TRIUMF-ARIEL Facility will employ an electron "driver" beam to irradiate Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) targets for the production of radioactive isotopes via photofission. 30 MeV electrons will be converted to gamma spectrum Bremsstrahlung photons via an electron to gamma (e-y) converter located upstream of the ISOL target. The e-y concept uses a composite metal with two layers: One high-Z material to convert electrons to photons, and one low-Z material to provide structural support, thermal dissipation, and maximal transparency to the produced gamma photons. Several material combinations and bonding processes are currently being evaluated and tested using TRIUMF's E-LINAC. Water-cooling and thermal design are being optimized for 100 kW operation and have thus far been validated up to 10 kW driver beam power. The latest test results and future prospects are summarized.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMK094
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THPMK096 Tuners Alignment on Two 9-Cell Cavities with Single Amplifier under Self-Excited Loop cavity, detector, linac, cryomodule 4527

• K. Fong, Z.T. Ang, M.P. Laverty, Q. Zheng

The TRIUMF eLinac ACM consists of two 9-cell cavities which are driven by a single klystron. The output power from the klystron are split by a variable power divider and send down 2 independently phase adjustable transmission lines to their respective cryomodules. The vector sum of the fields from both cryomodules is used for phase-locked self-excited loop regulation. A semi-automatic procedure to tune the 2 cyromodules to provide the correct amplitudes and phases for self-excitation as well as beam acceleration is described.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPMK096
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THPML025 Operation of an RF Modulated Thermionic Electron Source at TRIUMF electron, cathode, emittance, operation 4705

• F. Ames, K. Fong, B. Humphries, S.R. Koscielniak, A. Laxdal, Y. Ma, T. Planche, S. Saminathan, E. Thoeng

ARIEL (Advanced Rare IsotopE Laboratory) at TRIUMF will use a high-power electron beam to produce radioactive ion beams via photo-fission. The system has been designed to provide up to 10 mA of electrons at 30 MeV. The electron source delivers electron bunches with charge up to 16 pC at a repetition frequency of 650 MHz at 300 keV. The main components of the source are a gridded dispenser cathode (CPI - Y845) in an SF6 filled vessel and an in-air HV power supply. The beam is bunched by applying DC and RF fields to the grid. A macro pulse structure can be applied by additional low frequency modulation of the RF signal. This allows adjusting the average beam current by changing the duty factor of the macro pulsing. Unique features of the gun are its cathode/anode geometry to reduce field emission, and transmission of RF modulation via a dielectric (ceramic) waveguide through the SF6. The source has been installed and fully commissioned to a beam power up to 1 KW and tests with accelerated beams have been performed. Measurements of the beam properties and results from the commissioning and operational experiences of the source will be presented.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML025
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THPML041 FEBIAD Ion Source Development at TRIUMF-ISAC target, emittance, ISAC, ion-source 4730

• B.E. Schultz, F. Ames, O.K. Kester, P. Kunz, A. Mjøs, J.F. Sandor

The ISOL facility TRIUMF-ISAC utilizes a number of different ion sources to produce radioactive ion beams. Most isotopes are ionized using surface or resonant laser ionization, but these techniques are prohibitively inefficient for species with high ionization energies, such as noble gases and molecules. For these cases, the Forced Electron Beam Induced Arc Discharge (FEBIAD) ion source can be used. The FEBIAD uses a hot cathode to produce electrons, which are accelerated through a potential (< 200 V) into the anode volume. Isotopes entering the resulting plasma undergo impact ionization and are extracted. Efforts are under way to better understand the physics and operation of the FEBIAD, using both theory and experiment. Recent measurements and simulations on the ISAC FEBIAD will be reported here.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML041
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THPML077 Status of the Machine Protection System for ARIEL e-linac MMI, linac, electron, cryomodule 4829

• M. Alcorta, D. Dale, H. Hui, S.R. Koscielniak, K. Langton, K. LeBlanc, M. Rowe

The Advanced Rare Isotope & Electron Linac (ARIEL) facility at TRIUMF consists of an electron linear accelerator (e-linac) capable of currents up to 10 mA at an energy of 30 MeV, giving a total available beam power of 300 kW. In addition, the e-linac can be run in pulsed operation down to beam pulses of 5 µs, up to CW. A Machine Protection System (MPS) is required to protect the accelerator from hazardous beam spills and must turn off the electron gun within 10 µs of detection. The MPS consists of two types of beam loss monitors, a front-end beam loss monitor board developed at TRIUMF, and EPICS-based controls to establish operating modes. A trip time of 10 µs has been demonstrated, along with a 106 dynamic range and sensitivity down to 100 pA. This paper is focused on the current status of the beam loss monitor detection system.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML077
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THPML078 Web-Based Control Room Applications at TRIUMF controls, interface, multipole, operation 4832

• C.B. Barquest, P. M. Jung, S. Kiy, K.E. Lucow, T. Planche, S.D. Rädel, B.E. Schultz, D. Sehayek, O. Shelbaya, D. Tattan
• M. Corwin, S. Marcano

Control room applications are programs that interface with control systems and beam physics models. These tools range from real-time diagnostic visualizations to post-processing data analysis. At TRIUMF, the concept of web-based control room applications has been adopted to advance the capabilities of these applications and facilitate operations. This online model takes advantage of server-based continuous integration and a centralized middleware layer. Continuous integration of server-based applications allows for easy deployment and maintenance. A centralized middleware layer allows a single application to work for many different accelerator configurations. Some motivating examples of web-based applications currenly being developed are presented, demonstrating this online approach to be an effective method for deploying applications for use in the control room and beyond.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML078
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THPML079 Multipole Tuning Algorithm for the CANREB HRS at TRIUMF multipole, dipole, emittance, quadrupole 4836

• D. Sehayek, R.A. Baartman, C.B. Barquest, J.A. Maloney, M. Marchetto, T. Planche

The TRIUMF CANadian Rare isotope facility with Electron Beam ion source (CANREB) High Resolution Separator (HRS) has been designed to separate rare isotopes with mass/charge differences of only one part in 20,000 for beams with transverse emittances of 3 μm. To reach this resolution, high-order aberrations must be corrected using a multipole corrector. From experience, tuning such a multipole is very challenging. The unique geometry of our multipole motivated a novel tuning method based on determining the desired pole voltages directly from measured emmitance. This novel tuning algorithm is presented alongside a web application which has been developed in anticipation of the commissioning of the HRS.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML079
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THPML080 Preliminary Results of a New High Brightness H Ion Source Developed at TRIUMF emittance, ion-source, extraction, high-voltage 4839

• K. Jayamanna, F. Ames, Y. Bylinskii, J.Y. Cheng, M. Lovera, M. Minato

This paper describes the preliminary results of a high brightness ion source developed at TRIUMF, which is capable of producing a negative hydrogen ion beam (H) of up to 5 mA of direct current. A 1.7 mm.mrad and 5 mm.mrad emittance(rms) is achieved for 500 uA and for 1 mA H-, respectively. Characteristics as well as a brief description regarding extraction issues of the source to date are also presented.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML080
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THPML081 Beam-Based Measurements of the ISAC-II Superconducting Heavy Ion Linac cavity, linac, ISAC, alignment 4841

• S. Kiy, R.E. Laxdal, M. Marchetto, S.D. Rädel, O. Shelbaya

Preparation for experiments, which typically run for one to two weeks in the ISAC-II facility at TRIUMF, requires some amount of overhead, limiting the efficiency of the facility. Efforts are underway to improve the ISAC-II linac model to reduce this overhead while also improving the quality of the delivered ion beam. This can be accomplished with beam-based measurements and corrections of alignment, cavity gradients, focal strengths, and more. A review of the present state of the linac will be given, including measured mis-alignments and other factors that affect the reproducibility of tunes. The outlook on expected improvements will also be summarized, including progress on the automatic phasing of cavities with a focus on integration to the High Level Application platform being developed at TRIUMF. Lastly, a summary will be given on the expected paradigm shift in the tuning approach taken: moving from re-active tuning by operators or beam delivery experts to pro-active measurements and investigations, version-controlled tunes, and continuous feedback from beam physicists.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML081
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THPML082 Reflected Power Based Extremum Seeking Control Algorithm to Tune the Resonance Frequency of Room Temperature Cavities cavity, controls, resonance, ISAC 4844

• R. Leewe, K. Fong, Z. Shahriari
• M. Moallem

A sliding mode extremum seeking algorithm to tune the resonance frequency was implemented in two of TRIUMF's DTL tanks. The tuning algorithm searches for the minimum reflected power point and was developed to eliminate the highly temperature dependent phase measurement, which was previously used to tune the resonance frequency. Short and long term measurement results show that the tuning algorithm compensates for the RF heating effect as well as for diurnal temperature variations. Reflected power measurements of TRIUMF's DTL tank 3 were taken for both cases of operating the phase based tuning system and the reflected power based tuning system, with an outcome of a higher tuning accuracy of the newly developed system. Another advantage is a quick cavity start up time, as the reflected power based system does not rely on a reference set point which has do be adjusted manually. The sliding mode extremum seeking control loop is currently commissioned in further room temperature cavities of the TRIUMF's ISAC I facility.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML082
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THPML122 Beta-SRF - A New Facility to Characterize SRF Materials near Fundamental Limits SRF, cavity, linac, accelerating-gradient 4961

• E. Thoeng
UBC & TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
• R.A. Baartman, R.E. Laxdal, B. Matheson, G. Morris, N. Muller, S. Saminathan
• A. Chen
• T. Junginger
Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom

Funding: Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) & UBC (NSERC) IsoSiM Program
Demands of CW high-power LINAC require SRF cavities operating at the frontier of high accelerating gradient and low RF power dissipation, i.e. high quality factor (Q0). This requirement poses a challenge for standard surface treatment recipes of SRF cavities. In a recent breakthrough, elliptical SRF cavities doped with Nitrogen have been shown to improve Q0 by a factor of 3, close to the fundamental SRF limit. The fundamental mechanisms at microscopic level and optimum doping recipe, however, have still not fully been understood. Materials other than Nb have also been proposed for SRF cavities to overcome the fundamental limit already reached with Nitrogen doping, e.g. Nb3Sn, MgB2, and Nb-SIS multilayer. At TRIUMF, a unique experimental facility is currently being developed to address these issues. This facility will be able to probe local surface magnetic field in the order of the London Penetration Depth (several tens of nm) via \beta decay detection of a low-energy radioactive ion-beam. This allows depth-resolution and layer-by-layer measurement of magnetic field shielding effectiveness of different SRF materials at high-parallel field (up to 200 mT). Design and current development of this facility will be presented here, as well as commissioning and future measurements strategies for new SRF materials.

DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPML122
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THPML131 A NEW PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR UCx TARGETS FOR RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPE BEAMS AT TRIUMF vacuum, target, ISOL, ISAC 4990

• M. S. Cervantes, P. Fouquet-Métivier, A. Gottberg, P. Kunz, L. Lambert, A. Mjøs, J. Wong